Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster
|Henry of Grosmont|
|Duke of Lancaster, Earl of Lancaster and Leicester|
|Predecessor||Henry, 3rd Earl|
|Successor||John of Gaunt, 4th Earl, later 1st Duke of Lancaster|
23 March 1361 (aged 50–51)|
|Burial||Collegiate Church of the Annunciation of Our Lady of the Newarke, Leicester|
|Spouse||Isabella de Beaumont|
|Issue||Maud, Countess of Leicester
Blanche, Duchess of Lancaster
|Father||Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster|
|Henry of Grosmont|
|Battles/wars||Hundred Years' War
• Battle of Sluys
• Battle of Auberoche
• Siege of Calais
• Battle of Winchelsea
|Awards||Order of the Garter|
Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster, 4th Earl of Leicester and Lancaster, KG[a] (c. 1310 – 23 March 1361), also Earl of Derby, was a member of the English nobility in the 14th century, and a prominent English diplomat, politician, and soldier. The son and heir of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster, and Maud Chaworth, he became one of Edward III's most trusted captains in the early phases of the Hundred Years' War and distinguished himself with victory in the Battle of Auberoche. He was a founding member and the second Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348, and in 1351 was created duke. An intelligent and reflective man, Grosmont taught himself to write and was the author of the book Livre de seyntz medicines, a highly personal devotional treatise. He is remembered as one of the founders and early patrons of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, which was established by two of the guilds of the town in 1352.
Family background and early life
Grosmont's uncle, Thomas of Lancaster, was the son and heir of Edward I's brother Edmund Crouchback. Through his inheritance and a fortunate marriage, Thomas became the wealthiest peer in England, but constant quarrels with King Edward II led to his execution in 1322. Having no heir, Thomas's possessions and titles went to his younger brother Henry – Grosmont's father. Earl Henry of Lancaster assented to the deposition of Edward II in 1327, but did not long stay in favour with the regency of Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer. When Edward III took personal control of the government in 1330, relations with the Crown improved, but by this time the older Henry was already struggling with poor health and blindness.
Little is known of Grosmont's early years, but that he was born at Grosmont Castle in Grosmont, Monmouthshire, Wales, and that he was born c. 1310, not around the turn of the century as previously held. According to his own memoirs, he was better at martial arts than at academic subjects, and did not learn to read until later in life. In 1330 he was knighted, and represented his father in parliament. The next year he is recorded as participating in a royal tournament at Cheapside.
In 1333 he took part in Edward's Scottish campaign, though it is unclear whether he was present at the great English victory at the Battle of Halidon Hill. After further service in the north, he was appointed the King's lieutenant in Scotland in 1336. The next year he was one of the six men Edward III promoted to the higher levels of the peerage. One of his father's lesser titles, that of Earl of Derby, was bestowed upon Grosmont.
Service in France
With the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War in 1337, Grosmont's attention was turned towards France. He took part in several diplomatic missions and minor campaigns and was present at the great English victory in the naval Battle of Sluys in 1340. Later the same year, he was required to commit himself as hostage in the Low Countries for the king's considerable debts. He remained hostage until the next year and had to pay a large ransom for his own release. On his return he was made the king's lieutenant in the north and stayed at Roxburgh until 1342. The next years he spent in diplomatic negotiations in the Low Countries, Castile and Avignon.
In 1345 Edward III was planning a major assault on France. A three-pronged attack would have the Earl of Northampton attacking from Brittany, the king himself from Flanders, while Grosmont was dispatched to Aquitaine to prepare a campaign in the south. Moving rapidly through the country, he confronted the Comte d'Isle at Auberoche on 21 October and there achieved a victory described as "the greatest single achievement of Lancaster's entire military career". The ransom from the prisoners has been estimated at £50,000. The next year, while Edward was carrying out his Crécy campaign, Grosmont laid siege to, and captured, Poitiers, before returning home to England in 1347.
