Heo Mok

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Heo Mok
Heo Mok.jpg
Born(1595-12-11)December 11, 1595
DiedApril 27, 1682(1682-04-27) (aged 86)
OccupationPolitician, scholar, calligrapher
FamilyYangcheon clan
Heo Mok
Revised RomanizationHeo Mok
McCune–ReischauerHŏ Mok
Pen name
Revised RomanizationMisu
Courtesy name
문부, 화보
Revised RomanizationMunbu, Hwabo
McCune–ReischauerMunpu, Hwabo
Posthumous name
Revised RomanizationMunjeong

Heo Mok (Hangul: 허목; Hanja: 許|穆; December 11, 1595 – April 27, 1682) was a Korean politician, scholar, and calligrapher during the Joseon Dynasty. Heo was most commonly known by the pen name Misu.[1][2]

Mok was known as the best Chinese calligrapher of his time due to his unique style of calligraphy. He became a governor at the age of 81, and was the first person in Korean history to hold such a high-ranking position without taking the Gwangeo civil service exam.[1]


Early life[edit]

Heo Mok was born at Changseonbang (창선방) in Hanseong (Seoul). His father, Heo Kyo, was a member of the lower bureaucracy, while his great-grandfather, Heo Ja, once served as the vice-prime minister of the Joseon Dynasty.

Heo Mok's maternal grandfather, Lim Je, was a student of Seo Gyeong-deok. His father, Heo Kyo, was a student of Park Ji-hwa. Seo Kyung-deok and Park Ji-hwa's more academic and ideologically-successful pupils were to join the Eastern Man Party (동인;東人) of the Joseon Court. However, a schism divided court politics between the newly-formed Southern Man Party(남인;南人) and the Northern Man Party(북인;北人), with the Eastern Man Party being assimilated into the Northern Man Party. Mok's family were thus members of the Northern Man Party.

Heo Mok's early years were spent as a disciple to both Yi San-hae and Lee Won-ik's distinct private scholarly institutions.[3]

Early career[edit]

In 1613, he married Lady Jeonju, who was the granddaughter of Ohri Lee Won-ik.[4] The marriage initially met opposition from his wife's family, but Lee Won-ik's support made it successful. In 1615, Heo Mok and his cousin Heo Hoo went to study at Hangang Jeong Gu's private educational institute, where they remained until 1620.

After the death of his master, Jeong Gu, Heo Mok went to Jeong Gu's best pupil, Yeo-hun Chang Hyon-kwang's private educational institute. In later years, Heo Mok went to Mountin,[clarification needed] known in ancient times as the place devoted to the reading and study of Confucianism. Jeong Gu had studied under Cho Shik and Yi Hwang. Yi Hwang's more academically and ideologically successful pupils joined the Eastern Man Party and later the Southern Man Party. Cho Shik's pupil and academic successor--Jeong Gu--was in the Eastern Man Party(동인;東人), and later the Northern Man Party. Cho Shik was Jeong Gu's one teacher Yi Hwang's relations for join to Southern Man Party.

In 1623, he was King Injo of Joseon's flatter scholars Park Ji-gyes hammering,[4] also angry, King Injo was deprivation to seize of his exam application eligibility[4] as he also renounced bureaucracy.

Political movements[edit]

In 1651, he was commended for his philosophical learning skill, and appointed to Naesikyokwan(내시교관;內侍敎官), but years later, he resigned. In 1656, Jojiseobyuljwa, that 7월, Gongjojwarang after that month, appointed Yonggunghyungam(용궁현감;龍宮縣監), he was resignations.[5] In 1657, Gongjojwarang(공조좌랑;工曺佐郞), Saheonbu Jupyung(사헌부장령;司憲府掌令), Saboksi Jubu(사복시주부;司僕侍主簿). In 1658, he was reappointed to Saheonbu Jupyung, and he was to be the leader of the Southern Man Party, but he refused and chose to be the leader of the intra-parties clique, Blue Southern(청남파;淸南派), a group of aggressive hardliners of the Western Man Party.

In 1659, Hyojong appointed him to Saheonbu Changryung(사헌부장령;司憲府掌令) and Buhogun(부호군;副護軍), and later that September, he became head of Jangakwon(장악원정;掌樂院正). In December, he was appointed leader of Sanguiwon (상의원정;尙衣院正), but, in 1659 King Hyojong's dropped dead, and even during Hyojong's funeral period, he was in conflict with Song Si-yeol and Song Jun-kil. At that time, living to King Injo's second wife Queen Jangryeol.[6] but King Hyojong's funeral time to Queen Jangryeol's funeral rite problem.

Yesong arguments[edit]

First Yesong argument[edit]

In early 1660, Song Si-yeol and Song Jun-kil, two header of Western Man Party(서인;西人) was King Hyojong's for Injo's second son, so become Great Queen Jaui's mourning was ather[clarification needed] many childs funeral time mourning. but Heo Mok and Yun Hyu was Hyojong was successor to Injo, then Hyojong for Injo's practically first sons. so Great Queen Jaui's mourning was three years.[5]

Heo Mok and two Song ideology Disputation for First of Yesong Ronjaeng(제1차 예송 논쟁;第一次禮訟論爭). ather Song Si-yeol's assert Joseon Dynastys to small Sinocentrism country also Heo Mok assert to Kingdom Joseon was the "special country"(방외별국;方外別國). original plan, that disputation was stand face to face, but Yun Seon-do said, "Song Si-yeol and Song Jun-kil was denial King Hyojongs right of King succession legitimacy" argument. afterwards, ideology disputation to generate electricity emotion fight and treason stricture.

