Lemoine was born in Paris, where he was a pupil of Anton Reicha, a successful piano teacher.
In 1816 he took over his father Antoine Marcel Lemoine's music publishing business. His father had had founded the company in 1772 and still exists today under the name of Editions Henry Lemoine. Lemoine was the publisher for Frédéric Chopin. In 1844 he also published Hector Berlioz's Traité d'orchestration. He worked with Ferdinando Carulli to publish a solfège textbook by Adolphe Danhauser called Solfège des Solfèges, which is still print. In 1850 Lemoine, then blind, turned over his company to his son Achille Lemoine.
The company, Editions Henry Lemoine, is still a leader in music publishing.
Lemoine wrote a number of works of music education (including Études infantines), an extensive collection of piano pieces called Bagatelles and Recreations Musicales. His Méthode et des études de piano is still in use today.