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A heteroreceptor is a receptor regulating the synthesis and/or the release of mediators other than its own ligand.[1]

Heteroreceptors are receptors that respond to neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones released from adjacent neurons or cells; they are opposite to autoreceptors, which are sensitive only to neurotransmitters or hormones released by the cell in whose wall they are embedded.[2]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Millan, M. J.; Lejeune, F.; Gobert, A. (2000). "Reciprocal autoreceptor and heteroreceptor control of serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission in the frontal cortex: Relevance to the actions of antidepressant agents". Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 14 (2): 114–138. doi:10.1177/026988110001400202. PMID 10890307. 
  2. ^ Schlicker, E.; Malinowska, B.; Kathmann, M.; Göthert, M. (1994). "Modulation of neurotransmitter release via histamine H3 heteroreceptors". Fundamental & clinical pharmacology. 8 (2): 128–137. doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.1994.tb00789.x. PMID 8020871. 
  3. ^ Ma, D.; Rajakumaraswamy, N.; Maze, M. (2004). "2-Adrenoceptor agonists: Shedding light on neuroprotection?". British Medical Bulletin. 71: 77–92. doi:10.1093/bmb/ldh036. PMID 15684247. 
  4. ^ Katona, I.; Sperlágh, B.; Sík, A.; Käfalvi, A.; Vizi, E. S.; MacKie, K.; Freund, T. F. (1999). "Presynaptically located CB1 cannabinoid receptors regulate GABA release from axon terminals of specific hippocampal interneurons". The Journal of Neuroscience. 19 (11): 4544–4558. PMID 10341254. 
  5. ^ Sousa, V. C.; Assaife-Lopes, N. L.; Ribeiro, J. A.; Pratt, J. A.; Brett, R. R.; Sebastião, A. M. (2010). "Regulation of Hippocampal Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Actions by Adenosine A1 Receptors and Chronic Caffeine Administration: Implications for the Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Spatial Memory". Neuropsychopharmacology. 36 (2): 472–487. doi:10.1038/npp.2010.179. PMC 3055664Freely accessible. PMID 20927050. 
  6. ^ Hoffman, A. F.; Laaris, N.; Kawamura, M.; Masino, S. A.; Lupica, C. R. (2010). "Control of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Function on Glutamate Axon Terminals by Endogenous Adenosine Acting at A1 Receptors". Journal of Neuroscience. 30 (2): 545–555. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4920-09.2010. PMC 2855550Freely accessible. PMID 20071517. 
  7. ^ Semyanov, A; Kullmann, D. M. (2000). "Modulation of GABAergic signaling among interneurons by metabotropic glutamate receptors". Neuron. 25 (3): 663–72. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(00)81068-5. PMID 10774733. 
  8. ^ Kullmann, D. M.; Semyanov, A (2002). "Glutamatergic modulation of GABAergic signaling among hippocampal interneurons: Novel mechanisms regulating hippocampal excitability". Epilepsia. 43 Suppl 5: 174–8. doi:10.1046/j.1528-1157.43.s.5.12.x. PMID 12121316.