Hibiscus syriacus is a species of flowering plant in the family Malvaceae, native to much of Asia (though not, as Linnaeus thought, Syria, in spite of the name he gave it). Common names include rose of Sharon (especially in North America), Syrian ketmia or rose mallow (United Kingdom) and St Joseph's rod (Italy).
Hibiscus syriacus is a hardy deciduous shrub. It is upright and vase-shaped, reaching 2–4 m (7–13 ft) in height, bearing large trumpet-shaped flowers with prominent yellow-tipped white stamens. The flowers are often pink in color, but can also be dark pink (almost purple), light pink or white. Individual flowers are short-lived, lasting only a day. However, numerous buds are produced on the shrub's new growth, and this provides prolific flowering over a long summer blooming period. Shoots make interesting indoor vase cuttings, as they stay green for a long time, and some new flowers may open from the more mature buds. The species has naturalized very well in many suburban areas, and might even be termed slightly invasive, so frequently does it seed around.
Hibiscus syriacus has been a garden shrub in Korea since time immemorial; its leaves were brewed into an herbal tea and its flowers are eaten. It was grown in Europe from the 16th century, though as late as 1629 John Parkinson thought it was tender and took great precautions with it, thinking it "would not suffer to be uncovered in the Winter time, or yet abroad in the Garden, but kept in a large pot or tubbe in the house or in a warme cellar, if you would have them to thrive." (sic) By the end of the 17th century, some knew it to be hardy: Gibson, describing Lord Arlington's London house noted six large earthen pots coddling the "tree hollyhock", as he called it, "that grows well enough in the ground". By the 18th century the shrub was common in English gardens and in the American colonies, known as Althea frutex and "Syrian ketmia".
Though it has no fall color and can be stiff and ungainly if badly pruned, H. syriacus remains a popular ornamental shrub today, with many cultivars. William Robinson mentioned several varieties in The English Flower Garden that are still available today. Triploid varieties were first produced at the National Arboretum, Washington DC, by Dr. D. Egolf, resulting in plants that bloom lavishly, as they are sterile and set no seed; Egolf varieties named for goddesses include the outstanding white 'Diana'. Also in the market are 'Lady Stanley', 'Ardens', 'Lucy', and 'Blushing Bride'.
Cultivars of H. syriacus are widely planted in areas with hot summers for their very attractive white, pink, red, lavender, or purple large and edible flowers. The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-
Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea. The flower appears in national emblems, and Korea is compared poetically to the flower in the South Korean national anthem. The flower's name in Korean is mugunghwa (Hangul: 무궁화; Hanja: 無窮花). The flower's symbolic significance stems from the Korean word mugung, which means "eternity" or "inexhaustible abundance".
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved April 8, 2014.
- Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Hibiscus".
- "Hibiscus syriacus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
- RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
- Parkinson, Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris, 1629.
- Quoted in Coats 1992.
- Ann Leighton, American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: 'For Use or Delight' (1976:429).
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Diana'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Hamabo'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus Lavender Chiffon 'Notwoodone'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Meehanii'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Oiseau Bleu'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Red Heart'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'William R. Smith'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Hibiscus syriacus 'Woodbridge'". Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- Bailey, L. H. (2005). Manual of Gardening (Second Edition). Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.
- Curtis, William (2006). The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 3. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.
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