Hexagram (I Ching)

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The hexagrams of the I Ching in a diagram belonging to the German mathematician philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz[1]

The I Ching book consists of 64 hexagrams.[2] [3] A hexagram is a figure composed of six stacked horizontal lines (爻 yáo), where each line is either Yang (an unbroken, or solid line), or Yin (broken, an open line with a gap in the center). The hexagram lines are traditionally counted from the bottom up, so the lowest line is considered line one while the top line is line six. Hexagrams are formed by combining the original eight trigrams in different combinations. Each hexagram is accompanied with a description, often cryptic, akin to parables. Each line in every hexagram is also given a similar description.

The Chinese word for a hexagram is 卦 "gua", although that also means trigram.

Types[edit]

Hexagram numbers, in King Wen sequence

Classic and modern I Ching commentaries mention a number of different hexagram types[citation needed]:

  • Eight trigrams
  • Original hexagram
  • Future hexagram
  • Nuclear hexagram
  • Reverse hexagram (is found by turning a hexagram upside down)
  • Complementary hexagram (is found by changing all the lines into their opposite)
  • Hexagram of Change (bian gua)
  • Internal Hexagram (nei gua)
  • External Hexagram (wai gua)
  • Mutual Hexagram (hu gua)

Sequences[edit]

The most commonly known sequence is the King Wen sequence. A totally different sequence was found in the Mawangdui Silk Texts. The hexagrams are also found in the Binary sequence, also known as Fu Xi sequence or Shao Yong sequence.

Lookup table[edit]

Upper →
Lower ↓
乾 Qián
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Heaven
坤 Kūn
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Earth
震 Zhèn
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Thunder
坎 Kǎn
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Water
艮 Gèn
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Mountain
巽 Xùn
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Wind
離 Lí
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Flame
兌 Duì
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Lake
乾 Qián
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Heaven
01
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Force
11
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Pervading

34
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Great Invigorating
05
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Attending

26
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Great
Accumulating

09
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Small
Harvest

14
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Great
Possessing
43
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Displacement
坤 Kūn
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Earth
12
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Obstruction
02
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Field
16
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Providing-For
08
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Grouping
23
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Stripping
20
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Viewing
35
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Prospering
45
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Clustering
震 Zhèn
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Thunder
25
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Innocence
24
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Returning
51
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Shake
03
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Sprouting
27
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Swallowing
42
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Augmenting
21
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Gnawing Bite
17
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Following
坎 Kǎn
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Water
06
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Arguing
07
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Leading
40
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Deliverance
29
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Gorge
04
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Enveloping
59
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Dispersing
64
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Before Completion
47
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Confining
艮 Gèn
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Mountain
33
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Retiring
15
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Humbling
62
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Small Exceeding
39
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Limping
52
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Bound
53
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Infiltrating
56
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Sojourning
31
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Conjoining
巽 Xùn
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Wind
44
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Coupling
46
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Ascending
32
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Persevering
48
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Welling
18
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Correcting
57
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Ground
50
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Holding
28
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Great Exceeding
離 Lí
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Flame
13
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Concording
People
36
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Intelligence
Hidden
55
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Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Abounding
63
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Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Already
Fording
22
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Adorning
37
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Dwelling
People
30
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Radiance
49
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Skinning
兌 Duì
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Lake
10
Trigramme2630 ☰.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Treading
19
Trigramme2637 ☷.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Nearing
54
Trigramme2633 ☳.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Converting the Maiden
60
Trigramme2635 ☵.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Articulating
41
Trigramme2636 ☶.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Diminishing
61
Trigramme2634 ☴.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Inner Truth
38
Trigramme2632 ☲.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Polarising
58
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Trigramme2631 ☱.svg
Open

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Perkins, Franklin. Leibniz and China: A Commerce of Light. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. p 117. Print.
  2. ^ Wilhelm, Richard (1950). The I Ching or Book of Changes. 
  3. ^ Legge, James (1964). I Ching: Book of Changes.