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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Nematoda
Class: Secernentea
Order: Rhabditida
Family: Heterorhabditidae
Genus: Heterorhabditis
Poinar, 1976

See text.

Heterorhabditis is a genus of nematodes belonging to the order Rhabditida. All species of this genus are obligate parasites of insects, and some are used as biological control agents for the control of pest insects.

Heterorhabditis nematodes are hosts for the Photorhabdus bacterial symbiont.


The nematode species Heterorhabditis indica has been used effectively against the red weevil, Rhinotia haemoptera,[1] an insect pest that can destroy groves and plantations of coconut and migrate to date palms and other palms, causing economic damage to farmers and landscapers.


The recognized species in this genus are:


  1. ^
  2. ^ Andaló, V., K.B. Nguyen and A. Moino (2007) "Heterorhabditis amazonensis n. sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) from Amazonas, Brazil." Nematology 8(6):853-867.
  3. ^ Poinar, G.O. Jr. (1976) "Description and biology of a new insect parasitic rhabditoid, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora n. gen., n. sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae n. fam.)." Nematologica 21(4):463-470.
  4. ^ Phan, K.L., S.A. Subbotin, N.C. Nguyen and M. Moens (2003) "Heterorhabditis baujardi sp.n. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) from Vietnam and morphometric data for H. indica populations." Nematology 5(3):367-382.
  5. ^ Stock, S.P., C.T. Griffin and A.M. Burnell (2002) "Morphological characterisation of three isolates of Heterorhabditis Poinar, 1976 from the 'Irish group' (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and additional evidence supporting their recognition as a distinct species, H. downesi n. sp." Systematic Parasitology 51(2):95-106.
  6. ^ Nguyen, K.B., U. Gozel, H.S. Koppenhöfer and B.J. Adams (2006) "Heterorhabditis floridensis n. sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) from Florida." Zootaxa 1177:1-19.
  7. ^ Nguyen, K.B., D.I. Shapiro-Ilan and G.N.M. Mbata (2008) "Heterorhabditis georgiana n.sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) from Georgia, USA." Nematology 10(3):433-448.
  8. ^ Poinar, G.O., Jr., G.K. Karunakar and H. David (1992) "Heterorhabditis indicus n. sp. (Rhabditida: Nematoda) from India: Separation of Heterorhabditis spp. by infective juveniles." Fundamental and Applied Nematology 15(5):467-472.
  9. ^ Liu, J. and R.E. Berry (1996) "Heterorhabditidis marelatus n. sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) from Oregon." Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 67(1):48-54.
  10. ^ Poinar, G.O., Jr., T. Jackson and M. Klein (1987) "Heterorhabditis megidis sp. n. (Heterorhabditidae: Rhabditida) parasitic in the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica (Scarabaeidae: Coleoptera), in Ohio." Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 54(1):53-59.
  11. ^ Nguyen, K.B., D.I. Shapiro-Ilan, R.J. Stuart, C.W. McCoy, R.J. James and B.J. Adams (2004) "Heterorhabditis mexicana n. sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) from Tamaulipas, Mexico, and morphological studies of the bursa of Heterorhabditis spp." Nematology 6(2):231-244.
  12. ^ Malan A.P., K.B. Nguyen, J.Y. de Waal and L. Tiedt (2008) "Heterorhabditis safricana n.sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from South Africa." Nematology 10(3):381-396.
  13. ^ Shamseldean, M.M., A.B. Abou El-Sooud, M.M. Abd-Elgawad, and M.M. Saleh (1996) Identification of a new heterorhabditid species from Egypt, Heterorhabditis taysearae n. sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae)." Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 6(2):129-138.
  14. ^ Poinar, G.O., Jr. (1990) "Taxonomy and biology of Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae." In: R. Gaugler and H.K. Kaya (eds) "Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Biological Control." CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, pp. 23-60.

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