Herbert William Mullin
April 18, 1947
Salinas, California, U.S.
|Height||5 ft 9 in (175 cm)|
|Criminal penalty||Life imprisonment|
Span of crimes
|February 13, 1973|
|Website||HerbertWilliamMullin.org status: offline (since December 16, 2021)|
Herbert William Mullin (born April 18, 1947) is an American serial killer who killed 13 people in California in the early 1970s. He confessed to the killings, which he claimed prevented earthquakes. In 1973, after a trial to determine whether he was insane or culpable, he was convicted of two murders in the first-degree and nine in the second-degree, and sentenced to life imprisonment. As of 2021[update], he has been denied parole eight times and is unlikely to ever be released.
In a terrible coincidence for the people of the greater Santa Cruz region, Mullin and Edmund Kemper overlapped in their 1972 to 1973 murder sprees, adding confusion to the police investigations and ending with both being arrested, within a few weeks of each other, after the deaths of 21 people.
Early life, education, and mental health issues
Herbert William Mullin was born on April 18, 1947, in Salinas, California. His father was reportedly stern but not abusive. Not long before Herbert Mullin's fifth birthday, the family had moved to San Francisco.
Mullin had numerous friends at school and was voted "Most Likely to Succeed" when he was 16 by his classmates at San Lorenzo Valley High School. Mullin experienced difficulty in life at this time, largely due to paranoid schizophrenic disorder. Shortly after graduating from San Lorenzo Valley High School, one of Mullin's friends, Dean Richardson, was killed in a car accident the summer after graduation in June 1965, and Mullin was devastated. He built shrines to his friend in his room and became obsessed with reincarnation.
In 1969, Mullin was admitted to Mendocino State Hospital. Over the next few years, he entered various mental hospitals, but was discharged after spells as being no harm to himself or others. In total, Mullin had been committed to five mental hospitals. By the time Mullin was in his mid-twenties, he had a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia which was accelerated by his usage of LSD and marijuana.
By 1972, Mullin was 25 and had moved back in with his parents in Felton, California, in the Santa Cruz Mountains. Mullin's birthday, April 18, was the anniversary of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, which he thought was very significant.
Mullin believed that the Vietnam War had produced enough American deaths to forestall earthquakes as a blood sacrifice to nature, but that with the war winding down by late 1972 (from an American perspective) he would need to start killing people in order to have enough deaths to keep a calamitous earthquake away. It was for this reason, he later said, that his father, through telepathy, had ordered him to take some lives.
On October 13, 1972, Mullin smashed 55 year-old vagrant Lawrence "Whitey" White's head with a baseball bat when the transient looked at the engine of his '58 Chevy station wagon after Mullin had pretended to have car trouble and pulled over, popping the hood. White had offered to help fix his car in exchange for a ride. Mullin dragged White's body into the woods: his body was found the next day. Mullin later claimed his victim looked like Jonah from the Bible, and sent him telepathic messages "Hey, man, pick me up and throw me over the boat. Kill me so that others will be saved."
Mullin killed his next victim after his father directed him to kill his second victim as a sacrifice and also to test the hypothesis that the environment was being rapidly polluted and an earthquake was nigh. The victim was a female hitchhiker named Mary Margaret Guilfoyle (aged 24), whom he picked up on a highway. Mullin stabbed her through the chest while driving. He cut her abdomen open in order to test his hypothesis of pollution, took her organs out, examined them, and draped them on nearby branches so he could see them better. Her skeletonized body was only found after several months.
On November 2, 1972, Mullin had doubts about the appropriateness of his father's instructions and went to see a Catholic Priest in a confessional booth at St. Mary's Catholic Church in Los Gatos. He recounted that the priest, Father Henri Tomei (who had been a member of the French Resistance during World War II and a music director at the Archdiocese of Marseille) wanted to volunteer to be his next sacrifice. He opened the confessional box and hit, kicked, and stabbed Tomei, who lay bleeding to death in the confessional while a parishioner watched Mullin run away. The parishioner ran to get help, but the witness description of a tall and thin man did not help the investigation much.
