Henry Rathbone

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Major

Henry Rathbone
Rathbone, Henry Reed.jpg
Birth nameHenry Reed Rathbone
Born(1837-07-01)July 1, 1837
Albany, New York, U.S.
DiedAugust 14, 1911(1911-08-14) (aged 74)
Hildesheim, Prussia, Germany
Buried
Stadtfriedhof Engesohde (disinterred in 1952)
Allegiance United States of America
Union
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Years of service1861–1870
RankUnion Army colonel rank insignia.png Brevet Colonel
Unit12th U.S. Infantry
Battles/warsAmerican Civil War
Spouse(s)
(m. 1867; died 1883)
RelationsIra Harris (stepfather and father-in-law)
Henry Riggs Rathbone (son)
Other workAttorney

Henry Reed Rathbone (July 1, 1837 – August 14, 1911) was a United States military officer and diplomat who was present at the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. Rathbone was sitting with his fiancée, Clara Harris, next to the president and his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, when John Wilkes Booth entered the president's box at Ford's Theatre and fatally shot Lincoln in the head. When Rathbone attempted to prevent Booth from fleeing the scene, Booth stabbed and seriously wounded him.

Early life and military career[edit]

Henry Rathbone was born in Albany, New York, one of four children of Jared L. Rathbone, a merchant and wealthy businessman who later became Albany's first elected mayor, and Pauline Rathbone (née Penney).[1] Upon his father's death in 1845, Rathbone inherited US$200,000 (equivalent to $5,600,000 in 2020). His widowed mother married Ira Harris in 1848. Harris was appointed U.S. Senator from New York after William H. Seward became Lincoln's Secretary of State. Harris was a widower with four children whose wife, Louisa, had also died in 1845.[2][3] As a result of this marriage, Ira Harris became Rathbone's stepfather, and his daughter, Clara, became Rathbone's stepsister. Rathbone and Clara Harris formed a close friendship and later fell in love. The two became engaged shortly before the American Civil War.[4]

Rathbone studied law at Union College, where he was known to miss many classes, and worked in a law partnership in Albany. In 1858, he entered the New York National Guard, where he worked as a judge advocate. Shortly after this, he was selected to be sent to Europe as an observer during the Second Italian War for Independence. He entered the Union Army at the start of the American Civil War[5] and served as Captain in the 12th Infantry Regiment at the Battle of Antietam and the Battle of Fredericksburg.[6] In 1863, he was pulled from frontline duty and given a desk job. By the war's end, he had attained the rank of major.

Lincoln assassination[edit]

On April 14, 1865, Rathbone and Harris accepted an invitation from Lincoln and his wife to see a play at Ford's Theatre. Rathbone and Harris had been friends with the president and his wife for some time and were invited after Ulysses S. Grant and his wife, Julia, and several others had declined Mrs. Lincoln's invitation.[7]

Dagger used by Booth to attack Rathbone.

During the play, at about 10:14 pm, noted stage actor John Wilkes Booth entered the presidential box and fatally shot Lincoln in the head with a pistol. As Rathbone attempted to apprehend Booth, Booth slashed Rathbone's left arm with a dagger from the elbow to his shoulder. Rathbone later recalled that he was horrified at the anger on Booth's face.[8][9][10] Rathbone again grabbed at Booth as Booth prepared to jump from the sill of the box. He grabbed onto Booth's coat, causing Booth to fall awkwardly to the stage, perhaps breaking his leg, though some conspiracy theorists said that the injury did not occur until later. Booth nonetheless escaped and remained at large for twelve days.[11][12]

Despite his serious wound, Rathbone escorted Mary Lincoln to the Petersen House across the street, where the president had been taken.[13] Shortly thereafter, he passed out due to blood loss.[14] Harris arrived soon after and held Rathbone's head in her lap while he lay semiconscious. When surgeon Charles Leale, who had been attending Lincoln, finally examined Rathbone, it was realized that his wound was more serious than initially thought. Booth had cut him nearly to the bone and severed an artery. Rathbone was taken home while Harris remained with Mary Lincoln as the president lay dying over the next eight hours.[15] This death vigil lasted through the night until Lincoln died at 7:22 a.m.[16]

Diplomatic career and mental decline[edit]

Although Rathbone's physical wounds healed, his mental state deteriorated in the years following Lincoln's death as he anguished over his perceived inability to thwart the assassination attempt.[17] He married Harris on July 11, 1867, and the couple had three children: Henry Riggs (born February 12, 1870), who later became a U.S. Congressman; Gerald Lawrence (born August 26, 1871); and Clara Pauline (born September 15, 1872).[18]

Rathbone resigned from the Army in 1870, having risen to the rank of brevet colonel.[19] After his resignation, he struggled to find and keep a job due to his mental instability. He became convinced that Harris was unfaithful and resented the attention she paid their children. He reportedly threatened her on several occasions after suspecting that she was going to divorce him and take the children.[10] He made multiple unsuccessful attempts to obtain a position as a U.S. consul to a European city.[20][citation needed] Rumors exist that Rathbone was appointed the U.S. consul to Hanover, Germany,[20] but the U.S. never established diplomatic relations with Hanover.[21] Rathbone's brother, Jared Lawrence Rathbone, was the consul to Paris in 1887 during the Cleveland administration.[20]

