Hieracium lachenalii

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Hieracium lachenalii
Hawkweed 2007-5.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Hieracium
Species: H. lachenalii
Binomial name
Hieracium lachenalii
Suter 1802 not C.C.Gmel. 1808[1]
Range of Hieracium lachenalii-World.svg
Hieracium lachenalii distribution
Synonyms[2]

Hieracium lachenalii also known as common hawkweed or yellow hawkweed is a species of plants in the dandelion tribe within the sunflower family. It is native to Europe but has become established as a weed in Australia and parts of North America. The species was widely known for many years as H. vulgatum[3] but more recent studies indicated that the two names represented the same species. The name H. lachenalii was coined in 1802,[4] H. vulgatum in 1819,[5] so the older name is to be used.[6]

Description[edit]

This common weed can grow and produce flowers on plants that range from 4 inches (10 centimeters) to 36 inches (90 cm) tall. The rhizome is short and stout. The broadly elliptic leaves can be up to 5 inches (12 centimeters) long and taper with teeth towards the base.[7] Each flower head has 40-80 ray florets but no disc florets[8][9] Bracts surround the flower head; the receptacle (basal part of the flower on which the florets are attached) is flat and naked; heads tend to start together then become somewhat solitary on long leafless stems.[8] The stalks below the heads are covered with scattered, simple and gland-tipped black hairs and contain a milky substance.[9]

The pale yellow flowers are produced during all of the summer months. The fruit are dark brown achenes.[7]

Common names[edit]

  • Croatian: Obična runjika
  • German: Gewöhnliches Habichtskraut, Lachenals Habichtskraut
  • English: Common Hawkweed, Yellow Hawkweed
  • French: Epervière de Lachenal
  • Italian: Sparviere comune
  • Latvian: Jakarda mauraga
  • Serbian: Maslačak
  • Slovene: Lachenalova škržolica, Navadna škržolica
  • Russian: Ястребинка Жаккара[10]
  • Dutch: Gewoon havikskruid
  • Welsh: Heboglys

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Native to most of Europe,[10] Hieracium lachenalii was introduced to cooler parts of North America,[11] and to Australia.[8] It can sometimes be found in soils that have been disturbed.[12]

Europe[edit]

Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Channel Islands, Republic of Croatia, Corsica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Finland, Germany, Republic of Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Principality of Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, Norway, Republic of Poland, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovenia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Vatican City, and various oblasts of Russia:

and its autonomous republics:

[10] and Portugal.[13]

North America[edit]

Subarctic America: Greenland.[14]

Canada: British Columbia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec.[14]

United States: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin.[14]

Range of Hieracium lachenalii-Europe.svgRange of Hieracium lachenalii-Russia.svgRange of Hieracium lachenalii-North America.svgRange of Hieracium lachenalii-Coral Sea.svg
Distribution maps of Hieracium lachenalii.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tropicos, search for Hieracium lachenalii
  2. ^ The Plant List, Hieracium lachenalii Suter
  3. ^ Flora of North America, Hieracium vulgatum Fries, 1819.
  4. ^ The International Plant Names Index, Hieracium lachenalii
  5. ^ The International Plant Names Index, Hieracium vulgatum
  6. ^ International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), article 11
  7. ^ a b MSU Board of Trustees, Jesse L. Saylor & Network Vista, Inc. "MSUplants.com Hieracium lachenalii". http://msuplants.com/index.html. Michigan State University Department of Horticulture. Retrieved 2007-12-14.  External link in |work= (help)[dead link]
  8. ^ a b c Ian Faithfull (2007-09-19). "Hawkweeds: State Prohibited Weed". Information Notes Series. Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  9. ^ a b Mrs. M. Grieve (1933). "Hawkweed, Wood". A Modern Herbal. Botanical.com. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  10. ^ a b c Botanic Garden; Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem (June 5, 2007). "Details for: Hieracium lachenalii". The Euro+Med Plantbase. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  11. ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 state-level distribution map
  12. ^ Paul Slichter. "Common Hawkweed". Wildflowers of the Genus Hieracium:Hawkweeds of the Columbia River Gorge. Archived from the original on 2004-01-22. Retrieved 2007-12-21. Common hawkweed may be found in disturbed soils. 
  13. ^ Joaquim Alves Gaspar. "Joaquim Alves Gaspar/Flowers". Gallery of Flowers. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  14. ^ a b c Germplasm Resources Information Network. "Taxon: Hieracium lachenalii C. C. Gmel.". (GRIN) Online Database. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 

External links[edit]