In mathematics, the Hermite polynomials are a classical orthogonal polynomial sequence.
The polynomials arise in:
Hermite polynomials were defined by Pierre-Simon Laplace in 1810 though in scarcely recognizable form, and studied in detail by Pafnuty Chebyshev in 1859. Chebyshev's work was overlooked and they were named later after Charles Hermite who wrote on the polynomials in 1864 describing them as new. They were consequently not new although in later 1865 papers Hermite was the first to define the multidimensional polynomials.
There are two different ways of standardizing the Hermite polynomials:
- The "probabilists' Hermite polynomials" are given by
- while the "physicists' Hermite polynomials" are given by
These two definitions are not exactly identical; each is a rescaling of the other:
These are Hermite polynomial sequences of different variances; see the material on variances below.
The notation He and H is that used in the standard references.
The polynomials Hen are sometimes denoted by Hn, especially in probability theory, because
is the probability density function for the normal distribution with expected value 0 and standard deviation 1.
The first six probabilists' Hermite polynomials Hen(x)
- The first eleven probabilists' Hermite polynomials are:
The first six (physicists') Hermite polynomials Hn(x)
- The first eleven physicists' Hermite polynomials are:
The nth-order Hermite polynomial is a polynomial of degree n. The probabilists' version Hen has leading coefficient 1, while the physicists' version Hn has leading coefficient 2n.
Hn(x) and Hen(x) are nth-degree polynomials for n = 0, 1, 2, 3,.... These polynomials are orthogonal with respect to the weight function (measure)
i.e., we have
where is the Kronecker delta.
The probabilist polynomials are thus orthogonal with respect to the standard normal probability density function.
The Hermite polynomials (probabilists' or physicists') form an orthogonal basis of the Hilbert space of functions satisfying
in which the inner product is given by the integral including the Gaussian weight function w(x) defined in the preceding section,
An orthogonal basis for L2(ℝ, w(x) dx) is a complete orthogonal system. For an orthogonal system, completeness is equivalent to the fact that the 0 function is the only function f ∈ L2(ℝ, w(x) dx) orthogonal to all functions in the system.
Since the linear span of Hermite polynomials is the space of all polynomials, one has to show (in physicist case) that if f satisfies
for every n ≥ 0, then f = 0.
One possible way to do this is to appreciate that the entire function
vanishes identically. The fact then that F(it) = 0 for every real t means that the Fourier transform of f(x)e−x2 is 0, hence f is 0 almost everywhere. Variants of the above completeness proof apply to other weights with exponential decay.
In the Hermite case, it is also possible to prove an explicit identity that implies completeness (see section on the Completeness relation below).
An equivalent formulation of the fact that Hermite polynomials are an orthogonal basis for L2(ℝ, w(x) dx) consists in introducing Hermite functions (see below), and in saying that the Hermite functions are an orthonormal basis for L2(ℝ).
Hermite's differential equation
The probabilists' Hermite polynomials are solutions of the differential equation
where λ is a constant, with the boundary conditions that u should be polynomially bounded at infinity. With these boundary conditions, the equation has solutions only if λ is a non-negative integer, and up to an overall scaling, the solution is uniquely given by u(x) = Heλ(x).
Rewriting the differential equation as an eigenvalue problem
solutions are the eigenfunctions of the differential operator L. This eigenvalue problem is called the Hermite equation, although the term is also used for the closely related equation
whose solutions are the physicists' Hermite polynomials.
With more general boundary conditions, the Hermite polynomials can be generalized to obtain more general analytic functions Heλ(z) for λ a complex index. An explicit formula can be given in terms of a contour integral (Courant & Hilbert 1953).
The sequence of probabilists' Hermite polynomials also satisfies the recursion
Individual coefficients are related by the following recursion formula,
and a0,0 = 1, a1,0 = 0, a1,1 = 1.
For the physicists' polynomials, assuming
Individual coefficients are related by the following recursion formula,
and a0,0 = 1, a1,0 = 0, a1,1 = 2.
The Hermite polynomials constitute an Appell sequence, i.e., they are a polynomial sequence satisfying the identity
Equivalently, by Taylor expanding,
These umbral identities are self-evident and included in the differential operator representation detailed below,
In consequence, for the mth derivatives the following relations hold:
It follows that the Hermite polynomials also satisfy the recurrence relation
These last relations, together with the initial polynomials H0(x) and H1(x), can be used in practice to compute the polynomials quickly.
