Herbert Otto Gille
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2013)|
|Herbert Otto Gille|
8 March 1897|
Gandersheim, Duchy of Brunswick, German Empire
|Died||26 December 1966
Stemmen near Hannover, Lower Saxony, West Germany
|Allegiance|| German Empire (to 1918)
Weimar Republic (to 1922)
|Service/branch||Heer (to 1919)
|Years of service||1910–19, 1934–45|
|Unit||5th SS Panzergrenadier Division Wiking|
|Commands held||5th SS Panzergrenadier Division Wiking|
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds|
|Other work||worked for a newspaper|
Herbert Otto Gille (8 March 1897 – 26 December 1966) was a German general, and as a winner of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten) and of the German Cross in Gold, the most highly decorated member of the Waffen SS during World War II. By the end of the war he held the rank of SS-Obergruppenfuhrer und General der Waffen-SS and was the last regular officer of the Waffen-SS to be promoted to that rank with date of rank from 9 November 1944.
Born in Gandersheim, Gille began his military career as a first lieutenant in the artillery branch during the First World War and won the Iron Cross First and Second Classes. He left the army in 1919 and remained a civilian working in agriculture and as a car dealer until 1931 when he joined the Nazi Party and the SS. He married Sophie Charlotte Mennecke on 4 January 1935 and his only child, a daughter, was born on 9 October 1935.
In 1934 he was re-activated by the SS combat support forces. He became a Company Commander in Ellwangen, then a Battalion Commander of the SS regiment Germania in Arolsen. He later served as the commander of an artillery unit in Jueterbog. As the commander of the 1st Battalion of the SS-V Artillery Regiment Gille participated in the invasion of Poland and in the western campaign. In 1940 he took over the artillery regiment of the 5th SS Panzer Division, led by SS Obergruppenführer Felix Steiner.
After the assault on the Soviet Union, Gille, as a leader of an advance guard, reached the Kuban and received the Knight's Cross on 8 October 1942. Shortly thereafter he took command of the Wiking Division (5th SS Panzer Division) on the Eastern Front. Early in 1944, Gille was instrumental in the withdrawal of his command and others of the encircled Group Stemmermann through "Hells Gate" during the Korsun cauldron encirclement, also known as the Cherkassy Pocket. The Soviets greatly outnumbered the German forces but they failed to cut off their retreat, though they were able to inflict serious damage on the German formations. Gille received the diamonds in addition to his Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords on 19 April 1944. Shortly after his escape from the Cherkassy Pocket, Gille and members of his staff were flown into the encircled town of Kovel to organize its defense. Under Gille's steady leadership the mixed army and Waffen SS units maintained a vigorous defense until the siege was raised by approaching German units from the West.
His troops stood strong on the East Prussia border with the 3rd SS Panzer Division and prevented the planned Soviet breakthrough to Berlin in the autumn of 1944 destroying large numbers of Soviet tanks. In January 1945 Gille, as leader of the IV SS Panzer Corps comprising the 3rd and 5th SS Panzer Divisions, was sent to Hungary to attempt to relieve the encircled city of Budapest. However, his troops were unable to break through to the city. In March 1945 he led the IV SS Panzer Corps in the failed Lake Balaton Offensive and following the Soviet counter-offensive his corps was forced to retreat into Austria.
When the end of war was clear, he marched towards the U.S. troops in order to avoid surrendering to Soviet forces. He was held by the U.S. for three years, and released in May 1948.
Despite being an early Nazi Party member, Gille was known for his apolitical views. The author Heinz Höhne in The Order under the Death Head characterized Gille as an enigma and "Nur-Soldat" (soldier – nothing else) who once threatened a newly assigned Weltanschauungsoffizier (political indoctrination officer) with a clean-out squad to gather his uniforms and other possessions and throw them and the officer out of the unit.
Gille was highly regarded for his leadership qualities and tactical abilities. He commanded Waffen-SS units at the regiment, division and corps level with distinction during the war. Gille was popular with his men and admired for his personal bravery. He was well known for the unusual walking-stick he carried.
After the war he worked for a newspaper until 1958. He also owned a small bookshop. Gille was the founder of a magazine for veterans of the Wiking division, "Wiking Ruf". On 26 December 1966 Herbert Otto Gille died of a heart attack in Stemmen, near Hannover. He was buried at the local cemetery in Stemmen; however, his grave no longer exists.