Rathbone and his family relocated to Germany, where his mental health continued to decline.[22] On December 23, 1883, he attacked his children in a fit of madness. He fatally shot and stabbed his wife, who was attempting to protect the children. He stabbed himself five times in the chest in an attempted suicide.[23] He was charged with murder, but was declared insane by doctors after he blamed the murder on an intruder. He was convicted and committed to an asylum for the criminally insane in Hildesheim, Germany. The couple's children were sent to live with their uncle, William Harris, in the United States.[10]

Final years, death and exhumation[edit]

Rathbone spent the rest of his life in the asylum. He died on August 14, 1911 and was buried next to his wife in the city cemetery at Engesohde [de].[10] As time passed, the cemetery management, in accordance with its policy concerning plots without recent activity or family interest, decided in 1952 that both sets of remains could be exhumed and disposed of.[24] Currently both remain buried in Germany, but have been buried deeper and placed under newer graves as a way of saving space.

Depictions[edit]

On film and television Rathbone has been portrayed by:

The biography of Henry Rathbone, his experience at the Lincoln Assassination and the murder of Clara Harris is covered in the non-fiction book Worst Seat in the House: Henry Rathbone's Front Row View of the Lincoln Assassination by Caleb Stephens.[25]

Rathbone and Harris are also the subjects of Henry and Clara (1994, published by Ticknor & Fields), a historical fiction novel by Thomas Mallon.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Essex Institute Historical Collections. Essex Institute Press. 1891. p. 165.
  2. ^ Seward, Frances Adeline (1963). Johnson, Patricia Carley (ed.). Sensitivity and Civil War, the Selected Diaries and Papers, 1858–1866, of Frances Adeline (Fanny) Seward. Vol. 2. University of Rochester. p. 719.
  3. ^ Ham, Mrs. Thomas H. (1904). A Genealogy Of the Descendants Of Nicholas Harris, M.D. C.I.F. Ham. p. 18.
  4. ^ Pappas, Theodore (August 21, 1994). "Henry And Clara's Cruel Fate". chicagotribune.com. p. 1. Retrieved May 1, 2013.
  5. ^ Wright, John D. (2012). The Routledge Encyclopedia of Civil War Era Biographies. Routledge. p. 491. ISBN 978-1-136-33150-3.
  6. ^ Ruane, Michael E. (April 5, 2009). "A Tragedy's Second Act". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 19, 2011.
  7. ^ Steers, Edward (2005). Blood on the Moon: The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 104–105. ISBN 0-813-19151-3.
  8. ^ "What Booth Said After He Killed Lincoln". Archived from the original on December 21, 2021.
  9. ^ Lachman, Charles (2008). The Last Lincolns: The Rise & Fall of a Great American Family. Sterling Publishing Company. p. 288. ISBN 978-1-402-75890-4.
  10. ^ a b c d Hatch, Frederick (2011). Protecting President Lincoln: The Security Effort, the Thwarted Plots, and the Disaster at Ford's Theatre. McFarland. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-786-46362-6.
  11. ^ Jones, Mark; Johnstone, Peter (2011). History of Criminal Justice. Elsevier. pp. 274–275. ISBN 978-1-437-73497-3.
  12. ^ Kauffman, Michael W. (2007). American Brutus: John Wilkes Booth and the Lincoln Conspiracies. Random House LLC. p. 231. ISBN 978-0-307-43061-8.
  13. ^ Reck, Waldo Emerson (1987). A. Lincoln, His Last 24 Hours. McFarland. p. 126. ISBN 0-899-50216-4.
  14. ^ Bain, Robert T. (2005). Lincoln's Last Battleground: A Tragic Night Recalled. AuthorHouse. p. 19. ISBN 1-467-02991-2.
  15. ^ Kauffman (2007) p.37
  16. ^ Richard A. R. Fraser, MD (February–March 1995). "How Did Lincoln Die?". American Heritage. 46 (1).
  17. ^ "The Conspirator: The Plot to Kill Lincoln", National Geographic Channel. Retrieved March 18, 2012
  18. ^ Talcott, Sebastian V. (2001). Genealogical Notes of New York and New England Families. Heritage Books. p. 637. ISBN 0-788-41956-0.
  19. ^ Jampoler, Andrew C. A. (2008). The Last Lincoln Conspirator: John Surratt's Flight from the Gallows. Naval Institute Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-591-14407-6.
  20. ^ a b c "Worst Seat in the House". Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
  21. ^ "Hanover* - Countries - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved April 29, 2021.
  22. ^ Steers, Edward (2010). The Lincoln Assassination Encyclopedia. HarperCollins. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-061-98705-2.
  23. ^ Swanson, James L. (2009). Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase to Catch Lincoln's Killer. HarperCollins. p. 372. ISBN 978-0-061-80397-0.
  24. ^ Smith, Gene (February–March 1994). "The Haunted Major". American Heritage. 45 (1): 2.
  25. ^ "Worst Seat in the House". Archived from the original on August 19, 2014. Retrieved August 15, 2014.
  26. ^ De Haven, Tom (August 19, 1994). "Thomas Mallon". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 3, 2014.

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