Hermann of Reichenau
Blessed Hermann of Reichenau (July 18, 1013 – September 24, 1054), also known by other names, was an 11th-century Benedictine monk and scholar. He composed works on history, music theory, mathematics, and astronomy, as well as many hymns. He has traditionally been credited with the composition of "Salve Regina", "Veni Sancte Spiritus", and "Alma Redemptoris Mater", although these attributions are sometimes questioned. His cultus and beatification were confirmed by the Roman Catholic Church in 1863.
Hermann's name is sometimes anglicized as Herman or latinized as Hermannus; it sometimes also appears in the older form Heriman. He is sometimes distinguished as Hermann of Vöhringen (Latin: Hermannus de Voringen; German: Hermann von Vöhringen) from his birthplace. He is better known as Hermann of Reichenau (Latin: Hermannus Augiensis; German: Hermann von Reichenau) from the location of his monastery on Reichenau Island (Latin: Augia) in Lake Constance. He was traditionally distinguished in Latin as Hermannus Contractus (French: Hermann Contract), which appears in English as "Hermann the Lame" (German: Hermann der Lahme) or "Hermann the Cripple" (French: Hermann le Contrefait).
Hermann was a son of the Count of Altshausen. He was crippled by a paralytic disease from early childhood. He was born July 18, 1013, with a cleft palate and cerebral palsy and is said to have had spina bifida. Based on the evidence, however, more recent scholarship indicates Hermann possibly had either amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or spinal muscular atrophy. As a result, he had great difficulty moving and could hardly speak. At seven, he was placed in a Benedictine monastery by his parents who could no longer look after him.
He grew up in the Abbey of Reichenau, an island on Lake Constance in Germany. He learned from the monks and developing a keen interest in both theology and the world around him. At twenty, Hermann entered their order as a Benedictine monk,  becoming literate in several languages (including Arabic, Greek and Latin) and contributing to all four arts of the quadrivium.
He wrote about history, mathematics, astronomy, and Christianity. He wrote a treatise on the science of music, several works on geometry and arithmetics, and astronomical treatises including instructions for the construction of an astrolabe which caused him to sometimes be credited as its inventor. As a historian, he wrote a detailed chronicle from the birth of Christ to his own present day, ordering them after the reckoning of the Christian era. It was later extended by his pupil Berthold of Reichenau.
He was renowned as a religious poet and musical composer. Among his surviving works are officia for St. Afra and St. Wolfgang. When he went blind in later life, he began writing hymns. He was famous enough that he appears to have been credited with compositions by later writers; among the works traditionally attributed to him are the Salve Regina ("Hail Queen"), Veni Sancte Spiritus ("Come Holy Spirit"), and Alma Redemptoris Mater ("Nourishing Mother of the Redeemer").
Legacy and influence
- "Hermann", Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. XI (9th ed.), 1880.
- The Tradition of Catholic Prayer by Christian Raab, Harry Hagan 2007 ISBN 0-8146-3184-3 page 234
- Handbook of Prayers by James Socías 2006 ISBN 0-87973-579-1 page 472
- Catholic Fire: Saint of the Day: Blessed Herman the Cripple, Monk (1013–1054)
- O'Connor, J. J., Robertson, E. F., "Hermann of Reichenau", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St. Andrew's
- C Brunhölzl, "Thoughts on the illness of Hermann von Reichenau (1019–1054)", Sudhoffs Arch. 83 (2) (1999), 239-243.
- Bl. Herman the Cripple - Catholic Online
- Schlager, Patricius, "Hermann Contractus," The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: Robert Appleton, 1910), retrieved May 13, 2014, from New Advent.
- McCarthy, T. J. H. Music, scholasticism and reform: Salian Germany, 1024–1125 (Manchester, 2009), pp. 23–30, 62–71. ISBN 978-0719078897.
- The Musica of Hermannus Contractus. Edited and translated by Leonard Ellinwood. Revised with a new introduction by John L. Snyder (Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2015), xviii + 221 pp.
- O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Hermann of Reichenau", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
- Catholic Encyclopedia
- Hermannus Contractus German language site with a collection of original texts
- Catholic Forum
- musicologie.org Hermannus Contractus et la théorie de la musique. Sources, éditions, bibliographie, commentaires