On January 3, 1935, Gille married 31-year-old Sophie Charlotte Mennecke, and together had one daughter (born on October 9, 1935).
Summary of his career
Dates of rank
- Leutnant: January 27, 1915
- Oberleutnant: March 31, 1919
- SS-Anwärter: December, 1931
- SS-Scharführer: 1932
- SS-Untersturmführer: April 20, 1933
- SS-Obersturmführer: April 20, 1935
- SS-Hauptsturmführer: November 9, 1935
- SS-Sturmbannführer: April 20, 1937
- SS-Obersturmbannführer: October 19, 1939
- SS-Standartenführer: January 30, 1941
- SS-Oberführer: October 1, 1941
- SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Waffen-SS: November 9, 1942
- SS-Gruppenführer und Generaleutnant der Waffen-SS: November 9, 1943
- SS-Obergruppenführer und General der Waffen-SS: November 9, 1944
- Iron Cross (1914) 2nd and 1st Class
- War Merit Cross Second and First Classes (Brunswick)
- The Honour Cross of the World War 1914/1918 (1934)
- SS-Honour Ring
- Clasp to the Iron Cross (1939)
- German Cross in Gold on 28 February 1942 as SS-Oberführer in SS-Artillerie-Regiment 5
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds
- Knight's Cross on 8 October 1942 as SS-Oberführer and commander of SS-Artillerie-Regiment 5 "Wiking"[Note 1]
- 315th Oak Leaves on 1 November 1943 as SS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor of the Waffen-SS, and commander of SS-Panzergrenadier-Division "Wiking"
- 47th Swords on 20 February 1944 as SS-Gruppenführer and Generalleutnant of the Waffen-SS, and commander of SS-Panzergrenadier-Division "Wiking"
- 12th Diamonds on 19 April 1944 as SS-Gruppenführer and Generalleutnant of the Waffen-SS, and commander of 5th SS-Panzer-Division "Wiking"
- General Assault Badge (May 1941)
- Anschluss Medal
- Sudetenland Medal with Prague Castle clasp
- Eastern Front Medal (15 September 1941)
- Finnish Order of the Cross of Liberty 1st Class with Swords
- Mentioned twice in the Wehrmachtbericht (6 April 1944 and 2 September 1944)
- SS Long Service Award
- Sword of honour of the Reichsführer-SS
- Wound Badge (1939) in Silver
- According to Scherzer as commander of Artillerie-Regiment SS-Division "Wiking".
- Dienstalterslisten der SS, NSDAP Revised edition (20 April 1945)
- Thomas 1997, p. 197.
- Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 137.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 196.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 335.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 73.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 42.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 37.
- Berger, Florian (1999). Mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern. Die höchstdekorierten Soldaten des Zweiten Weltkrieges [With Oak Leaves and Swords. The Highest Decorated Soldiers of the Second World War] (in German). Vienna, Austria: Selbstverlag Florian Berger. ISBN 978-3-9501307-0-6.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Fraschka, Günther (1994). Knights of the Reich. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military/Aviation History. ISBN 978-0-88740-580-8.
- Krätschmer, Ernst-Günther (1999). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Waffen-SS [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Waffen-SS]. Coburg, Germany: Nation Europa Verlag. ISBN 978-3-920677-43-9.
- Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8.
- Schaulen, Fritjof (2003). Eichenlaubträger 1940 – 1945 Zeitgeschichte in Farbe I Abraham – Huppertz [Oak Leaves Bearers 1940 – 1945 Contemporary History in Color I Abraham – Huppertz] (in German). Selent, Germany: Pour le Mérite. ISBN 978-3-932381-20-1.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Thomas, Franz (1997). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 1: A–K [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 1: A–K] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2299-6.
- Williamson, Gordon (2006). Knight's Cross with Diamonds Recipients 1941–45. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-644-7.
- "Lexikon der Wehrmacht". Herbert Otto Gille. Retrieved 28 May 2007.
SS-Obergruppenführer Felix Steiner
|Commander of 5. SS-Panzer-Division Wiking
1 May 1943 – 6 August 1944
SS-Oberführer Eduard Deisenhofer
SS-Brigadeführer Nikolaus Heilmann
|Commander of IV. SS-Panzerkorps
6 August 1944 – 8 May 1945
dissolved on May 8, 1945