Duke of Lancaster
In 1345, while Grosmont was in France, his father died. The younger Henry was now Earl of Lancaster – the wealthiest and most powerful peer of the realm. After participating in the Siege of Calais in 1347, the king honoured Lancaster by including him as a founding knight of the Order of the Garter in 1348. A few years later, in 1351, Edward bestowed an even greater honour on Lancaster when he created him Duke of Lancaster. The title of duke was of relatively new origin in England; only one other ducal title existed previously.[b]
In addition to this, Lancaster was given palatinate status for the county of Lancashire, which entailed a separate administration independent of the crown. This grant was quite exceptional in English history; only two other counties palatine existed: Durham, which was an ancient ecclesiastical palatinate, and Chester, which was crown property.
It is a sign of Edward's high regard for Lancaster that he would bestow such extensive privileges on him. The two men were second cousins through their great-grandfather Henry III and practically coeval (Edward was born in 1312), so it is natural to assume that a strong sense of camaraderie existed between them. Another factor that might have influenced the king's decision was the fact that Henry had no male heir, so the grant was made for the Earl's lifetime only, and not intended to be hereditary.
Lancaster spent the 1350s intermittently campaigning and negotiating peace treaties with the French. In 1350 he was present at the naval victory at Winchelsea, where he allegedly saved the lives of the Black Prince and John of Gaunt. The years 1351–1352 he spent on crusade in Prussia. It was here that a quarrel with Otto, Duke of Brunswick, almost led to a duel between the two men, narrowly averted by the intervention of the French king, John II. In the later half of the decade campaigning in France resumed. After a chevauchée in Normandy in 1356 and the siege of Rennes in 1358, Lancaster participated in the last great offensive of the first phase of the Hundred Years' War: the Rheims campaign of 1359–1360. Then he was appointed principal negotiator for the Treaty of Brétigny, where the English achieved very favourable terms.
After returning to England in November 1360, he fell ill early the next year, and died at Leicester Castle on 23 March. It is possible that the cause of death was the plague, which that year was making a second visitation of England[c]. He was buried in the Church of the Annunciation of Our Lady of the Newarke, Leicester, the church which he had built within the religious and charitable institution founded by his father next to Leicester Castle, and where he had re-buried his father some years previously.
Lancaster was married to Isabella, daughter of Henry, Lord Beaumont, in 1330. The two had no sons, but two daughters: Maud and Blanche. While Maud was married to William I, Duke of Bavaria, Blanche married Edward III's son John of Gaunt. Gaunt ended up inheriting Lancaster's possessions and ducal title, but it was not until 1377, when the dying King Edward III was largely incapacitated, that he was able to restore the palatinate rights for the county of Lancaster. When Gaunt's son Henry of Bolingbroke usurped the crown in 1399 and became Henry IV, the vast Lancaster inheritance, including the Lordship of Bowland, was merged with the crown as the Duchy of Lancaster.
We know more about Lancaster's character than of most of his contemporaries through his memoirs, the Livre de seyntz medicines (Book of the Holy Doctors). This book is a highly personal treatise on matters of religion and piety, but it also contains details of historical interest. It, among other things, revealed that Lancaster, at the age of 44 when he wrote the book in 1354, suffered from gout. The book is primarily a devotional work though; it is organised around seven wounds which Henry claims to have, representing the seven sins. Lancaster confesses to his sins, explains various real and mythical medical remedies in terms of their theological symbolism, and exhorts the reader to greater morality.
|Ancestors of Henry of Grosmont, 1st Duke of Lancaster|
- Inquisition Post Mortem #118, dated 1361.
a. ^ In his early years Henry was named, as was the custom of the age, after his birthplace, Grosmont. In 1336 he was invested with one of his father's minor Earldoms – that of Derby, and became Henry, Earl of Derby. Then, with his father's death in 1345, he finally became Henry of Lancaster – the main family name and title (Earl of Lancaster until 1351, Duke of Lancaster thenceforth). However, to avoid confusion with the father, it is customary to refer to the son as Henry of Grosmont throughout his career.
b. ^ This was the Duke of Cornwall, a title created for Edward, the Black Prince, in 1337.
c. ^ Mortimer argues against plague being the cause of death on the bases that Henry made his will ten days before his death, a space of time inconsistent with the usual swift progress of the plague, and because his illness and death in early 1361 is inconsistent with the spread of plague in England being reported from about May 1361
- Beltz 1841, p. cxlix.
