Heo Mok

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Portrait of Heo Mok
Heo Mok
Hangul 허목
Revised Romanization Huh Mog
McCune–Reischauer Heo Mok
Pen name
Hangul 미수, 태령노인, 석호장인
Hanja , ,
Revised Romanization Misoo or Teryungrhoin or Seokhojangin
McCune–Reischauer Misu or TeryungNoin or Sukhojangin
Courtesy name
Hangul 문보, 화보, 문부
Hanja , ,
Revised Romanization Moonbo, Hwabo, Munboo
McCune–Reischauer Munbo, Hwabo, Munbu
Posthumous name
Hangul 문정
Revised Romanization Munjeong
McCune–Reischauer Munjŏng

Heo, Mok 허목 (December 11, 1595 – April 27, 1682) was a politician, poet and scholar of the Joseon Dynasty, later serving as the country's Prime Minister of the Left from 1675 to 1678. Garnering many pseudonyms from his peers, Mok became commonly known as Misu. Born into the Yangcheon clan of the Heo family as its 22nd generation and eldest son, Mok became one of the nation's most revered philosophers and a continued mentor to various kings. Despite his multifaceted accomplishments, he was very insistent on rejecting offers from both the court and the king to work officially. It would not be until the latter end of his life did the sage finally accept these summons. Mok became one of the few in Korean history to ever hold one of the Prime Minister seat on appointment and not through the imperial civil servant system of the Joseon Dynasty.

During his service, Mok became leader of the Southerner's faction (남인), rival to Si-yeol Song, the leader of the Westerner's faction. He currently rests at Yeoncheon, Korea near his former estate, Eungudang. Like his Mokjangjido 모장지도(Treasure No. 1595-1), many of his works have become national treasures.


Early years[edit]

Heo Mok was born at Changseonbang (창선방) in Hanseong (Seoul). His father, Heo Kyo, was a member of the lower bureaucracy, while his great-grandfather, Heo Ja, once served as the vice-prime minister of the Joseon Dynasty.

Heo Mok's maternal grandfather, Lim Je, was a student of Seo Gyeong-deok. His father Heo Kyo was a student of Park Ji-hwa. Seo Kyung-deok and Park Ji-hwa's more academic and ideologocally-successive pupils were to join the Eastern Man Party (동인;東人) of the Joseon Court. However, a schism divided court politics into newly-formed Southern Man Party(남인;南人) and Northern Man Party(북인;北人) with the Eastern Man Party transfering into the Northern Man Party. Mok's family was thus members of the Northern Man Party.

In all else, Heo Mok's early years were spent as a disciple to both Yi San-hae and Lee Won-ik's distinct private scholarly institutions.[1] in childhood who taught aspiring scholar as he lived on his father's appointed land.

Young Years[edit]

In 1613, he married to Lady Jeonju clean, she was granddaughter Ohri Lee Won-ik.[2] also that married opposition of his wife's family, but Lee Won-ik's support to marry successful. 1615, he with his cousin Heo Hoo go to study for Hangang Jeong Gu's private educational institute, until 1620.

his master Jeong Gu's death, Heo Mok want to Jeong Gus best pupil Yeo-hun Chang Hyon-kwang's private educational institute. later years Heo Mok was go to Mountin,[clarification needed] long time ago to the reading and study to Confucianism knowledge of characters. Jeong Gu was study to Cho Shik and Yi Hwang. Yi Hwang's more pupil and academical and ideological successorwas join to Eastern Man Party and later Southern Man Party. Cho Shik's pupil and academical, ideological successorwas Eastern Man Party(동인;東人). later Northern Man Party. he was his master Jeong Gu's one teacher Yi Hwang's relations for join to Southern Man Party.

in 1623, he was King Injo of Joseon's flatter scholars Park Ji-gyes hammering,[2] also angry King Injo was deprivation to seize of his exam application eligibility.[2] also he was renunciation to renounce bureaucracy.

Political movements[edit]

In 1651 he was recommendation of philosophical learning skill, apppinted to Naesikyokwan(내시교관;內侍敎官), but later years resignations. In 1656 Jojiseobyuljwa, that 7월, Gongjojwarang. after that month, appointed Yonggunghyungam(용궁현감;龍宮縣監), he was resignations.[3] In 1657, Gongjojwarang(공조좌랑;工曺佐郞), Saheonbu Jupyung(사헌부장령;司憲府掌令), Saboksi Jubu(사복시주부;司僕侍主簿). In 1658, reappointed to Saheonbu Jupyung. that times, he was leader for Southern Man Party, but he was refuse and choice to leader for that intrapartys one clique, Blue Southern(청남파;淸南派). that was clique of attack hardliners of Western Man Partys.