Mullin attempted to join the marines around January 1973, looking for a way to conduct his mission legally, but refused to sign a copy of his criminal record, and the marines withdrew their offer. By January 1973, Mullin had stopped using drugs and blamed them for his problems.
In early January 1973, Mullin drove to a remote area of cabins where he thought a former teammate who had first given him marijuana to smoke might live. The woman who answered the door was called Kathy Francis. Francis said the man he wanted to see lived down the road. In Mullin's memory, she also insisted that she and her kids (David, aged 9 and Daemon, aged 4) would like to volunteer to be blood sacrifices. He killed them all with a pistol. Mullin then knocked on the door of his teammate's home. The teammate was unable to answer why he had ruined Mullin's life with an early toke of pot, so Mullin shot him. Dying, the man crawled to his bathroom in an attempt to tell his wife to lock the bathroom door, but Mullin broke down the door and fatally shot her too. The police thought that the deaths in both homes were drug-related and did not suspect they were in any way connected with the Priest's death or the previous murders of hitchhikers.
About a month later, on February 10, 1973, Mullin was hiking in the state park in Santa Cruz where he encountered four teenage boys (Robert Spector, aged 18, Brian Scott Card, 19, David Oliker, 18, and Mark Dreibelbeis, 15) camping illegally. He walked over to them, engaged them in a brief conversation and claimed to be a park ranger. He told them to leave because they were, according to Mullin, "polluting" the forest, however they shooed him away and stayed in the tent. The next day, Mullin returned and shot all four of them in the head with the .22, killing them. When Mullin had finished, he took their .22 rifle and 20 dollars.
The next killing happened before the bodies of his previous victims were found later that week. It occurred as Mullin was driving firewood in his station wagon. He noticed his victim, a 72-year-old retired prizefighter and fishmonger named Fred Abbie Perez, working in his garden in Santa Cruz. Mullin did a U-turn, came back down the street, stopped, put the rifle across the hood of his car, and shot him once in the heart. He committed this killing in full sight of the dead man's neighbor, who got Mullin's license plate. A few minutes after the description was broadcast on the police radio, a "docile" Mullin was ordered to pull over and arrested by a patrolman. In his car was the .22 pistol used to kill the people in the cabins. He did not attempt to use the recently fired .22 rifle on the seat next to him.
The police suffered from 'linkage blindness' at the time of Mullin's murders due to several factors; firstly, the murders did not appear to be connected by a similar weapon or MO (modus operandi), secondly, the victims differed from each other in terms of age, race, and sex, and, finally, Edmund Kemper, who would kill the last of his own 8 victims just a few weeks later, was operating in approximately the same area at the same time.
Mullin had committed his murder spree over four months.
Trial and imprisonment
This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2020)
The Santa Cruz County District Attorney's office charged Mullin with ten murders, and Mullin's trial opened on July 30, 1973. Mullin had admitted to all the crimes and therefore the trial focused on whether he was legally sane (which, under U.S law, means that he understood the nature and quality of his actions, and understood right from wrong). The fact that he had covered his tracks and shown premeditation in some of his crimes was highlighted by prosecutor Chris Cottle, while the defense (public prosecutor Jim Jackson) argued that Mullin's delusions made him kill. On August 19, 1973, after fourteen hours of deliberation, Mullin was found guilty of first-degree murder in the killings of Jim Gianera and Kathy Francis– because they were deemed premeditated– and eight counts of second degree murder in the other killings– because they were considered "impulse" by the jury. Mullin was convicted of the ten murders at the age of 26.
The Santa Clara County District Attorney's office charged Mullin for the murder of Henri Tomei. On December 11, 1973, the day his trial was to begin, he pleaded guilty to second-degree murder after originally pleading not guilty by reason of insanity to first-degree murder.
He was sentenced to life imprisonment in the Santa Cruz County trial, and has been denied parole eight times since 1980. He is currently incarcerated at Mule Creek State Prison, in Ione, California.