Turán's inequalities are
Moreover, the following multiplication theorem holds,
The physicists' Hermite polynomials can be written explicitly as
These two equations may be combined into one using the floor function,
The probabilists' Hermite polynomials He have similar formulas, which may be obtained from these by replacing the power of 2x with the corresponding power of (√2)x, and multiplying the entire sum by 2−n/2.
Inverse explicit expression
The inverse of the above explicit expressions, that is, those for monomials in terms of probabilists’ Hermite polynomials, He, are
The corresponding expressions for the physicists’ Hermite polynomials, H, follow directly by properly scaling this,
The Hermite polynomials are given by the exponential generating function
This equality is valid for all complex values of x and t, and can be obtained by writing the Taylor expansion at x of the entire function z → e−z2 (in the physicists' case). One can also derive the (physicists') generating function by using Cauchy's integral formula to write the Hermite polynomials as
Using this in the sum
one can evaluate the remaining integral using the calculus of residues and arrive at the desired generating function.
If X is a random variable with a normal distribution with standard deviation 1 and expected value μ, then
The moments of the standard normal (with expected value zero) may be read off directly from the relation for even indices
where (2n − 1)!! is the double factorial. Note that the above expression is a special case of the representation of the probabilists' Hermite polynomials as moments
Asymptotically, as n → ∞, the expansion
holds true. For certain cases concerning a wider range of evaluation, it is necessary to include a factor for changing amplitude
Which, using Stirling's approximation, can be further simplified, in the limit, to
This expansion is needed to resolve the wavefunction of a quantum harmonic oscillator such that it agrees with the classical approximation in the limit of the correspondence principle.
A better approximation, which accounts for the variation in frequency is given by
A finer approximation, which takes into account the uneven spacing of the zeros near the edges, makes use of the substitution
with which one has the uniform approximation
Similar approximations hold for the monotonic and transition regions. Specifically, if
with t complex and bounded, then
where Ai is the Airy function of the first kind.
The physicists' Hermite polynomials evaluated at zero argument Hn(0) are called Hermite numbers.
which satisfy the recursion relation Hn(0) = −2(n − 1)Hn − 2(0).
In terms of the probabilists' polynomials this translates to
Relations to other functions
The Hermite polynomials can be expressed as a special case of the Laguerre polynomials.
Relation to confluent hypergeometric functions
The physicists' Hermite polynomials can be expressed as a special case of the parabolic cylinder functions.
in the right half-plane, where U(a,b,z) is Tricomi's confluent hypergeometric function. Similarly,
where 1F1(a,b;z) = M(a,b;z) is Kummer's confluent hypergeometric function.
Differential operator representation
The probabilists' Hermite polynomials satisfy the identity
where D represents differentiation with respect to x, and the exponential is interpreted by expanding it as a power series. There are no delicate questions of convergence of this series when it operates on polynomials, since all but finitely many terms vanish.
Since the power series coefficients of the exponential are well known, and higher order derivatives of the monomial xn can be written down explicitly, this differential operator representation gives rise to a concrete formula for the coefficients of Hn that can be used to quickly compute these polynomials.
Since the formal expression for the Weierstrass transform W is eD2, we see that the Weierstrass transform of (√2)nHen(x/√2) is xn. Essentially the Weierstrass transform thus turns a series of Hermite polynomials into a corresponding Maclaurin series.
The existence of some formal power series g(D) with nonzero constant coefficient, such that Hen(x) = g(D)xn, is another equivalent to the statement that these polynomials form an Appell sequence. Since they are an Appell sequence, they are a fortiori a Sheffer sequence.
Contour integral representation
From the generating function representation above, we see that the Hermite polynomials have a representation in terms of a contour integral, as
with the contour encircling the origin.
The probabilists' Hermite polynomials defined above are orthogonal with respect to the standard normal probability distribution, whose density function is
which has expected value 0 and variance 1.
Scaling, one may analogously speak of generalized Hermite polynomials
of variance α, where α is any positive number. These are then orthogonal with respect to the normal probability distribution whose density function is
They are given by
then the polynomial sequence whose nth term is
is called the umbral composition of the two polynomial sequences. It can be shown to satisfy the identities
The last identity is expressed by saying that this parameterized family of polynomial sequences is known as a cross-sequence. (See the above section on Appell sequences and on the differential operator representation, which leads to a ready derivation of it. This binomial type identity, for α = β = 1/2, has already been encountered in the above section on #Recursion relations.)
