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High-protein diet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
High-protein diets are usually rich in meat, dairy products and eggs

A high-protein diet is a diet in which 20% or more of the total daily calories come from protein.[1] Many high protein diets are high in saturated fat and restrict intake of carbohydrates.[1]

Example foods in a high-protein diet include lean beef, chicken or poultry, pork, salmon and tuna, eggs, and soy.[2] High-protein diets are often utilized in the context of fat loss and muscle building.[3][4] High-protein fad diets, such as the Atkins diet and Protein Power, have been criticized for promoting misconceptions about carbohydrates, insulin resistance and ketosis.[1][5]

Health effects[edit]

There is dispute among researchers about the efficacy and safety of various high-protein diets.


Increased protein consumption is shown to increase muscle mass, improve muscle adaptations to resistance training, and reduce muscle loss in periods of energy and nutrient deficit.[3][6] High-protein low-calorie diets are often used in the setting of treating obesity.[7] A 2020 review found that a high-protein diet does not significantly improve blood pressure and glycemic control in people with diabetes.[8]


In 2001, the American Heart Association’s Nutrition Committee issued a recommendation against some high-protein diets such as the Atkins diet and Protein Power.[5] The committee noted potential health risks of these diets and how there are no long-term scientific studies to support their efficacy and safety.[5]

A 2017 review indicated that a high-protein diet (superior to 1.5 g per kilogram of ideal body weight per day) may contribute to life-long risk of kidney damage, including progression of or potentially new onset chronic kidney disease.[9][10] Though, a 2023 umbrella review found no evidence that higher protein intake (> 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) does specifically trigger CKD.[11] According to the American Heart Association, high-protein diets that contain high amounts of saturated fat increase risk of coronary artery disease and cancer.[5]

The following are examples of high-protein fad diets:[1][5][12][13]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d Longe JL (2008). "High-protein diet". The Gale Encyclopedia of Diets: A Guide to Health and Nutrition. Gale. pp. 524–526. ISBN 978-1-4144-2991-5.
  2. ^ Felson S (8 October 2018). "High-Protein Diets: Do They Work?". WebMD. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  3. ^ a b Morton RW, Murphy KT, McKellar SR, Schoenfeld BJ, Henselmans M, Helms E, et al. (March 2018). "A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 52 (6): 376–384. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-097608. PMC 5867436. PMID 28698222.
  4. ^ Moon J, Koh G (September 2020). "Clinical Evidence and Mechanisms of High-Protein Diet-Induced Weight Loss". Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome. 29 (3): 166–173. doi:10.7570/jomes20028. PMC 7539343. PMID 32699189.
  5. ^ a b c d e St Jeor ST, Howard BV, Prewitt TE, Bovee V, Bazzarre T, Eckel RH (October 2001). "Dietary protein and weight reduction: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism of the American Heart Association". Circulation. 104 (15): 1869–1874. doi:10.1161/hc4001.096152. PMID 11591629.
  6. ^ Carbone JW, McClung JP, Pasiakos SM (January 2019). "Recent Advances in the Characterization of Skeletal Muscle and Whole-Body Protein Responses to Dietary Protein and Exercise during Negative Energy Balance". Advances in Nutrition. 10 (1): 70–79. doi:10.1093/advances/nmy087. PMC 6370268. PMID 30596808.
  7. ^ Bal BS, Finelli FC, Koch TR (2012-04-16). "Nutritional Requirements of the Critically Ill Obese Patient". In El Solh AA (ed.). Critical Care Management of the Obese Patient (1st ed.). Wiley. pp. 186–194. doi:10.1002/9781119962083.ch21. ISBN 978-0-470-65590-0. Retrieved 2023-11-19.
  8. ^ Yu Z, Nan F, Wang LY, Jiang H, Chen W, Jiang Y (June 2020). "Effects of high-protein diet on glycemic control, insulin resistance and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Clinical Nutrition. 39 (6): 1724–1734. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2019.08.008. PMID 31466731. S2CID 201674247.
  9. ^ Kalantar-Zadeh K, Fouque D (November 2017). "Nutritional Management of Chronic Kidney Disease". The New England Journal of Medicine. 377 (18): 1765–1776. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1700312. PMID 29091561. S2CID 27499763.
  10. ^ Kamper AL, Strandgaard S (August 2017). "Long-Term Effects of High-Protein Diets on Renal Function". Annual Review of Nutrition. 37 (1): 347–369. doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071714-034426. PMID 28637384.
  11. ^ Remer, Thomas; Kalotai, Nicole; Amini, Anna M.; Lehmann, Andreas; Schmidt, Annemarie; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A.; Egert, Sarah; Ellinger, Sabine; Kroke, Anja; Kühn, Tilman; Lorkowski, Stefan; Nimptsch, Katharina; Schwingshackl, Lukas; Zittermann, Armin; Watzl, Bernhard (2023). "Protein intake and risk of urolithiasis and kidney diseases: an umbrella review of systematic reviews for the evidence-based guideline of the German Nutrition Society". European Journal of Nutrition. 62 (5): 1957–1975. doi:10.1007/s00394-023-03143-7. ISSN 1436-6215. PMC 10349749. PMID 37133532.
  12. ^ Alters S, Schiff W (22 February 2012). "Chapter 10: Body Weight and Its Management". Essential Concepts for Healthy Living (Sixth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 327. ISBN 978-1-4496-3062-1.
  13. ^ Nouvenne A, Ticinesi A, Morelli I, Guida L, Borghi L, Meschi T (September 2014). "Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation". Translational Andrology and Urology (Review). 3 (3): 303–312. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2223-4683.2014.06.01. PMC 4708571. PMID 26816783.