- For a comprehensive biography of Thomas of Lancaster, see *Maddicott, J. R. (1970). Thomas of Lancaster, 1307–1322: A study in the reign of Edward II. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-821837-0.
- Waugh 2004
- Ormrod 2005
- Fowler 1969, p. 26.
- Fowler 1969, p. 30.
- McFarlane, K.B. (1973). The Nobility of Later Medieval England. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 158–159. ISBN 0-19-822362-5.
- Fowler 1969, p. 34.
- Fowler 1969, pp. 35–37.
- Fowler 1969, p. 58–59.
- Fowler 1969, p. 61.
- McKisack 1959, p. 252.
- Fowler 1969, pp. 173–174.
- Fowler 1969, pp. 93–95.
- Fowler 1969, pp. 106–109.
- Fowler 1969, pp. 217–218.
- Charles James Billson, Mediaeval Leicester, (Leicester, 1920)
- Brown & Summerson 2006
- Fowler 1969, pp. 193–196.
- Commire, Anne; Klezmer, Deborah, eds. (1999). "Maud Chaworth". Women in the World History. Yorkin Publications. ISBN 9780787640682.
- Carpenter, David (2004). The Struggle for Mastery: The Penguin History of Britain 1066–1284. London, UK: Penguin. pp. 532–536. ISBN 978-0-14-014824-4.
- Cox, Eugene L. (1974). The Eagles of Savoy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 462. ISBN 0691052166.
- Dunbabin, Jean (2014). Charles I of Anjou: Power, Kingship and State-Making in Thirteenth-Century. Routledge. p. 244. ISBN 978-0582253704.
- Nieus, Jean-François (2005). Un pouvoir comtal entre Flandre et France: Saint-Pol, 1000-1300. De Boeck & Larcier. pp. 166, 176.
- Barfield, Sebastian (July 1997). "The Beauchamp family to 1369". The Beauchamp Earls of Warwick, 1298-1369 (Thesis). University of Birmingham. Archived from the original on 9 December 2000. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- Charles Cawley, Medieval Lands, Earls of Essex 1199-1227 (Mandeville-2)
- Arnauld, E.J. (ed.) (1940). Le livre de seyntz medicines: The Unpublished Devotional Treatise of Henry of Lancaster. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Beltz, George Frederick (1841). Memorials of the Order of the Garter. London: William Pickering. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Brown, A. L.; Summerson, Henry (May 2006). "Henry IV (1366–1413)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12951. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Fowler, Kenneth Alan (1969). The King's Lieutenant: Henry of Grosmont, First Duke of Lancaster, 1310–1361. London. ISBN 0-236-30812-2.
- McKisack, M. (1959). The Fourteenth Century: 1307–1399. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-821712-9.
- Ormrod, W. M. (October 2005). "Henry of Lancaster, first Duke of Lancaster (c.1310–1361)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12960. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Prestwich, M.C. (2005). Plantagenet England: 1225–1360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822844-9.
- Waugh, Scott L. (September 2004). "Henry of Lancaster, third Earl of Lancaster and third Earl of Leicester (c.1280–1345)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12959. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Online version of Livre de seyntz medicines (in the original Anglo-Norman)
Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
|Lord High Steward
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
|Peerage of England|
|New creation||Duke of Lancaster
|Earl of Lincoln
|Earl of Derby
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster
|Earl of Leicester
Earl of Lancaster