Hepacivirus

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Hepacivirus
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Flaviviridae
Genus: Hepacivirus
Species

Canine hepacivirus
Equine hepacivirus
GB virus B
Guereza hepacivirus
Hepatitis C virus
Rodent hepacivirus

Hepacivirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Flaviviridae. Humans serve as natural hosts. Diseases associated with this genus include: hepatitis; hepatocellular carcinoma.[1][2]

The type species is Hepatitis C virus.

Taxonomy[edit]

Group: ssRNA(+)

[2]

Structure[edit]

Viruses in Hepacivirus are enveloped, with spherical geometries. The diameter is around 50 nm. Genomes are linear and non-segmented, around 10kb in length.[1]

Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic Arrangement Genomic Segmentation
Hepacivirus Icosahedral-like Pseudo T=3 Enveloped Linear Monopartite

Life Cycle[edit]

Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by viral initiation. Human serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are sexual, blood, and contact.[1]

Genus Host Details Tissue Tropism Entry Details Release Details Replication Site Assembly Site Transmission
Hepacivirus Humans Epithelium: skin; epithelium: kidney; epithelium: intestine; epithelium: testes Clathrin-mediated endocytosis Secretion Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Sex; blood

History[edit]

HCV, which is the causative agent of the hepatitis C in humans and the type species of the genus, was discovered in 1989.[3]

GBV-B virus (also known as GB virus B) discovered in 1995 is capable of infecting New World monkeys, in particular tamarins. Like HCV it is transmitted by the blood-borne route and similar to HCV it is associated with the viral hepatitis. However GBV-B has never been identified in wild animals and its natural host is not known.[3]

Additional Information[edit]

Additional hepaciviruses have been described from bats, rodents including bank voles, horses and dogs.[4][5][6]

Cattle also appear to be a host for these viruses.[7][8]

Rodent hepacivirus is found in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus).[3]

A species related to this group has been isolated from the graceful catshark (Proscyllium habereri).[9]

There are at least two subtypes of the Equine Hepacivirus.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  2. ^ a b ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c Stapleton, J. T.; Foung, S.; Muerhoff, A. S.; Bukh, J.; Simmonds, P. (2010). "The GB viruses: a review and proposed classification of GBV-A, GBV-C (HGV), and GBV-D in genus Pegivirus within the family Flaviviridae". Journal of General Virology. 92 (2): 233–246. doi:10.1099/vir.0.027490-0. ISSN 0022-1317. PMC 3081076Freely accessible. PMID 21084497. 
  4. ^ Kapoor, A; Simmonds, P; Scheel, TK; Hjelle, B; Cullen, JM; Burbelo, PD; Chauhan, LV; Duraisamy, R; Sanchez Leon, M; Jain, K; Vandegrift, KJ; Calisher, CH; Rice, CM; Lipkin, WI (2013). "Identification of rodent homologs of hepatitis C virus and pegiviruses". MBio. 4 (2): e00216–13. doi:10.1128/mBio.00216-13. PMC 3622934Freely accessible. PMID 23572554. 
  5. ^ Drexler, JF; Corman, VM; Müller, MA; Lukashev, AN; Gmyl, A; Coutard, B; Adam, A; Ritz, D; Leijten, LM; van Riel, D; Kallies, R; Klose, SM; Gloza-Rausch, F; Binger, T; Annan, A; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Oppong, S; Bourgarel, M; Rupp, D; Hoffmann, B; Schlegel, M; Kümmerer, BM; Krüger, DH; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Setién, AA; Cottontail, VM; Hemachudha, T; Wacharapluesadee, S; Osterrieder, K; Bartenschlager, R; Matthee, S; Beer, M; Kuiken, T; Reusken, C; Leroy, EM; Ulrich, RG; Drosten, C (2013). "Evidence for novel hepaciviruses in rodents". PLoS Pathog. 9 (6): e1003438. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003438. 
  6. ^ Lauck M, Sibley SD, Lara J, Purdy MA, Khudyakov Y, Hyeroba D, Tumukunde A, Weny G, Switzer WM, Chapman CA, Hughes AL, Friedrich TC, O'Connor DH, Goldberg TL (2013) A novel hepacivirus with an unusually long and intrinsically disordered NS5A protein in a wild Old World primate. J Virol
  7. ^ Corman, VM; Grundhoff, A; Baechlein, C; Fischer, N; Gmyl, A; Wollny, R; Dei, D; Ritz, D; Binger, T; Adankwah, E; Marfo, KS; Annison, L; Annan, A; Adu-Sarkodie, Y; Oppong, S; Becher, P; Drosten, C; Drexler, JF. "Highly divergent hepaciviruses from African cattle". J Virol. 89 (11): 5876–82. doi:10.1128/JVI.00393-15. 
  8. ^ Baechlein, C; Fischer, N; Grundhoff, A; Alawi, M; Indenbirken, D; Postel, A; Baron, AL; Offinger, J; Becker, K; Beineke, A; Rehage, J; Becher, P (2015). "Identification of a novel hepacivirus in domestic cattle from Germany". J Virol. 89 (14): 7007–7015. doi:10.1128/JVI.00534-15. 
  9. ^ Shi M, Lin XD, Vasilakis N, Tian JH, Li CX, Chen LJ, Eastwood G, Diao XN, Chen MH, Chen X, Qin XC, Widen SG, Wood TG, Tesh RB, Xu J, Holmes EC, Zhang YZ (2015) Divergent viruses discovered in arthropods and vertebrates revise the evolutionary history of the Flaviviridae and related viruses. J Virol pii: JVI.02036-15
  10. ^ Pronost S, Hue E, Fortier C, Foursin M, Fortier G, Desbrosse F, Rey FA, Pitel PH, Richard E, Saunier B (2016) Prevalence of Equine Hepacivirus infections in France and evidence for two viral subtypes circulating worldwide. Transbound Emerg Dis doi: 10.1111/tbed.12587.

External links[edit]