Mullin stated in custody that he had committed his crimes only in an attempt to save the environment. He was diagnosed by Dr. David Marlowe from the university of California at Santa Cruz with schizophrenic reaction, paranoid type.
Mullin had interactions with Edmund Kemper, another serial killer active in the same area and at the same time as him. The two shared adjoining cells at one point. Kemper disliked Mullin, believing he killed for no good reason. Kemper recalled “Well, [Mullin] had a habit of singing and bothering people when somebody tried to watch TV. So I threw water on him to shut him up. Then, when he was a good boy, I’d give him some peanuts. Herbie liked peanuts. That was effective because pretty soon he asked permission to sing. That’s called behavior modification treatment.” Kemper would describe Mullin as having a "lot of pain inside, he had a lot of anguish inside, he had a lot of hate inside, and it was addressed to people he didn't even know because he didn't dare do anything to the people he knew." In that same interview, Kemper called Mullin "a kindred spirit there" due to their similar past of being institutionalized. According to Kemper, he would use his own experiences as a killer - such as shooting bottles and cans imagining they were people and the way the bodies of their respective victims would react in their final moments - to talk to and get in Mullin's head. Kemper said he told Mullin "Herbie, I know what happened. Don't give me that bullshit about earthquakes and don't give me that crap about God was telling you. I says you couldn't even be talking to me now if God talking to you because of the pressure I'm putting on you right now, these little shocking insights into what you did, God would start talking to you right now if you were that kind of ill. Because I grew up with people like that."
|Number||Name||Sex||Age||Date of Murder||Notes|
|1||Lawrence "Whitey" White||M||55||October 13, 1972||Clubbed about the head repeatedly with a baseball bat|
|2||Mary Margaret Guilfoyle||F||24||October 24, 1972||Stabbed and dissected|
|3||Henri Tomei||M||64||November 2, 1972||Beaten and stabbed through the heart|
|4||Jim Ralph Gianera||M||25||January 25, 1973||Shot three times including in the back, puncturing his lung|
|5||Joan Gianera||F||21||January 25, 1973||Shot in the neck and head above the left eye, then stabbed three times|
|6||Kathy Francis||F||29||January 25, 1973||Shot, then stabbed post-mortem|
|7||Daemon Francis||M||4||January 25, 1973||Shot in the head, then stabbed post-mortem|
|8||David Hughes||M||9||January 25, 1973||Shot in the head, then stabbed post-mortem|
|9||David Oliker||M||18||February 10, 1973||Shot in the head|
|10||Robert Spector||M||18||February 10, 1973||Shot in the head|
|11||Brian Scott Card||M||19||February 10, 1973||Shot in the head|
|12||Mark Dreibelbis||M||15||February 10, 1973||Shot in the head|
|13||Fred Abbie Perez||M||72||February 13, 1973||Shot in the heart|
In popular culture
- Andy E. Horne played Mullin (renamed "Herbert McCormack") in the 2008 direct-to-video horror film Kemper: The CoEd Killer.
- Mullin was the subject of an episode of the television documentary series Born to Kill?.
- Mullin was mentioned twice (and was portrayed by uncredited actor Marco Aiello in a flashback) on the police procedural crime drama Criminal Minds.
- Mullin was covered on the true crime comedy podcast The Last Podcast on the Left starting with episode 416.
- Mullin was alluded to in the Church of Misery song "Megalomania" from the album Master of Brutality.
- Mullin was covered on the 57th episode of the true crime comedy podcast My Favorite Murder.
- Mullin was covered (alongside Ed Kemper) in the first season (2021) of the Investigation Discovery podcast, Mind of a Monster.
- Mullin, Herbert. "Herbert William Mullin, born 04/18/1947". California Birth Index. State of California. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- "California Inmate Locator". cdcr.ca.gov. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn. "Unnatural Disasters". truTV Crime Library. crimelibrary.com. Archived from the original on December 10, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- Ressler 1992, p. 129 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFRessler1992 (help)
- Lunde 1979, p. 64.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn (October 21, 2012). "Herb Mullin — Normal Childhood, Abnormal Adult — Crime Library on truTV.com". Crime Library. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved February 2, 2022.
