Hibiscus trionum

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Hibiscus trionum
Flower-of-an-hour
Hibiscus trionum (Flower-of-an-hour, or Bladder Hibiscus).jpg
Hibiscus trionum flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Hibiscus
Species: H. trionum
Binomial name
Hibiscus trionum
L.
Synonyms[1]
  • Hibiscus dissectus Wall.
  • Hibiscus vesicarius Cav.
  • Ketmia trionum (L.) Scop.
  • Trionum annuum Medik.
  • Trionum trionum (L.) Wooton & Standl.
Hibiscus trionumMHNT

Hibiscus trionum, commonly called flower-of-an-hour,[2] bladder hibiscus, bladder ketmia,[2] bladder weed, flower-of-the-hour, modesty, puarangi, shoofly, and venice mallow,[2] is an annual plant native to the Levant. It has spread throughout southern Europe both as a weed and cultivated as a garden plant. It has been introduced to the United States as an ornamental where it has become naturalized as a weed of cropland and vacant land, particularly on disturbed ground.

The plant grows to a height of 20–50 centimetres (7.9–19.7 in), sometimes exceeding 80 centimetres (31 in), and has white or yellow flowers with a purple centre. In the deeply pigmented centre of the flower, the surface features striations, which were previously considered to act as a diffraction grating, creating iridescence. Because of the irregularities of the plant cells and surface, the periodicity of the striations is however too irregular to create clear iridescence[3][4] and thus the iridescence is not visible to man and flower visiting insects.[5][6] The visual signal of the flower's of H. trionum to flower visiting insects is thus determined by the white and red pigmentary coloration. The pollinated but unripe seedpods look like oriental paper lanterns, less than an inch across, pale green with purple highlights.

The flowers of the Hibiscus trionum can set seed via both outcrossing and self-pollination. During the first few hours after anthesis, the style and stigma are erect and receptive to receive pollen from other plants. In the absence of pollen donation, the style bends and makes contact with the anthers of the same flower, inducing self-pollination.[7] Although outcrossing plants seem to perform better than self-pollinating plants,[8] this form of reproductive assurance might have contributed to the success of H. trionum plants in several environments.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant list: A Working List of All plant Species". 
  2. ^ a b c "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". 
  3. ^ Lee, David W. (2007). Nature's Palette: The Science of Plant Color. University of Chicago Press. pp. 255–6. ISBN 978-0-226-47105-1. 
  4. ^ Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Wilts, B. D.; Leertouwer, H. L.; Staal, M.; Elzenga, J. T. M.; Stavenga, D. G. (2014). "Iridescent flowers? Contribution of surface structures to optical signaling" (PDF). New Phytologist 203 (2): 667. doi:10.1111/nph.12808. PMID 24713039. 
  5. ^ Morehouse, N.I.; Rutowski, R.L. (2009). "Comment on “Floral Iridescence, Produced by Diffractive Optics, Acts As a Cue for Animal Pollinators”" (PDF). Science 325: 1072. doi:10.1126/science.1173324. 
  6. ^ Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Dyer, A. G.; Stavenga, D. G. (2015). "Is floral iridescence a biologically relevant cue in plant-pollinator signaling?" (PDF). New Phytologist 205 (1): 18–20. doi:10.1111/nph.13066. PMID 25243861. 
  7. ^ Buttrose, M. S.; Grant, W. J. R.; Lott, J. N. A. (1977). "Reversible curvature of style branches of Hibiscus trionum L., a pollination mechanism". Australian Journal of Botany 25 (5): 567. doi:10.1071/BT9770567. 
  8. ^ Seed, L.; Vaughton, G.; Ramsey, M. (2006). "Delayed autonomous selfing and inbreeding depression in the Australian annual Hibiscus trionum var. Vesicarius (Malvaceae)". Australian Journal of Botany 54: 27. doi:10.1071/BT05017. 
  9. ^ Ramsey, M.; Seed, L.; Vaughton, G. (2003). "Delayed selfing and low levels of inbreeding depression in Hibiscus trionum (Malvaceae)". Australian Journal of Botany 51 (3): 275. doi:10.1071/BT02128. 

External links[edit]