Since polynomial sequences form a group under the operation of umbral composition, one may denote by
the sequence that is inverse to the one similarly denoted but without the minus sign, and thus speak of Hermite polynomials of negative variance. For α > 0, the coefficients of He[−α]
n(x) are just the absolute values of the corresponding coefficients of He[α]
These arise as moments of normal probability distributions: The nth moment of the normal distribution with expected value μ and variance σ2 is
where X is a random variable with the specified normal distribution. A special case of the cross-sequence identity then says that
One can define the Hermite functions from the physicists' polynomials:
Since these functions contain the square root of the weight function, and have been scaled appropriately, they are orthonormal:
and form an orthonormal basis of L2(ℝ). This fact is equivalent to the corresponding statement for Hermite polynomials (see above).
The Hermite functions are closely related to the Whittaker function (Whittaker and Watson, 1962) Dn(z),
and thereby to other parabolic cylinder functions.
The Hermite functions satisfy the differential equation,
This equation is equivalent to the Schrödinger equation for a harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics, so these functions are the eigenfunctions.
Hermite functions 0 (black), 1 (red), 2 (blue), 3 (yellow), 4 (green), and 5 (magenta).
Hermite functions 0 (black), 2 (blue), 4 (green), and 50 (magenta).
Following recursion relations of Hermite polynomials, the Hermite functions obey
as well as
Extending the first relation to the arbitrary mth derivatives for any positive integer m leads to
This formula can be used in connection with the recurrence relations for Hen and ψn to calculate any derivative of the Hermite functions efficiently.
The Hermite functions satisfy the following bound due to Harald Cramér
for x real, where the constant K is less than 435.
Hermite functions as eigenfunctions of the Fourier transform
The Hermite functions ψn(x) are a set of eigenfunctions of the continuous Fourier transform F. To see this, take the physicists' version of the generating function and multiply by e−1/2x2. This gives
The Fourier transform of the left hand side is given by
The Fourier transform of the right hand side is given by
Equating like powers of t in the transformed versions of the left- and right-hand sides finally yields
The Hermite functions ψn(x) are thus an orthonormal basis of L2(ℝ) which diagonalizes the Fourier transform operator.
Wigner distributions of Hermite functions
The Wigner distribution function of the nth order Hermite function is related to the nth order Laguerre polynomial. The Laguerre polynomials are
leading to the oscillator Laguerre functions,
For all natural integers n, it is straightforward to see that
where the Wigner distribution of a function x ∈ L2(ℝ,ℂ) is defined as
This is a fundamental result for the quantum harmonic oscillator discovered by Hip Groenewold in 1946 in his PhD thesis. It is the standard paradigm of quantum mechanics in phase space.
There are further relations between the two families of polynomials.
Combinatorial interpretation of coefficients
In the Hermite polynomial Hen(x) of variance 1, the absolute value of the coefficient of xk is the number of (unordered) partitions of an n-member set into k singletons and n − k/2 (unordered) pairs. The sum of the absolute values of the coefficients gives the total number of partitions into singletons and pairs, the so-called telephone numbers
- 1, 1, 2, 4, 10, 26, 76, 232, 764, 2620, 9496,... (sequence A000085 in the OEIS).
This combinatorial interpretation can be related to complete exponential Bell polynomials as
where xi = 0 for all i > 2.
These numbers may also be expressed as a special value of the Hermite polynomials
The Christoffel–Darboux formula for Hermite polynomials reads
Moreover, the following completeness identity for the above Hermite functions holds in the sense of distributions
where δ is the Dirac delta function, ψn the Hermite functions, and δ(x − y) represents the Lebesgue measure on the line y = x in ℝ2, normalized so that its projection on the horizontal axis is the usual Lebesgue measure.
This distributional identity follows Wiener (1958) by taking u → 1 in Mehler's formula, valid when −1 < u < 1,
which is often stated equivalently as a separable kernel,
The function (x,y) → E(x,y;u) is the bivariate Gaussian probability density on ℝ2 which is, when u is close to 1, very concentrated around the line y = x, and very spread out on that line. It follows that
when f and g are continuous and compactly supported.
This yields that f can be expressed in Hermite functions, as the sum of a series of vectors in L2(ℝ), namely
In order to prove the above equality for E(x,y;u), the Fourier transform of Gaussian functions is used repeatedly,
The Hermite polynomial is then represented as
With this representation for Hn(x) and Hn(y), it is evident that
and this yields the desired resolution of the identity result, using again the Fourier transform of Gaussian kernels under the substitution
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