- Lunde 1979, p. 138.
- Ressler 1992, p. 127. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRessler1992 (help)
- Schechter, Harold (2003). The Serial Killer Files. Ballantine. ISBN 978-0345465665.
- Lunde 1979, p. 70.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn. "Herb Mullin". trutv.com. truTV. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- Torrey, E. Fuller, The Insanity Offense: How America's Failure to Treat the Seriously Mentally Ill Endangers Its Citizens W. W. Norton & Company, 2008. ISBN 0393068889. p. 35. https://books.google.com/books?id=YlN7RwfQjS8C&pg=PA35#v=onepage&q=april%2018%20earthquake%20herbert%20mullin Archived January 27, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
- Ressler 1992, p. 128. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRessler1992 (help)
- Scott, Shirley Lynn. "Herb Mullin". truTV. truTV. Archived from the original on September 27, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
- Ressler 1992, p. 129. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRessler1992 (help)
- Lunde & Morgan 1980, p. 31.
- Ressler 1992, p. 130. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRessler1992 (help)
- Lunde 1979, p. 76.
- Lunde & Morgan 1980, p. 42.
- "Lodi News-Sentinel - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Archived from the original on January 27, 2021. Retrieved January 27, 2021.
- Torrey, E. Fuller (January 27, 2021). The Insanity Offense: How America's Failure to Treat the Seriously Mentally ... - E. Fuller Torrey - Google Books. ISBN 9780393068887. Archived from the original on January 27, 2021.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn (October 21, 2012). "Herb Mullin — The Hippie Massacre — Crime Library on truTV.com". Crime Library truTV. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- MURRAY, EMERSON (March 19, 2021). "State denies parole to Santa Cruz serial killer". Santa Cruz Sentinel. MediaNews Group. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- Ressler 1992, p. 131. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRessler1992 (help)
- Lunde & Morgan 1980, p. 250.
- Lunde 1979, p. 79.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn (October 21, 2012). "Herb Mullin — The Hippie Massacre — Crime Library on truTV.com". Archived from the original on October 21, 2012.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn (October 21, 2012). "Herb Mullin — The Hippie Massacre — Crime Library on truTV.com". truTV. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
- Lunde & Morgan 1980, pp. 102–103.
- Murray, Emerson (March 19, 2021). "State denies parole to Santa Cruz serial killer". Santa Cruz Sentinel. MediaNews Group. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- Ressler 1992, p. 132. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRessler1992 (help)
- Ressler 1992, pp. 131–132. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRessler1992 (help)
- Lunde & Morgan 1980, p. 252.
- Lunde 1979, p. 80.
- Lunde & Morgan 1980, p. 310.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn (October 21, 2012). "Herb Mullin — Mentally Ill, but Sane? — Crime Library on truTV.com". truTV. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2022.
- Lunde & Morgan 1980, p. 311.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn (October 21, 2012). "Herb Mullin — Mentally Ill, but Sane? — Crime Library on truTV.com". truTV. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- "CALIFORNIAN GUILTY IN 10 MURDER CASES". The New York Times. August 20, 1973. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
- "Plea Change By Mullin". Merced Sun-Star. Merced, California. Associated Press. December 12, 1973. p. 18.[dead link]
- Lunde & Morgan 1980, p. 192.
- Scott, Shirley Lynn (October 21, 2012). "Herb Mullin — Serial Killer Rivalry — Crime Library on truTV.com". truTV. Archived from the original on October 21, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
- "Serial Killer ed Kemper talks about Serial Killer Herbert Mullin which he met in Prison [Interview]". YouTube.
- Lunde, Donald T. (1979). Murder and madness. New York : Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-00954-5.
- Lunde, Donald T.; Morgan, Jefferson (1980). The die song : a journey into the mind of a mass murderer (1st ed.). New York : Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-01315-3.
- Ressler, Robert K.; Shachtman, Tom (1992). Whoever fights monsters (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-30468-4.