High-speed rail in Turkey

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High-speed rail in Turkey
Eskişehir railway station.jpg
High-speed train at the terminal in Eskişehir
System length
Double track1010 km
Track gauge
Main1435 mm
Main25 kv / 50 Hz
Minimum radius3,500 m (11,500 ft)
Sivas (2023)
Sorgun (2023)
Yozgat (2023)
Kayseri (2023)
Yerköy (2022)
Balışeyh (2023)
Kırıkkale (2023)
Elmadağ (2023)
Sincan (2009-18) [a]
Polatlı junction
Yenice junction
Demiryurt [b]
Afyon (2022)
Uşak (2023)
Osmaneli junction
Eşme (2023)
Yenişehir (2023)
Bursa (2023)
Bandırma Şehir (2023)
Salihli (2023)
Turgutlu (2023)
BSicon FLUG.svg S. Gökçen Airport
Manisa (2023)
Menemen (2023)
Çiğli [c]
İzmir (2023) [d]
Suspension bridge icon.svg YSS Bridge
Marmaray Tunnel
BSicon FLUG.svg Ist. Airport
Turkish high-speed rail network in service, under construction, and planned

The Turkish State Railways (TCDD) started building high-speed rail lines in 2003. TCDD has branded its high-speed service as Yüksek Hızlı Tren (YHT) which currently operates on two lines: the Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway and the Ankara–Konya high-speed railway. YHT is the only high-speed rail service in Turkey, with two types of EMU train models operating at speeds of up to 250 km/h (155 mph) (HT65000)[3] or 300 km/h (186 mph) (HT80000).[1][2]

On 13 March 2009, the first phase of the Ankara–Istanbul high-speed railway entered service between Ankara and Eskişehir. On 25 July 2014, the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed railway services began to reach the Pendik railway station on the Asian side of Istanbul,[4] and on 13 March 2019 the services began to reach the Halkalı railway station on the European side of Istanbul, passing through the Marmaray railway tunnel under the Bosphorus strait. There were initially 6 daily departures in both directions.[5]

On 23 August 2011, the YHT service on the Ankara–Konya high-speed railway was inaugurated.

High-speed rail in Turkey is still developing, with new lines currently under construction or in the planning phase. By 2023, the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure expects Turkey's high-speed rail system to increase to 10,000 kilometres (6,214 mi).[6]

Lines in operation[edit]

Rail transport map of Turkey

Ankara–İstanbul high-speed line[edit]

A TCDD HT80000 at the ATG terminal in Ankara
The ATG terminal in Ankara is a hub for the YHT services of the Turkish State Railways

Prior to the introduction of the high-speed line, the population centres of İstanbul (14 million) and Ankara (5 million) were connected by a 576 km (358 mi) long railway line, of which only 110 km (68 mi) was double-tracked.[7] The whole line was electrified, but low radius turns and poor track quality made high-speed rail transport impossible. Prior to the upgrading of this line in 2006, the railway's market share of Istanbul–Ankara passenger transit was 10%, with a travel time of ~6.5 hours.[7]

The Ankara–Istanbul HST line opened on 25 July 2014, with all trains terminating at Pendik, which is 1 hour by bus from Kadikoy in the eastern suburbs of Istanbul. There are 12 trips per day and the journey takes 3.5 hours. All trains stop at Eskişehir and İzmit.

Design and construction[edit]

The high-speed railway connects the county's largest metropolises, Ankara the capital and conurbation of İstanbul via Eskişehir, with a junction at Polatlı to the Ankara-Konya high-speed line.[8]

The railway link was built by a Chinese-Turkish consortium, which was formed when the China Railway Construction Corporation and the China National Machinery Import and Export Corporation won the bid in 2005 to build the railway line in partnership with two Turkish companies, Cengiz Construction and Ibrahim Cecen Ictas Construction.[9]

The line is 533 km (331 mi) long, double tracked, electrified, and signalled,[8] to ETCS level 1 standard[10][11] and is independent of the original Ankara to Istanbul line. The design speed is 250 km/h (155 mph).[8]

The first part of the line to be constructed (Phase 1) was the Ankara–Eskişehir section, specifically between Sincan and İnönü, scheduled to open in 2006.

