High courts of Pakistan
There are five high courts of Pakistan, each of four based in the capital city of one of the four provinces. The government has proposed a fifth high court to cover the Islamabad Capital Territory. This proposal was blocked by the Lahore High Court but that decision was overturned by the Supreme Court of Pakistan on 24 December 2007. In 18th constitutional amendment, Islamabad High Court is established.
|High court||Province||Principal seat||Benches|
|Lahore High Court||Punjab||Lahore||Bahawalpur, Multan, Rawalpindi|
|Sindh High Court||Sindh||Karachi||Sukkur, Hyderabad & Larkana|
|Peshawar High Court||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa||Peshawar||Abbottabad, Mingora, Dera Ismail Khan, Bannu|
|Balochistan High Court||Balochistan||Quetta||Sibi, Turbat|
|Islamabad High Court||Capital Territory||Islamabad||—|
The Constitution of Pakistan, 1956, Article 170, its text runs as:
Notwithstanding anything contained in Article 22, each High Court shall have power throughout the territories in relation to which it exercise jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases any Government directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part II and for any other purpose.
At the time of partition (1947) the Lahore High Court, the Dhaka High Court, the Chief Court of Sind and the Judicial Commissioner's Court in the North-West Frontier Province were deemed to be the four high courts of Pakistan.
In 1955 the Dhaka High Court and the Lahore High Court became the High Court of East Pakistan, and the High Court of West Pakistan. The West Pakistan High Court had benches at Karachi and Peshawar as well as circuit courts at Quetta (replacing the Judicial Commissioner in Balochistan) and Bahawalpur (replacing the High Court of Judicature at Baghdad-ul-Jadid).
As the Province of West Pakistan was dissolved in 1970 three high courts were established: Lahore High Court, Peshawar High Court, and Sind and Balochistan High Court (with its principal seat at Karachi).
In 1976 the Sindh and Balochistan High Court was split into the High Court of Sind (Karachi) and the High Court of Balochistan (Quetta).
In 1985 the Lahore High Court had Benches at Bahawalpur, Multan and Rawalpindi; the High Court of Sind at Sukkur; the Peshawar High Court at Abbottabad and Dera Ismail Khan and the High Court of Baluchistan at Sibi.
In 2010 the Islamabad High Court was finally established, as well as the Mingora Bench of the Peshawar High Court and the Turbat Bench of the High Court of Baluchistan.
- "President promulgates Constitution (Second Amendment) Order 2007". The President of Pakistan. 2007-12-24. Archived from the original on 2008-08-19. Retrieved 2007-12-26.
- "SC suspends LHC order against establishment of Islamabad High Court". Associated Press of Pakistan. 2007-12-24. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
- Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Article 198(3)
- Government of India Act 1935 as adapted by the Pakistan (Provisional Constitution) Order 1947, S. 219
- High Court of West Pakistan (Establishment) Order, 1955 (G.G.O. XIX of 1955), Art. 3
- as for the High Court of Baghdad-ul-Jadid at Bahawalpur cf. PLD 1953 BJ 59
- High Courts (Establishment) Order, 1970 (P.O. No. 8 of 1970), Art. 3(1)
- Balochistan and Sind (High Courts) Order, 1976 (P.O. No. 6 of 1976), Art. 3
- Revival of Constitution of 1973 Order, 1985 (P.O. No. 14 of 1985), Art. 2, Sch. item 39
- Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 2010 (Act X of 2010), S. 71