Higher education in Canada
- 1 Higher education systems in Canada
- 2 Higher education associations and organizations
- 3 Higher education journals and publications
- 4 Selected issues
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Higher education systems in Canada
In Canada, the constitutional responsibility for higher education rests with the provinces of Canada. The decision to assign responsibility for universities to the local legislatures, cemented in the British North America Act, 1867, which was renamed the Constitution Act in 1982, was contentious from its inception. The Act states that "in and for each Province, the Legislature may exclusively make laws in relation to Education". As a result of this constitutional arrangement, a distinctive system of education, including higher education, has evolved in each province. The federal government's responsibilities in education are limited to the Royal Military College of Canada and funding the education of aboriginal peoples.
The higher education systems in Canada's ten provinces include their historical development, organization (e.g., structure, governance, and funding), and goals (e.g., participation, access, and mobility). Each of the three territories in Canada (i.e., Nunavut, Northwest Territories, and Yukon) have separate higher education systems that reflect territorial history, organization, and goals in the context of geographical challenges.
Higher education in Alberta trains students in various academic and vocational specializations. Generally, youth attend school from kindergarten until grade twelve, at which time they have the option to continue into post secondary study. Students are required to meet the individual entrance requirements for programs offered at the institution of their choice. Once accepted, students are allowed greater educational opportunities through the province extensively developed articulation system. The Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer (ACAT) enables students transfer between programs at any of the twenty public post secondary institutions, eight private colleges, and other Alberta-based not for profit institutions. To ensure a continued high standard for credentials awarded by post secondary facilities, the Alberta Ministry of Advanced Education established the Campus Alberta Quality Council with membership in the International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education.
The provincial government administers a higher education system that includes twenty-five publicly funded institutions, fourteen private institutions, and numerous private career training institutions or career colleges. Public institutions include eleven universities, eleven colleges, and three institutes.
Much like the other regions in Canada, the educational system in British Columbia remained, for the most part, stagnant from the 1960s through the 1990s. During this period, education was divided into two main groups, the college and institution sector and the university sector. However, only the college and institution sector was able to issue a formal degree. In an effort to match the growth of technology, to expand the economy, and to raise attendance rates, this system was revised in 1991 when the New Democratic Party took over control of the central government. One main revision to the education system was a focus on vocationalism, which allowed education to be centred around industry specific skills rather than a generic curriculum. Since some vocational schools already existed, the New Democratic Party found it most logical to join the existing vocational schools and colleges into singular institutions along with enacting new programs. By 1995 five new universities were created offering a mix of vocational programs and generic degree programs. This not only increased the number of attendance spots therefore making a higher education more accessible, but it also made education more practical and applicable to careers after university. In addition, Vocational schools were also used to retrain current members of the workforce so they could adapt with technological changes and advancements. Now that more students had access to specialized vocational programs they were more adept to enter specific industries and could therefore enlarge economic growth and technological innovation, ultimately fulfilling the objectives set by the New Democratic Party.
A major public review of higher education in Manitoba, submitted in 1973 under the title of the Task Force on Postsecondary Education, more commonly known as the Oliver Commission, recommended closer articulation between Manitoba's universities and community colleges. The system remains a binary one, however, with few university transfer programs or college courses which can be applied towards a university degree. The Roblin Commission of 1993 and subsequent declining allocations of the public purse have made it clear that post-secondary institutions will have to find their own private sources of funding to make up shortfalls in general operating budgets.
The higher education system in New Brunswick includes the governing Ministry of Postsecondary Education Training and Labour, related agencies, boards, or commissions, public or private chartered universities, universities recognized under the degree granting act, public colleges, and other institutions such as private career colleges. Higher education has a rich history in New Brunswick, including the first English-speaking University in Canada, University of New Brunswick, and the first university in the British Empire to have awarded a baccalaureate to a woman (Grace Annie Lockhart, B.Sc, 1875), Mount Allison University. English speaking New Brunswickers in Canada's only bilingual province are falling behind according to Statistics Canada.
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador has had the same growing pains as other provinces in developing its own form of education and now boasts a very strong, although relatively small, system. The direction of Newfoundland and Labrador's policy has evolved rapidly since the late 1990s, with increased funding, participation rates, accessibility and transferability. Many of the directives the government has been acting upon in the past 3 years have been a result of recommendations that stemmed from a 2005 white paper: Foundation for Success: White Paper on Public Post-Secondary Education
The only post-secondary institution in the NWT is Aurora College. The former Arctic College was split into Aurora College and Nunavut Arctic College when Nunavut Territory was created in 1999. Aurora College has campuses in Inuvik, Fort Smith and Yellowknife. It has learning centres in many other communities in the NWT. The territorial Department of Education, Culture and Employment is the government agency responsible for post-secondary education in the Northwest Territories. There are two career colleges located in the NWT: the Academy of Learning in Yellowknife, which provides business information technology courses, and Great Slave Helicopters Flight Training Centre, which supplies Global Positioning System training for helicopter pilot education.