Shortly Yun Seon-do to imprisonment and Heo was complicity to demotion, appointed to Mayor of Samcheok(삼척부사;三陟府使). In 1663 he was refusal Mayor of Samcheok. Later years he was more China and Japan, Korean classical books reading and Confucianism teaching.

Second Yesong argument[edit]

That times he was write to Ki eun(기언;記言) and Eastern history(동사;東史). Eastern history was Korean history book, that Eastern history was regulation for Korean national ancestor was Dangun. But collision to rush up against Western Man Party. they idea to Korean national ancestor was Gija.

In 1674, Hyojong's wife Queen Inseon's death. that time was growth to revive disputation, Queen Inseon of King Injo's first daughter-in-low or Second daughter-in-low. that time living to King Injos second wife Queen Jangryeol. but Queen Inseon's funeral time Queen Jangryeol's rite problem. Song Si-yeol was Queen Inseon's husband King Hyojong's for Injo's second son, So funeral mourning to 9 month. but Heo Mok and Yun Hyu was King Hyojong was successor to King Injo, then Queen Inseon for Injo's practically first daughter-in-law and also Funeral mourning for one year.[4]

But King Hyunjong felt unpleasant to 'King Hyojong's Second' title. That time, King Hyunjong was ruling party Western Man Party and that header to Song Si-yeol. King Hyunjong was cabinet reshuffle for seize power for Southern Man Party and also victory to Heo Mok and Yun Hyu. But King Hyunjong's drop death.

seize power[edit]

Heo Mok was taken into confidence, regardless of King Hyunjong's death. In November 1674 he was appoint to Yijochamui(이조참의;吏曺參議) and continuously Saheonbu Daesaheon(사헌부대사헌;司憲府大司憲). In 1675 he was successive for Yijochampan(이조참판;吏曺參判), Bibyungukdangsang(비변국당상;備邊局堂上), JwaChamchan(좌참찬;左參讚), Yijopanseo(이조판서;吏曺判書), Wuchamchan(우참찬;右參讚). In 1676, Heo Mok was special promotion to right vice-prime minister of Joseon dynastys[7]

In 1679, a Party member and Prime minister Heo Juk's illegitimate son Heo Gyeon of abuse of power, Heo Mok was attack to Heo Juk, but King Sukjong and ather Southern Man Party member to take sidesof Heo Gyeon. Heo Mok was disappointment, recuse and go to Wangjing in Majeon. that years he was appoint to judge of Privy Council(중추부판사;中樞府判事).

Ruin and death[edit]

In 1680, amidst party members bad and arrogation, King Sukjong was purge and cabinet reshuffle to Southern Man Party. He was take the expulsion to duties and title also he went to Wangjing in Majeon. In 1682, he died in a thatched house in Wangjing town, Majeon county in Gyeonggi Province, aged 87 or 89.[citation needed]

But Western Man Party attacked Heo Mok and Yun Hyu, the member of Western Man Party's politicians was called to Samunanjeok(사문난적;斯文亂賊). also sarcastic to Heo Mok names to Hyung Mok(흉목;凶穆) and the "poisonous". In 1689, he was rehabilitation to rehabilitate. that years, In 1692 he was posthumous conferment of honors to Prime minister. also award to a peerage, duke of Munjeong(문정공;文正公).[4]


  • Gyeongnye yuchan (경례유찬, 經禮類纂) (1647)
  • Dongsa [Eastern History] (동사, 東史) (1667)
  • Cheongsa yeoljeon [Blue Gentelmen List] (청사열전 淸士列傳) (1667)
  • Gyeongseol (경설 經說) (1677)
  • Misu Cheonjamun (미수 천자문 眉叟天字文)
  • Dangun sega Dangun's Family (단군세가 檀君世家)
  • Misu Gieon (미수기언, 眉叟記言)
  • Sim Hakdo (심학도, 心學圖) : art
  • Bangguk wangjorye(방국왕조례, 邦國王朝禮)
  • Jeongche jeonjungseol (정체전중설, 正體傳重說)
  • Yosun ujeon susimbeopdo (요순우전수심법도, 堯舜禹傳授心法圖)》
  • Heo Mok sugobon (허목수고본, 許穆手稿本)
  • Duta sangi (두타산기, 頭陀山記)


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Heo Mok (pen name Misu) (1595~1682)". Gangwon Province. Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  2. ^ 허목 [Heo Mok]. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Retrieved December 14, 2017.
  3. ^ Lee Won-ik was a member of Southern Man
  4. ^ a b c d e Heo Mok:Nate Korea Archived December 10, 2012, at Archive.today (in Korean)
  5. ^ a b Heo Mok (in Korean)
  6. ^ ather call Great Queen Jaui(자의대비)
  7. ^ Joseon dynastys vice-prime minister was two peoples, left vice-prime minister call Jwauijung, right vice-prime minister call Wuuijung. Prime minister call Younguijung

External links[edit]