The second phase was scheduled to open in 2008 and included more difficult terrain which covers the path between İnönü and Köseköy, extending to Gebze close to Istanbul.[10] The service in this line is expected to start on 25 July 2014.[12] A part of the route has not been completed yet by the time of opening, so conventional line will be used until the completion of the project.

Ankara–İstanbul high-speed line construction
Line section Length (km) Start / opening date[note 1] Notes
Ankara–Sincan 24 As of 2009, the existing track between Ankara and Esenkent is used until the completion of a dedicated high-speed line[13]

As of 2013, one track of high-speed line has been completed between Ankara and Sincan and it is being used with reduced signalling features

Sincan–Esenkent 15 2008–2010[8] This section has been opened in 2010 with full signalling features
Esenkent–Eskişehir 206 2004–2009[13] Infrastructure includes: 2 road bridges and 30 road underpasses, 7 railway bridges, and 13 river crossings. 4 viaducts (total length over 4 km), and 1 tunnel (471 m).
First test runs in April 2007.[8]
Eskişehir station 3.4 km 2008–[8] To avoid congestion problems in the city of Eskişehir, a tunnel and cutting project is being undertaken. 2240 m of covered tunnel consisting of 2 high-speed lines, 2 conventional lines, and 1 freight line, plus 1151 m of excavated track (U shape) with 2 high-speed tracks and 1 freight track.[8]

Eskisehir station infrastructure works have already started

Eskişehir–Inönü 30 Officially opened on 25 July 2014.[14]
Inönü–Vezirhan 54 Officially opened on 25 July 2014.[14]
Vezirhan–Köseköy 104 Officially opened on 25 July 2014.[14]
Köseköy–Pendik 56 Officially opened on 25 July 2014.[14]
Pendik–Söğütlüçeşme 43 Opened 12 March 2019 together with the Marmaray project.
Söğütlüçeşme–Haydarpaşa (İstanbul) 2 Pending completion of repairs.

Operation and rolling stock[edit]

TCDD HT80000 (Siemens Velaro TR) has a maximum operating speed of 300 km/h (186 mph)[1][2]

The Ankara to Eskişehir section officially opened on 13 March 2009.[13]

The line is operated by the Turkish State Railways, using the TCDD HT65000 six-car train sets constructed by the Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF) of Spain.

On 13 November 2009, a high-speed train derailed near Eskişehir.[15]

On 25 July 2014, Istanbul–Ankara high-speed train service started.[16] The stretch has not completed yet, thus service is partially using conventional line, which causes a little longer trip than the target. 8 trains depart every day in both directions.[17] Final station in İstanbul is temporarily Pendik, a district in east of İstanbul. Several public-transport connections are organized to access the HST trains.[18]

In addition to 11 sets of CAF used in Ankara–Eskişehir and Ankara–Konya routes, TCDD had bought seven Siemens Velaro sets for the Ankara–İstanbul line, open by the end of 2013.[19]

TCDD had also opened a new tender for 106 new sets to be supplied in 5 years and used in new-added lines.[20] This tender was cancelled and redone in 2018.

Ankara–Konya high-speed line[edit]

The second high-speed line construction project in Turkey was a line from Polatlı on the Ankara to İstanbul line to Konya.[21]

Prior to the construction of the line, journeys between Ankara and Konya took over 10 hours, travelling from Ankara via Eskişehir and Afyon, with a total length of nearly 1,000 km (621 mi).[22][note 2] The new high-speed line is 306 km (190 mi) in length, with a journey time of 1 hour and 15 minutes.[22] 212 km (132 mi) of new track is constructed via Polatlı and Konya, with a design permitting up to 350 km/h (217 mph) of high-speed rail transport.[21] ETCS Level 2 will be used.[23]

Construction was split into two phases: Phase 1 was the 100 km (62 mi) section and Phase 2 was the 112 km (70 mi) section between Polatlı and Konya.

