Herbert H. Lehman

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Herbert H. Lehman
Herbert Lehman.jpg
United States Senator
from New York
In office
January 3, 1950 – January 3, 1957
Preceded by John Foster Dulles
Succeeded by Jacob K. Javits
45th Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 1933 – December 3, 1942
Lieutenant M. William Bray (1933–1938)
Charles Poletti (1939–1942)
Preceded by Franklin D. Roosevelt
Succeeded by Charles Poletti
Lieutenant Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 1929 – December 31, 1932
Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by Edwin Corning
Succeeded by M. William Bray
1st Director General of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
In office
1943–1946
Preceded by none
Succeeded by Fiorello H. La Guardia
Personal details
Born Herbert Henry Lehman
(1878-03-28)March 28, 1878
New York City, New York
Died December 5, 1963(1963-12-05) (aged 85)
New York City, New York
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Edith Louise Altschul
Children Hilda Lehman Wise
Peter Gerald Lehman (predeceased)
John Robert Lehman
Parents Babetta Newgass Lehman
Mayer Lehman
Profession Banker
Religion Judaism
Signature

Herbert Henry Lehman (March 28, 1878 – December 5, 1963) was a Democratic Party politician from New York. He served from 1933 to 1942 as the 45th governor of New York and represented New York State in the United States Senate from 1950 to 1957.

Early life and education[edit]

Herbert H. Lehman was born to a Reform Jewish family in New York City, the son of Babetta (nee Newgass) and German-born immigrant Mayer Lehman, one of the three brothers who cofounded the Lehman Brothers investment banking firm. Herbert's father arrived from Rimpar, Germany, in 1848, settling in Montgomery, Alabama, where he engaged in business. He eventually moved to New York City after the Civil War.[1]

He attended The Sachs School, founded by Julius Sachs. In 1895, he graduated from Sachs Collegiate Institute in New York City and in 1899, he graduated with a B.A. from Williams College.[2] After college, Lehman worked in textile manufacturing, eventually becoming vice-president and treasurer of the J. Spencer Turner Company in Brooklyn. In 1908, he became a partner in the investment banking firm Lehman Brothers of New York City with his brother Arthur and cousin Philip.[2] During World War I, he became a colonel in the U.S. Army. By 1928 when entered public service, he had withdrawn entirely from business.[citation needed]

Politics[edit]

Lehman became active in politics in 1920 and became chairman of the finance committee of the Democratic Party in 1928[3] as a reward for having been a strong supporter of Alfred E. Smith. He was elected lieutenant governor of New York in 1928 and 1930 and resigned from Lehman Brothers upon taking office. He then served four terms as Governor of New York, elected in 1932, 1934, 1936 and 1938. Unlike Smith, Lehman was a supporter of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal and implemented a similar program in New York.

On December 3, 1942, he resigned the governorship less than a month before the end of his term to accept an appointment as director of foreign relief and rehabilitation operations for the United States Department of State. He served as director-general of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration from 1943 to 1946.[3]

Lehman was the Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from New York in 1946 and also ran on the Liberal and American Labor tickets but was defeated by the Republican candidate Irving Ives. In 1949, he ran again, this time in a special election to serve the remainder of Robert F. Wagner's term. Lehman defeated John Foster Dulles, who had been appointed to temporarily fill the vacancy after Wagner's resignation, and took his seat on January 3, 1950.[4] In this campaign, he ran on the Democratic and Liberal tickets, with the American Labor Party urging their members not to vote for any candidate. In 1950, Lehman was re-elected to a full term, running on Democratic and Liberal lines and opposed by the American Labor Party.[3]

Lehman was one of two US senators who were opposed to nominating Mississippi Senator James O. Eastland to be chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee. (The other was Wayne L. Morse of Oregon.) He was also an early and vocal opponent of Senator Joseph McCarthy (R-Wis.). Lehman was one of the most liberal Senators and was therefore not considered part of the Senate's "club" of insiders. He retired from the Senate after his full term and was not a candidate for renomination or reelection in 1956.[5]

The gravesite of Herbert H. Lehman

Personal life[edit]

On April 28, 1910, Lehman married Edith Louise Altschul (sister of banker Frank Altschul) in 1910. The couple had three children, Hilda, Peter (1917), and John. All three served in the United States military during World War II; Peter was killed while on active duty.[2] According to a group history published April 6, 1944, the governor's son was to be awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. The medal was set to be awarded to Peter on his father's 70th birthday.[6] Peter married Peggy Rosenbaum in 1938; they had two daughters: Penny Lehman (1940) and Wendy Lehman (1942).[7]