In 1659, Hyojong appoint to Saheonbu Changryung(사헌부장령;司憲府掌令), and Buhogun(부호군;副護軍). later that September, header of Jangakwon(장악원정;掌樂院正). In December, appoint to header of Sanguiwon(상의원정;尙衣院正). but, In 1659 King Hyojong's drop dead, Hyojong's Funeral time, he was conflicts to Song Si-yeol and Song Jun-kil. that time, living to King Injo's second wife Queen Jangryeol.[4] but King Hyojong's funeral time to Queen Jangryeol's funeral rite problem.

period of Yesong argument[edit]

First of Yesong argument[edit]

In early 1660, Song Si-yeol and Song Jun-kil, two header of Western Man Party(서인;西人) was King Hyojong's for Injo's second son, so become Great Queen Jaui's mourning was ather[clarification needed] many childs funeral time mourning. but Heo Mok and Yun Hyu was Hyojong was successor to Injo, then Hyojong for Injo's practically first sons. so Great Queen Jaui's mourning was three years.[3]

Heo Mok and two Song ideology Disputation for First of Yesong Ronjaeng(제1차 예송 논쟁;第一次禮訟論爭). ather Song Si-yeol's assert Joseon Dynastys to small Sinocentrism country also Heo Mok assert to Kingdom Joseon was the "special country"(방외별국;方外別國). original plan, that disputation was stand face to faceface, but Yun Seon-do said, "Song Si-yeol and Song Jun-kil was denial King Hyojongs right of King succession legitimacy" argument. afterwards, ideology disputation to generate electricity emotion fight and treason stricture.

shortly Yun Seon-do to imprisonment and Heo was complicity to demotion, appointed to Mayor of Samcheok(삼척부사;三陟府使). In 1663 he was refusal Mayor of Samcheok. later years he was more China and Japan, Korean classical books reading and Confucianism teaching.

Second of Yesong argument[edit]

that times he was write to Ki eun(기언;記言) and Eastern history(동사;東史). Eastern history was Korean history book, that Eastern history was regulation for Korean national ancestor was Dangun. but collision to rush up against Western Man Party. they idea to Korean national ancestor was Gija.

In 1674, Hyojong's wife Queen Inseon's death. that time was growth to revive disputation, Queen Inseon of King Injo's first daughter-in-low or Second daughter-in-low. that time living to King Injos second wife Queen Jangryeol. but Queen Inseon's funeral time Queen Jangryeol's rite problem. Song Si-yeol was Queen Inseon's husband King Hyojong's for Injo's second son, So funeral mourning to 9 month. but Heo Mok and Yun Hyu was King Hyojong was successor to King Injo, then Queen Inseon for Injo's practically first daughter-in-low. also Funeral mourning to one years.[2]

but King Hyunjong was feel unpleasant to 'King Hyojong's Second' title. that time, King Hyunjong was ruling party Western Man Party and that header to Song Si-yeol. King King Hyunjong was cabinet reshuffle for seize power for Southern Man Party. also victory to Heo Mok and Yun Hyu. but King Hyunjong's drop death.

seize power[edit]

but, Heo Mok was taken into confidence, regardless of King Hyunjong's drop death. In November 1674 he was appoint to Yijochamui(이조참의;吏曺參議) and continuously Saheonbu Daesaheon(사헌부대사헌;司憲府大司憲). In 1675 he was successive for Yijochampan(이조참판;吏曺參判), Bibyungukdangsang(비변국당상;備邊局堂上), JwaChamchan(좌참찬;左參讚), Yijopanseo(이조판서;吏曺判書), Wuchamchan(우참찬;右參讚). In 1676, Heo Mok was special promotion to right vice-prime minister of Joseon dynastys[5]

In 1679, a Party member and Prime minister Heo Juk's illegitimate son Heo Gyeon of abuse of power, Heo Mok was attack to Heo Juk, but King Sukjong and ather Southern Man Party member to take sidesof Heo Gyeon. Heo Mok was disappointment, recuse and go to Wangjing in Majeon. that years he was appoint to judge of Privy Council(중추부판사;中樞府判事).

Ruin and Death[edit]

but 1680, Party members bad and arrogation, King Sukjong was purge and cabinet reshuffle to Southern Man Party. he was take the expulsion to duties and title. also he was Went to Wangjing in Majeon. In 1682, he was death to thatched house for town Wangjing, Majeon county in Gyeonggi Province. that times his aged 87 or 89.

but Western Man Party was Attack to Heo Mok and Yun Hyu, the member of Western Man Party's politicians was they call to Samunanjeok(사문난적;斯文亂賊). also sarcastic to Heo Mok names to Hyung Mok(흉목;凶穆) and the "poisonous". In 1689, he was rehabilitation to rehabilitate. that years, In 1692 he was posthumous conferment of honors to Prime minister. also award to a peerage, duke of Munjeong(문정공;文正公).[2]


  • Gyeongnye yuchan (경례유찬, 經禮類纂) (1647)
  • Dongsa [Eastern History] (동사, 東史) (1667)
  • Cheongsa yeoljeon [Blue Gentelmen List] (청사열전 淸士列傳) (1667)
  • Gyeongseol (경설 經說) (1677)
  • Misu Cheonjamun (미수 천자문 眉叟天字文)
  • Dangun sega Dangun's Family] (단군세가 檀君世家)
  • Misu Gieon (미수기언, 眉叟記言)
  • Sim Hakdo (심학도, 心學圖) : art
  • Bangguk wangjorye(방국왕조례, 邦國王朝禮)
  • Jeongche jeonjungseol (정체전중설, 正體傳重說)
  • Yosun ujeon susimbeopdo (요순우전수심법도, 堯舜禹傳授心法圖)》
  • Heo Mok sugobon (허목수고본, 許穆手稿本)
  • Duta sangi (두타산기, 頭陀山記)


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Lee Won-ik was a member of Southern Man
  2. ^ a b c d e Heo Mok:Nate Korea (in Korean)
  3. ^ a b Heo Mok (in Korean)
  4. ^ ather call Great Queen Jaui(자의대비)
  5. ^ Joseon dynastys vice-prime minister was two peoples, left vice-prime minister call Jwauijung, right vice-prime minister call Wuuijung. Prime minister call Younguijung

External links[edit]