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Hexagonal lattice

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hexagonal lattice Wallpaper group p6m Unit cell

The hexagonal lattice (sometimes called triangular lattice) is one of the five two-dimensional Bravais lattice types.[1] The symmetry category of the lattice is wallpaper group p6m. The primitive translation vectors of the hexagonal lattice form an angle of 120° and are of equal lengths,

The reciprocal lattice of the hexagonal lattice is a hexagonal lattice in reciprocal space with orientation changed by 90° and primitive lattice vectors of length

Honeycomb point set[edit]

Honeycomb point set as a hexagonal lattice with a two-atom basis. The gray rhombus is a primitive cell. Vectors and are primitive translation vectors.

The honeycomb point set is a special case of the hexagonal lattice with a two-atom basis.[1] The centers of the hexagons of a honeycomb form a hexagonal lattice, and the honeycomb point set can be seen as the union of two offset hexagonal lattices.

In nature, carbon atoms of the two-dimensional material graphene are arranged in a honeycomb point set.

Crystal classes[edit]

The hexagonal lattice class names, Schönflies notation, Hermann-Mauguin notation, orbifold notation, Coxeter notation, and wallpaper groups are listed in the table below.

Geometric class, point group Wallpaper groups
Schön. Intl Orb. Cox.
C3 3 (33) [3]+ p3
D3 3m (*33) [3] p3m1
C6 6 (66) [6]+ p6
D6 6mm (*66) [6] p6m

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Rana, Farhan. "Lattices in 1D, 2D, and 3D" (PDF). Cornell University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2020-12-18.