Ankara–Konya high-speed line construction
Line section Length (km) Start / opening date[note 1] Notes
Ankara–Polatlı junction 98 km 2004–2009 Constructed as part of the Ankara to Istanbul high-speed line, on the Sincan – Eskişehir section
Phase 1
Polatlı via Kocahacılı to the 100 km mark
100 km 2007–2011 An estimated cost increase of 20% due to weak ground[21]
Phase 2
from 100 km mark to Konya
112 km 2006–2011

The line includes a tunnel of 2030m.[21] The first test train ran in December 2010;[24] Revenue services began on 24 August 2011.[25] Currently, same CAF trains which are used on Ankara–Eskisehir line are running on this line with 250 km/h maximum speed. In the future, TCDD will procure 6 more sets with up to 350 km/h. The journey time between the two cities (Ankara–Konya) is 1 and a half hours, dropping to 1 hour and 15 minutes in the future. Previously the journey time was 10 hours and 30 minutes. There are 10 trains a day, though this will rise to one per hour in the future.

Konya-Karaman high-speed line[edit]

This 102 km high-speed line opened on 8 January 2022.[26] The Konya-Karaman high-speed line has been designed for a speed of 250 km/h.[27]

Lines under construction and planning phase[edit]

Ankara–Sivas high-speed line[edit]

More than half of the budgeted investment has been done by 2014, and is planned to open in late-2021.[28]

Prior to the construction of the high-speed line, the railway line length between Ankara and Sivas was 602 km (374 mi), primarily single-tracked, with a travel time of 12 hours. New travel time will be 2 hours and 51 minutes[21] The new high-speed line will be double-tracked and have a length of 465 km (289 mi) eastwards from Ankara to Sivas[21] via Kırıkkale, Yerköy and Yozgat[29] and constructed for the most part to the same 250 km/h (155 mph) operational design as the previous lines. The infrastructure includes 6 viaducts (with a total length over 3 km (1.9 mi)), 11 tunnels (including one of ~3 km (1.9 mi) in length), and 67 bridges.[30] A 2019 update predicted service in 2022, 3 years behind schedule due to "geographic difficulties",[31] but the project returned to the prior opening date of 2020 summer.[32] In 2022, the Minister of Transport announced the opening of the line by the end of the year, as it is 99% complete in the spring.[33][34]

The route study was completed by the end of 2006, and put up for tender in two parts; separated at the 174 km (108 mi) mark from Ankara at Yerköy.[30]

Ankara – Sivas high-speed line construction
Line section Length (km) Start / opening date Notes
Ankara–Kırıkkale 88 2013 – April 2018 Plans are revised due to that previous plans includes short sections of less than high-speed running due to small radius curve sections of track in the Ankara to Kırıkkkale section.[30]
Kırıkkale–Yerköy 86 2013 – April 2019 Tender is completed in 2012.
Yerköy–Sivas 291 2009[35]-2022 (estimated) 7 tunnels over 10 km in total length and 4 viaducts over 2.7 km in total length.
Tender for construction of groundwork awarded in 2008. 7 stations to be built: 3 between Yerköy and Doğakent, and 4 between Doğakent and Sivas, to be separately tendered.[30]

Sivas–Kars line[edit]

An extension eastwards to Kars from the Ankara – Sivas line is planned (a feasibility study done in 2006[36]), passing through Erzincan and Erzurum.[29] The line is expected to be built in three phases. It will be electrified and double-tracked based on the 250 km/h standard.[37]

The design study for the SivasErzincan section was completed by Italian-based SWS Engineering in July 2021. The project will include 59 bridges totaling 17 km (11 mi), and 35 tunnels totaling 170 km (106 mi) through a region with high seismicity and difficult hydrogeological conditions.[38] The 247 km (153 mi) section will start from the current station in Sivas, through Hafik, Zara, Imranli, Refahiye, and end in Erzincan.[39]


A 142 km double-tracked electrified spur off of the Ankara-Sivas line, planned from Yerköy to Kayseri, construction began in July 2022, and is planned for completion by 2026, reducing travel times from Ankara to under 2 hours with a design speed of 250 km/h.[40]


