Henry II of Navarre
Portrait by unknown French artist
|King of Navarre|
|Reign||12 February 1517 – 25 May 1555|
18 April 1503|
|Died||25 May 1555
|Spouse||Margaret of Angouleme|
|Father||John III of Navarre|
|Mother||Catherine of Navarre|
Henry II (18 April 1503 – 25 May 1555), nicknamed Sangüesino because he was born at Sangüesa, was the King of Navarre from 1517, although his kingdom had been reduced to a small territory north of the Pyrenees by the Spanish conquest of 1512. Henry succeeded his mother, Queen Catherine, upon her death. His father was her husband and co-ruler, King John III, who died in 1516.
After the latest failed reconquest attempt of Navarre in 1516, John III died, followed by Catherine I's demise in her independent dependencies of Béarn (1517). Heir apparent Henry was proclaimed King of Navarre, and was lavishly crowned in Lescar. The title was also claimed by Ferdinand II of Aragon, who had invaded the realm in 1512 and usurped the title, and the claim was continued by his grandson Charles V. Henry II enjoyed the protection of Francis I of France.
After ineffectual conferences at Noyon in 1516 and at Montpellier in 1518, an active effort was made in 1521 to establish him in de facto sovereignty in Pamplona and occupied territory. A French and Navarrese expedition made another attempt at reconquering occupied Navarre, but were ultimately repelled by Charles after the Battle of Noain (June 1521).
In 1525, Henry was taken prisoner at the Battle of Pavia, but he contrived to escape under a guise and in 1526, married Margaret, sister of King Francis I and widow of Charles, Duke of Alençon. By her, he was the father of Joan III of Navarre, and was consequently the grandfather of Henry IV of France. In 1530, after the Treaty of Cambrai between Castile and France, Charles V evacuated the northernmost county (merindad) of Navarre, Lower Navarre, allowing Henry to seize it. The Pyrenean border between Lower and Upper Navarre now constitutes the Franco-Spanish border in this sector.
- Jeanne III of Navarre (16 November 1528 – 9 June 1572), mother of Henry IV of France
- John (7 July 1530 – 25 December 1530)
|Ancestors of Henry II of Navarre|
- J. N. Hillgarth (2000), The Mirror of Spain, 1500–1700: The Formation of a Myth (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan), 238.
- Patricia Francis Cholakian and Rouben Charles Cholakian, Marguerite de Navarre: Mother of the Renaissance, (Columbia University Press, 2006), xxii.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Henry II of NavarreBorn: April 18 1503 Died: May 25 1555
|King of Navarre
Count of Foix
1517 – 25 May 1555