Heterocapsa circularisquama

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Heterocapsa circularisquama
Scientific classification
H. circularisquama
Binomial name
Heterocapsa circularisquama
Horiguchi 1995

Heterocapsa circularisquama is a species of dinoflagellates notable for the production of a biotoxin affecting marine fauna.[1][2] It is known to produce large red tides off western Japan, causing high bivalve mortality, particularly pearl oysters. It is very similar to Heterocapsa illdefina, however H. circularisquama carries six radiating ridges on its circular basal plate, and its scales have longer spines, among other subtle differences in morphology.


Its cell is small and consists of a conical epitheca. The chloroplast is single and is connected to the unique pyrenoid. Its nucleus is elongated, located in the left side of the cell.[1]


  1. ^ a b Horiguchi, Takeo (1995). "Heterocapsa circularisquama sp. nov. (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae): A new marine dinoflagellate causing mass mortality of bivalves in Japan". Phycological Research. 43 (3): 129–136. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1835.1995.tb00016.x. ISSN 1322-0829.
  2. ^ Sato, Y (2002). "Photosensitizing hemolytic toxin in Heterocapsa circularisquama, a newly identified harmful red tide dinoflagellate". Aquatic Toxicology. 56 (3): 191–196. doi:10.1016/S0166-445X(01)00191-6. ISSN 0166-445X.

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