The 201 km spur off the Istanbul-Ankara line from Osmaneli to Bandırma through Bursa is under construction and is slated for completion by 2023; the full line will be built for 200 km/h operation and cost 9.5 billion lira, bringing travel times between Ankara and Bursa to 2 hours and 10 minutes.[41] The line is 78% complete as of April 2022.[34]


A 229 km line on the European side of the Bosporus will connect Halkalı station in Istanbul with Kapıkule station in Edirne. Construction started in 2019 with an anticipated opening in 2023, and the project will reduce travel times from 4 hours to 1 hour 20 minutes. The double-tracked electrified railway will be built for 215 km/h operation and cost 10.5 billion lira, of which more than half is provided by a European Union grant.[42]


A further 135 km extension Ankara-Konya-Karaman line is currently in construction to Ulukışla, which is 89% complete as of winter 2022.[43] Extensions from Ulukışla to Yenice and Aksaray are in the process of being tendered as of 2021, the 200 km/h line is planned to eventually reach Mersin and Adana.[44] The Mersin-Adana-Osmaniye-Gaziantep high speed line is expected to open in 2024.[34]

Ankara–İzmir high-speed line[edit]

The project has recently started, and was originally planned to be completed by the summer of 2020, then pushed back to 2022.[32][45] However, this was delayed and now the first section between Poltalı and Afyonkarahisar will open in 2022, but the opening date of the rest of the line to Izmir is tentatively planned for 2024.[46] The line is 52% complete as of April 2022.[34]

The line will pass through Afyon to meet the high-speed line from Ankara to Istanbul near Polatlı. It will have a length of 624 km, with a projected running speed of 250 km/h[37] The travel will take 3 hours and 30 minutes.

The construction of line is planned in three phases:

Ankara–İzmir high-speed line construction
Line section Length (km) Start / opening date Notes
Ankara–Polatlı junction 98 2004–2009/prior work Constructed as part of the Ankara to Istanbul high-speed line, on the Sincan – Eskişehir section.
the 120 km mark
27 2007–2011/prior work Constructed as part of the Ankara to Konya high-speed line, on the Phase1 section.
Phase 1
167 2016-2018 The line uses first 120 km. of Ankara – Konya high-speed line. The junction is located approximately 20 km south of Polatlı.

Number of tunnels: 11 --- Total tunnel length: 8.000 Meters
Number of viaducts: 16 --- Total viaduct length: 6.300 Meters
Number of bridges: 24

Phase 2
2018-2019 tendered in 2017.
Phase 3
2019-2024 Under construction.

High-speed train sets and production facilities[edit]

TREVI ETR 500 test trains[edit]

The first high-speed trains to run on Turkish rails were two ETR 500 train sets rented from Trenitalia of Italy and were used for testing the completed part of the high-speed railway network, between Eskişehir and Ankara, on 23 April 2007.[47] During the tests, ETR 500 Y2 achieved the current rail speed record in Turkey, reaching 303 km/h.[48]

Siemens Velaro TR[edit]

The Velaro TR (TCDD HT80000) is a Velaro D derived 8-car standard gauge high-speed train for the Turkish State Railways (TCDD).[49] The eight cars, totalling a length of 200 m, can accommodate 519 passengers and reach a top speed of 300 km/h.[1][2] 25 kV 50 Hz AC power the train with a total of 8 MW.[49]

Turkish State Railways (TCDD) placed an order for seven Velaro high-speed trainsets in July 2013.[50] The contract is worth €285M, including seven years of maintenance.[50] The Velaros are to be deployed on the Turkish high-speed railway network. The first Siemens Velaro TR entered service in 2014.[51]

On 18 February 2015, TCDD ordered another 10 Velaro TR for delivery in 2017.[52] The €400M contract include the first three years of maintenance and spareparts.

