Higher Secondary School Certificate

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Higher Secondary Education[edit]

The Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education in Bangladesh recognizes "Higher Secondary Education" under the clause 1(5) of the "Board of Trustees".[1] Higher Secondary Education comprises (a) general, (b) vocational, (c) technical, or (d) special education with the combination of varied courses. It is the continuation of the "Secondary Education Courses" and it precedes the " Tertiary Education" governed by the Universities. Class XI - XII is the range of "Higher Secondary Education" that roughly covers 16-17 years of age group youth in the context of Bangladesh.[1] The Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC) is a public examination credential in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. HSC is equivalent to GCE A Level in England and 3rd and 4th year of high schools in the United States.

India[edit]

In India, the HSC/Intermediate and PUC Certificates is known as Class 12th certificate also known as +2 Certificate which is awarded for Senior high school students by Almost all National and State Boards and also for Junior college students by some state boards after the successful completion upon the higher secondary exam conducted at the state level by the state boards of education like Rajasthan Board, Maharashtra Board, Andhra Pradesh Board,Karnataka Board, West Bengal Board, Bihar Board and many others as Intermediate, SSC (Senior School Certificate) and PUC Exams at end of the Class 12th and at the national level by the national boards of education like Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) as All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE), Council for the Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE) as Indian School Certificate (ISC), and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). CBSE conducts this once a year, NIOS conducts this twice a year in public examinations with an option of on-demand examinations. On the other hand, the 10th class exam which is also conducted at state level by the state boards of education and at the national level by the Central Board of Secondary Education and in India this exam is known as SSC exam. There are a total of upto 6 subjects out of these 5 are main subjects and 1 is additional in HSSC exam, which are different for different State Board but common in case of Central Board of Secondary Education.[citation needed]

HSSC exam consists of total 1100 Mark's which means, 550 in HSSC 1 and 550 in HSSC 2. Students can give supplementary/improvement exams in September/October or by the new rule of fbise, next year with HSSC 2 Examination

Bangladesh[edit]

After 10 years of schooling at the primary and secondary level, maybe years of passing students (16+) who succeed in passing the Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination have the option of joining a college for a two-year higher secondary education in respective areas of specialization or enrolling in a technical or polytechnic institute. After the two-year higher secondary education based on the national curriculum, one has to sit for the public examination called the Higher Secondary Certificate examination conducted by the education boards.

Students of Islamic religious and English medium streams also sit for their respective public examinations, Alim and A-Level, conducted by the Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board and London/Cambridge University to qualify for further education. Every year, the HSC exam usually starts in April in Bangladesh, and the routine gets published two months before the examination.

There are nine Boards of Intermediate and Secondary Education responsible for conducting the public examinations also responsible for recognizing the private educational institutes.[2][3]

Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, after a lot of speculation and considerations, the concerned authority decided not to arrange a Higher Secondary Certificate or equivalent examination for the year 2020. Results from two prior exams, JSC and SSC, were averaged and used as the score.[4]

In 2021, the date and subjects of HSC exam were revised to abridge for the first time. The HSC Exam was held on 2nd December and continued till 30th December with only three major subjects for the each group of the students. 26,784 institutions participated in the exam under nine education boards together with 16,35,240 candidates.[5]

Higher Secondary Certificate Examination[edit]

The Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education conducts the public examinations like: "Secondary School Certificate Exam (SSC)" and "Higher Secondary School Certificate Exam (HSC), and recognizes the private sector secondary and intermediate level educational institutions.[6]

There are eleven (11) education Boards to conduct their tasks:

  1. Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Dhaka.
  2. Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Rajshahi.
  3. Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Cumilla.
  4. Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Jashore.
  5. Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Chattogram.
  6. Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Barishal.
  7. Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Sylhet.
  8. Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Dinajpur.
  9. Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Mymensingh.
  10. Bangladesh Madrassa Education Board.
  11. Bangladesh Technical Education Board.[7]

"The Ordinance of the Board" is controlled by the East Pakistan Intermediate and Secondary Education Ordinance, 1961 (East Pakistan Ordinance No. XXXIII of 1961) and its amendments No. XVI of 1962 and No. XVII of 1977. Under the East Pakistan Ordinance No. XXXIII of 1961, Dhaka Board is established in 1961.[8] In pursuance of the Presidential Proclamation on the 7th October, 1958, Rajshahi Board established in 1961 (East Pakistan Ordinance No. XXXIII of 1961).[9] The Cumilla Board is established in 1962 in the pursuance of the amendments No. XVI of 1962.[10] Jashore Board is established in 1963 by the Government Order- 737. Then it was named as " Intermediate and Secondary Education Board, Khulna Division, Jashore" though it was renamed in 1965 as " Intermediate and Secondary Educaion Board, Jashore".[11] The Technical Board was established on the 7th March, 1967 in pursuance of the Gazette no- 175.[12] The Madrassa Education Board is established under "The Madrasa Education Ordinance No. IX of 1978" in 1978.[13] The Chattogram Education Board is established in 15th May, 1995,[14] Brishal Education Board is established in August 23, 1999,[15] Sylhet Board is established in 1999,[16] and Dinajpur Board is established in 22nd October, 2006.[17] The Government forms a new Education Board in Mymensingh in August, 2017; now the total education board becomes 11[18]

History[edit]

The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (SPCK) was the first step from the British government to spread practical needs education along with religious education. In 1824, the General Committee of Public Instruction was established and it proposed to include the moral education in the India subcontinent. Then, the establishment of a Directorate of Public Instruction (DPI) was made at each province in 1854 by the proposal of the Woods Education Dispatch.

