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Superfecundation is the fertilization of two or more ova from the same cycle by sperm from separate acts of sexual intercourse.[1][2] The term superfecundation is derived from fecund, meaning the ability to produce offspring. Heteropaternal superfecundation refers to the fertilization of two separate ova by two different fathers. Homopaternal superfecundation refers to the fertilization of two separate ova from the same father, leading to fraternal twins.[3] While heteropaternal superfecundation is referred to as a form of atypical twinning, genetically, the twins are half siblings. Superfecundation, while rare, can occur through either separate occurrences of sexual intercourse or through artificial insemination.[4]


Superfecundation most commonly happens within hours or days of the first instance of fertilization with ova released during the same cycle. The time window when eggs are able to be fertilized is small. Sperm cells can live inside a female's body for four to five days. Once ovulation occurs, the egg remains viable for 12–48 hours before it begins to disintegrate. Thus, the fertile period can span five to seven days.

Ovulation is usually suspended during pregnancy to prevent further ova becoming fertilized and to help increase the chances of a full-term pregnancy. However, if an ovum is released after the female was already impregnated when previously ovulating, a chance of a second pregnancy occurs, albeit at a different stage of development. This is known as superfetation.

Heteropaternal Superfecundation in Mammals[edit]

Heteropaternal superfecundation is common in animals such as cats and dogs. Stray dogs can produce litters in which every puppy has a different sire. Though rare in humans, cases have been documented. In one study on humans, the frequency was 2.4% among dizygotic twins whose parents had been involved in paternity suits.[5]

Cases Involving Superfecundation[edit]

Koen and Teun Stuart, Dutch boys who were the result of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In a mixup at the laboratory, equipment had been used twice, causing another man’s sperm to be mixed with the intended father's.[6]

In 1995, a young woman gave birth to diamniotic monochorionic twins, who were originally assumed to be monozygotic twins until a paternity suit led to a DNA test. This led to the discovery that the twins had different fathers.[3]

In 1982, twins who were born with two different skin colors were discovered to be conceived as a result of heteropaternal superfecundation[7][4]

In 2001, a case of spontaneous monopaternal superfecundation was reported after a woman undergoing IVF treatments gave birth to quintuplets after only two embryos were implanted. Genetic testing supported that the twinning was not a result of the embryos splitting, and that all five boys shared the same father.[4][8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Worland, Justin (May 8, 2015). "The Science of How Women Can Have Twins With 2 Different Fathers". Time. Retrieved March 23, 2017. 
  2. ^[full citation needed]
  3. ^ a b Ambach, E; Parson, W; Brezinka, C (2000). "Superfecundation and dual paternity in a twin pregnancy ending with placental abruption". Journal of forensic sciences. 45 (1): 181–3. PMID 10641935. 
  4. ^ a b c McNamara, Helen C.; Kane, Stefan C.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Short, Roger V.; Umstad, Mark P. (2016). "A review of the mechanisms and evidence for typical and atypical twinning". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 214 (2): 172–91. PMID 26548710. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2015.10.930. 
  5. ^ Wenk, R. E.; Houtz, T; Brooks, M; Chiafari, F. A. (1992). "How frequent is heteropaternal superfecundation?". Acta geneticae medicae et gemellologiae. 41 (1): 43–7. PMID 1488855. 
  6. ^ Fierro, Pamela Prindle (January 5, 2016), "Heteropaternal Superfecundation - Twins with Different Fathers",, archived from the original on October 7, 2015 
  7. ^[full citation needed][dead link]
  8. ^ Amsalem, Hagai; Tsvieli, Rimona; Zentner, Bat Sheva; Yagel, Simcha; Mitrani-Rosenbaum, Stella; Hurwitz, Arye (2001). "Monopaternal superfecundation of quintuplets after transfer of two embryos in an in vitro fertilization cycle". Fertility and Sterility. 76 (3): 621–3. PMID 11532493. doi:10.1016/S0015-0282(01)01976-8. 

Further reading[edit]