Unlike the traditional white – red – dark blue color scheme used on the TCDD HT65000 high-speed trains, a white – turquoise – grey color scheme has been selected for the livery of TCDD's Velaro TR trains.[51]


EUROTEM, alternatively Hyundai EURotem, is a joint enterprise between Hyundai Rotem of South Korea and TÜVASAŞ of Turkey which was established in 2006[53] and started production in December 2007.[53] The Hyundai EURotem factory in Adapazarı, Turkey, was built as the Hızlı Tren Fabrikası (High-Speed Train Factory) with the purpose of manufacturing the next generation of Turkey's high-speed train sets.[54]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]


  1. ^ a b Start of construction / Official opening
  2. ^ There was no direct connection between Ankara and Konya by rail


  1. ^ a b c d "Velaro Turkey: High-Speed Train for TCDD" (PDF). Siemens Mobility. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d "Velaro Turkey High-Speed Train". Siemens Mobility. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  3. ^ "Technical specifications of TCDD HT65000". CAF. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
  4. ^ Uysal, Onur. "First High Speed Train Set on Ankara Istanbul Line Arrived Istanbul", Rail Turkey, 26 July 2014
  5. ^ Uysal, Onur. "New Schedule for Istanbul-Ankara High Speed Train", Rail Turkey, 9 August 2014
  6. ^ Turkey's high-speed rail system will be complete by 2023rayturk.net
  7. ^ a b Evaluation of Ankara – Istanbul high speed train project[permanent dead link] Authors: Ali Payidar Akgungor, Abdulmuttalip Demirel, 2006, ISSN 1648-4142 print / ISSN 1648-3480 online, periodical: "TRANSPORT" 2007, Vol XXII, No 1, www.transport.vgtu.lt
  8. ^ a b c d e f g The current situation in the Ankara–İstanbul high-speed line project Archived 28 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine www.tcdd.gov.tr "Ankara–İstanbul high-speed line project"
  9. ^ Sweet, Rod (29 July 2014). "Turkey's new high-speed rail: victory for Erdogan – and China". Global Construction Review.
  10. ^ a b Ankara-İstanbul High-Speed Train Project, Turkey railway-technology.com
  11. ^ Alcatel-Lucent partners with Thales to expand Turkish Railways’ high-speed signalling network 16 March 2009 www.alcatel-lucent.com
  12. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Istanbul–Ankara High Speed Train to Start on 25th of July", Rail Turkey, 21 July 2014
  13. ^ a b c UIC celebrates the introduction of high speed in Turkey Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine 19 March 2009 uic.asso.fr
  14. ^ a b c d Ozen, Levent. "Sections of Ankara Istanbul HST Line" Archived 7 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, RaillyNews, 25 July 2014
  15. ^ Turkey high-speed train derails 13 November 2009 news.bbc.co.uk
  16. ^ Uysal, Onur. "First High Speed Train Set on Ankara Istanbul Line Arrived İstanbul", Rail Turkey, 26 July 2014
  17. ^ http://www.tcddtasimacilik.gov.tr/files/3/yolcu/0504yht.pdf, TCDDT, 3 May 2018 Archived 12 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Uysal, Onur. "How to Get to High Speed Train in İstanbul?", Rail Turkey, 22 October 2014
  19. ^ Uysal, Onur. "TCDD Prefers Velaro as HST Sets", Rail Turkey, 9 July 2013
  20. ^ Uysal, Onur. "Turkey to Buy 106 New High Speed Trains", Rail Turkey, 28 July 2013
  21. ^ a b c d e f The current situation on the Ankara–Konya high-speed line www.tcdd.gov.tr
  22. ^ a b Railway projects in Turkey Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Author: Mustafa Karaşahin, Publication: "Mechanics Transport Communications", ISSN 1312-3823, issue 3, 2007 ww.mtc-aj.com
  23. ^ "Railway Gazette: First ETCS Level 2 contract awarded in Turkey". Retrieved 13 February 2011.
  24. ^ "Railway Gazette: Completion of Ankara – Konya high speed line is significant step". 24 December 2010. Retrieved 24 December 2010.
  25. ^ Opening of Ankara – Konya fast line completes strategic link – Railway Gazette