His daughter, Hilda Jane, eloped to Maryland and married Boris De Vadetzky, of French Russian descent, in 1940 when she was 19 years old.[8] After five years, the couple divorced.[citation needed] She remarried[9] and died at the age of 33.[10]

Lehman and his wife Edith adopted a child through Georgia Tann. Tann operated the Tennessee Children's Home Society, an adoption agency in Memphis, Tennessee and placed children with prominent people. Tann used the unlicensed home as a front for her black market baby adoption scheme from the 1920s to 1950, when a state investigation closed the institution.[11] In his role as Governor of New York, Lehman signed a law sealing birth certificates from New York adoptees in 1935. Like many other people, Lehman was misled by Tann. It has been speculated that sealing the records was good for his own adopted children and New York adoptees in general.[12][13]

Retirement[edit]

After his retirement from the Senate, Lehman remained politically active, working with Eleanor Roosevelt and Thomas K. Finletter in the late 1950s and early 1960s to support the reform Democratic movement in Manhattan that eventually defeated longtime Tammany Hall boss Carmine DeSapio.[citation needed] He founded the Lehman Children's Zoo (now the Tisch Zoo) in Central Park, which declared that "No Adult Will Be Admitted unless Accompanied by a Child."[citation needed]

Lehman was the first, and until the 2007 inauguration of Eliot Spitzer, the only Jewish governor of New York.[14] During much of his Senate career, he was the only Jewish Senator as well. Unlike most of his Jewish constituents, who had immigrated to the US from eastern Europe, Lehman's family was from Germany.

Lehman spent much of the last two years of his life at his New York City home. He celebrated his 85th birthday in March 1963 in increasingly poor health and died of heart failure on December 5, 1963, at age 85. Lehman is interred at Kensico Cemetery in Valhalla, New York.

Honors[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Biography Notes"
  2. ^ a b c "Life and Legacy of Herbert H. Lehman". Lehman Suite. 
  3. ^ a b c d The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers. "Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site: Herbert Lehman (1928–1956)". Teaching Eleanor Roosevelt. Retrieved 2005-11-07. 
  4. ^ Congress History, 81st U.S. Congress
  5. ^ "Lehman, Herbert Henry, (1878–1963)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved 2005-11-09. 
  6. ^ HQ 4th Fighter Group, AAD STA F-356, AF HISTORICAL ARCHIVES
  7. ^ Colombia University Digital Archive: "1st Lieutenant Peter Gerald Lehman" February 15, 1953
  8. ^ New York Times: "LEHMAN SON-IN-LAW FORMER WPA ACTOR; Boris de Vadetzky" Also Was a Research Worker Here"
  9. ^ New York Times: "Student Weds Elena Alpher"
  10. ^ New York Times: "Mrs. Hilda Wise, Daughter of Governor Lehman, Dies"
  11. ^ The Baby Thief: The Untold Story of Georgia Tann, the Baby Seller Who Corrupted Adoption by Barbara Bisantz Raymond, pages 107-108
  12. ^ Judge Camille Kelley & Miss Georgia Tann http://www.knoxfocus.com/2013/09/judge-camille-kelley-miss-georgia-tann/
  13. ^ When did New York’s Adoption Records get Sealed? http://www.nyadoptionequality.com/new-york-state-adoption-legislation-facts-history/why-were-adoption-birth-records-closed-in-ny/
  14. ^ Moss, Mitchell (1994-02-04). "The Vanishing Jew". Forward. Retrieved 2005-11-07. 
  15. ^ Kensico.org (Kensico Cemetery). "Historic & Scenic Tour: Herbert H. Lehman". Retrieved 2005-11-07. 
  16. ^ Office of Media Relations & Publications of Lehman College (2005-09-26). "Remembering the Legacy of Herbert H. Lehman". Lehman E-News. Retrieved 2005-11-05. 
  17. ^ Gerber, David Paul and Wayne Whitehorne (December 2004). "Staten Island Ferry". Station Reporter. Retrieved 2005-11-07. 
  18. ^ http://www.amuseum.org/jahf/virtour/page19.html#herbertlehman

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Edwin Corning
Lieutenant Governor of New York
1929–1932
Succeeded by
M. William Bray
Preceded by
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Governor of New York
1933–1942
Succeeded by
Charles Poletti
Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
None; first in line
Director General of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
1943–1946
Succeeded by
Fiorello H. La Guardia
Party political offices
Preceded by
James M. Mead
Democratic Nominee for U.S. Senate from New York (Class 1)
1946
Succeeded by
John Cashmore
United States Senate
Preceded by
John Foster Dulles
U.S. Senator (Class 3) from New York
1949–1957
Served alongside: Irving Ives
Succeeded by
Jacob K. Javits