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In theology or the history of religion (particularly of Christianity), heresiology is the study of heresy.

Heresiology, in the traditional sense, developed as a part of the development of orthodoxy in the Roman/Byzantine Church. Church scholars studied and documented the teachings of various Christian sects in order to clearly distinguish between those they accepted as orthodox and those they rejected as heretical.[1] Other Christian communions developed their own competing heresiological traditions as well.