The Hunter Commission,[19] the first education commission in India suggested the introduction of "A" Course (Literature) and "B" Course (Technical Education) and guided to establish higher education through private entrepreneurship and the government colleges to remain under divisional management. The Sadler Commission in 1917 had the proposal to introduce two years of university education merged among the colleges as Higher Secondary Education. Then in 1944; the Sergent Plan proposed the secondary education for children aged between 11-17 years.

The Akram Khan Committee and The Ataur Rahman Khan Commission were established consecutively in 1947 and 1957 to revise the education system. As a result; East Pakistan Secondary Education Board was established to conduct the examination of the secondary level institutions. This Board was split and 6 boards were established at each division in pursuance of the Ordinance- 1961[20]

After the independence of Bangladesh the Government directly controlled secondary and higher secondary education and nationalized a good number of schools and colleges. The office of the Director of Public Instruction (DPI) was updated to rename as the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) in 1981[21][22][23]

Pakistan[edit]

The Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC), also known as Intermediate, is a public examination taken by the students of Higher Secondary School or Intermediate college (Junior college) in Pakistan. After finishing Matriculation in Grade 9 and 10, the students then enter an intermediate college and complete grades 11 and 12. Upon completion of each of the two grades, they again take standardized tests in their academic subjects. They are offered by provincial boards at provincial level and by FBISE at the federal level. Upon successful completion of these examinations, students are awarded the Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC). This level of education is also called the FSc/FA/ICS. There are many streams students can choose for their 11 and 12 grades, such as pre-medical, pre-engineering, humanities (or social sciences), computer science and commerce. Each stream consists of three electives and as well as three compulsory subjects of English, Urdu, Islamiyat (grade 11 only) and Pakistan Studies (grade 12 only).[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Higher Secondary Education Definition". Law Insider. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  2. ^ http://www.educationboard.gov.bd/ Education Board Bangladesh
  3. ^ "XI Class Admission System". Teletalk Bangladesh. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  4. ^ "HSC, equivalent examinations cancelled, evaluation to be based on JSC, SSC results". The Daily Star. 7 October 2020.
  5. ^ Mahmud, Prokrity (18 April 2022). "HSC Exam Result 2021 [Just Released]". EDU INFO BD. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  6. ^ "Education Board Bangladesh - Home". www.educationboard.gov.bd. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  7. ^ "Education Board list in Banglaesh | bdquery.com". www.bdquery.com. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  8. ^ "Dhaka Board".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  9. ^ "Education Board Bangladesh". www.educationboard.gov.bd. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  10. ^ "Cumilla Board". Bangladesh Education Board. Retrieved 29 August 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. ^ "Jashore Board". Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  12. ^ "বাংলাদেশ কারিগরি শিক্ষা বোর্ড-গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ সরকার". www.bteb.gov.bd. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  13. ^ "Bangladesh Madrasah Education Board". bmeb.ebmeb.gov.bd. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  14. ^ "Chattogram Board". Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  15. ^ "Barishal Board". Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  16. ^ "Sylhet Board". Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  17. ^ "Dinajpur Education Board". Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  18. ^ "Mymensingh gets new education board". Mymensingh gets new education board | theindependentbd.com. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  19. ^ "Hunter Commission - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  20. ^ "Education Commission - Banglapedia". en.banglapedia.org. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  21. ^ Maleque, Abdul; Begum, Mariam; Islam, Fakrul; Riad, Shahbaz (2015). Shikkha Bigyan o Bangladeshe Shikkha (Educational Science and Education in Bangladesh) (in Bengali) (5th ed.). Dhaka, Bangladesh: University Grants Commission (UGC). pp. 131–222. ISBN 984-70350-0176-0. {{cite book}}: Check |isbn= value: invalid prefix (help)
  22. ^ "ইতিহাস - মাধ্যমিক ও উচ্চশিক্ষা অধিদপ্তর-". www.dshe.gov.bd. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  23. ^ Rahman, Mofijur; Ahmed, Syed Giasuddin (2010). Dropout Rate in Secondary Level Education in Bangladesh: A Study of VAB Schools (1st ed.). Bangladesh: The University Press Limited (UPL). ISBN 9789845060103.

Further reading[edit]

  • Mohsin Bashir, and Shoaib Ul-Haq, "Why madrassah education reforms don't work in Pakistan." Third World Quarterly (2019) 40#3 pp. 595–611.
  • Muhammad Qasim Zaman, "Religious education and the rhetoric of reform: The madrasa in British India and Pakistan." Comparative Studies in Society and History 41.2 (1999): 294–323 online.