  26. ^ "Turkey's High Speed Train Network Expands: Konya Karaman High Speed Line Opens Today". raillynews.com. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  27. ^ "Turkey: Konya-Karaman rapid railway line opens". UIC (International Union of Railways). Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  28. ^ "Testing underway on Ankara – Sivas high speed line". Railway Gazette International. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  29. ^ a b Turkey’s Railway Stations: A railway station that connects the Black Sea to the Mediterranean: Sivas Railway Station Archived 4 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine www.arkas.com.tr
  30. ^ a b c d ANKARA-SİVAS HIZLI TREN PROJESİ YERKÖY-YOZGAT-SİVAS KESİMİ Archived 6 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine Ankara – Sivas railway project www.tcdd.gov.tr
  31. ^ "Erdogan: "Ankara Sivas YHT Line Project of Yozgat at the Same Time"". 26 February 2019.
  32. ^ a b "Ankara-Sivas high-speed train project has been completed". www.raillynews.com. 5 March 2020.
  33. ^ "Ankara-Sivas YHT hattı yıl sonunda hizmete alınacak". www.trthaber.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  34. ^ a b c d "Bakan Karaismailoğlu: Ankara-İzmir arasındaki seyahat süresini 3,5 saate düşüreceğiz". www.trthaber.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  35. ^ SİVAS ANKARA ARASI 2 SAAT 50 DAKİKAYA İNECEK[permanent dead link] "2hr 50mins between Ankara and Sivas" 16 March 2009 sipastv.com
  37. ^ a b Development of Euro-Asian transport links Author: Selim Bolat, Research, Planning & Coordination Department, Turkish State Railways –TCDD, September 2007, Page 4, via www.unece.org
  38. ^ "The design of the high-speed railroad Sivas-Erzincan in Turkey was completed | RailTarget". www.railtarget.eu. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  39. ^ www.larin.it, Larin (6 July 2021). "247 km of high speed rail successfully finalized!". SYSTRA SWS. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  40. ^ url=https://www.tcddtasimacilik.gov.tr/haber/783/
  41. ^ Gazetesi, Dünya (4 January 2021). "Bursa'nın hızlı treni 2023'te raylarda". www.dunya.com (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  42. ^ "Halkalı-Kapıkule Demir Yolu Projesi'nin Edirne'deki viyadük çalışmaları sürüyor". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  43. ^ 2022-01-20T13:56:00. "Rebuilt Konya – Karaman route opens". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  44. ^ "Aksaray Ulukışla Yenice High Speed Train Project Included in AYGM's Investment Program". Railly News. 30 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  45. ^ "Ankara İzmir YHT 2022 Yılı Sonunda Tamamlanıyor | RayHaber | RaillyNews". 29 June 2020. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  46. ^ "Bakan Karaismailoğlu: Karaman- Ulukışla hattında çalışmalarımız tekrar başladı". Karamandan.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  47. ^ Hürriyet: Hızlı tren artık raylarda
  48. ^ "Nuovo record di velocità del treno italiano Etr 500 in Turchia: 303 km/h" (in Italian). Il Sole 24 Ore. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  49. ^ a b "Velaro Turkey High-Speed Train" (PDF). Mobility.siemens.com. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
  50. ^ a b "Turkey orders Siemens Velaro high speed trainsets". Railway Gazette International. 8 July 2013.
  51. ^ a b "TCDD's first Siemens Velaro train set at the Ankara Central Station". Archived from the original on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  52. ^ "TCDD orders 10 more Velaros". Railway Gazette International. 18 February 2015.
  53. ^ a b Presentation of the Rail Transport – Turkey Archived 3 March 2011 at WebCite Tevfik Muhammed YEŞİLÇAM (TCDD) 21 November 2008 Page 29, www.euromedtransport.org
  54. ^ TCDD: Hızlı Tren Fabrikası (High-Speed Train Factory)[permanent dead link]
  1. ^ Skipped since 2018 as Eryaman YHT railway station opened and track layout changed because of the Başkentray project.
  2. ^ Limited service
  3. ^ Emergency dropoffs only; the station has no building infrastructure and no place to rebuild.
  4. ^ Alsancak for trains longer than 8 cars and tourist trips.

External links[edit]