The governing body for higher education in Nova Scotia is the Department of Education with Karen Casey as Minister of Education. Nova Scotia has a population of less than 1 million people who are served by 11 public universities and one private chartered university authorized to grant degrees, the Nova Scotia Community College that offers programs at 13 campuses, and 6 Community Learning Centres.
Created in 1999, the Territory of Nunavut is located in the Canadian Arctic. Nunavut has developed some creative solutions to the delivery of post secondary education. Some of the challenges include a huge geographic region, a sparse and isolated populace, and four official languages. To address these challenges, Nunavut Arctic College delivers customized learning programs via Community Learning Centres in twenty-four of the twenty-six communities in Nunavut. Programs are developed to address the needs of individual communities, with respect to literacy, adult education, certificates, and professional development for major regional community stake-holds, such as government, employers and non-profit organizations. To assist Northern residents in accessing highly skilled training, Nunavut Arctic College has partnered with McGill University, the University of Victoria and Dalhousie University to offer bachelor's degrees in Education, Nursing and Law, respectively. Nunavut Arctic College is an active member of the Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer, and has developed formal transfer arrangements with many institution in the Province of Alberta and Aurora College in Northwest Territories.
The higher education system in Ontario includes the governing Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities, advisory bodies, public universities, private degree-granting institutions, public colleges, private career colleges, and associations. In Ontario there are twenty-two public universities, twenty-four public colleges, and seventeen privately funded institutions with degree granting authority. Governance within Ontario universities generally follows a bicameral approach with separation of authority between a board and senate. There are eight associations that provide representation for faculty, staff, institutions, and students within the Ontario higher education system. The public funding of higher education in Ontario primarily relies on cooperation between the government of Canada and the government of Ontario. Public funding of higher education involves direct public funding of institutions for instruction, investment, and research combined with funding of students.
Prince Edward Island
Higher education in Prince Edward Island falls under the jurisdiction of the Higher Education and Corporate Services Branch within the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development. The province has one university, the University of Prince Edward Island authorized to grant degrees and one community college, Holland College, that operates centres across the province including: the Culinary Institute of Canada, the Justice Institute of Canada, the Marine Centre, the Aerospace Centre, the Atlantic Tourism and Hospitality Institute and the Prince Edward Island Institute of Adult and Community Education.
The higher education system in Quebec is unique when compared to the other Canadian provinces and territories. Students complete their secondary studies in the eleventh grade. Post-secondary studies start within a mandatory pre-university college system. A publicly funded college is called Collège d’enseignement général et professionnel (CEGEP). Private colleges exist but in much fewer numbers. In college, students keen on academic or highly skilled professions would take the university preparation program, while students interested in a skilled trade would take specialized programs at this level to prepare them for the workforce. Because College includes two years of academic study they essentially eliminate the freshman year of university. Programs in Quebec universities are more specialized, but students are required to complete only ninety credits for a Bachelors degree. Students from outside the province are required make up the first year either through a College, CEGEP, or at their chosen university. Although French is the official language at the provincial level, all students can access post-secondary education in both French and English.
The post-secondary sector includes 2 public universities, Aboriginal-controlled institutions that are affiliated to either one of the public universities, 1 polytechnic, 4 federated colleges, career colleges, 8 regional colleges, and Campus Saskatchewan govern by the Ministry of Advanced Education, part of the provincial government of Saskatchewan. Campus Saskatchewan, established in 2002 as a partnership with various post-secondary institutions to work together to use technology-enhanced learning to increase opportunities for the people in Saskatchewan to access high quality education and training at times and in places that best meet their needs. According to the 2014-15 budget report, The Ministry of Advanced Education received $817.8 million, an increase of $24 million or 3.7 per cent over last year to support operational increases and several key investments at post-secondary institutions. Employment and Labour oversees a number of  to assist current and potential students such as the Graduate Retention Program (GRP). In addition, the ministry also offers non-payable funding through scholarships, grants and bursaries to eligible students. The Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (SIAST) received authorization to its first degree, a Bachelor of Psychiatric Nursing, the first of its kind in the province on July 2013. The following year on November, SIAST was renamed Saskatchewan Polytechnic (SaskPolyTech).
Yukon's system of higher education is shaped by the territory's small population (30,375 people as of May 2006) in a relatively large geographic area. The history of higher education in fact went hand in hand with the establishment of a representative territorial government in 1979. The only post-secondary institute in Yukon, Yukon College, issues certificate, diploma, and partial and some full degree programs to all high school leavers and older adults. The college is a community college and as a result it provides Adult Basic Education/literacy programs as well.
Higher education associations and organizations
There are numerous groups that are relevant to the structure of higher education in Canada. These include those that support teachers, staff, students, institutions, research, and related groups involved in the delivery of higher education in the Canadian provinces and territories.
Higher education journals and publications
There are a number of journals and publications regarding higher education in Canada. The majority are published by associations of faculty, staff, or students.
- Academic Matters is a Canadian magazine which publishes articles on issues of relevance to post-secondary education in Canada and internationally, as well as literature and film reviews, original fiction, research notes and commentaries. This journal is published by the Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Associations and has a circulation of 24,000 readers, including professors, academic librarians and others interested in higher education issues across Canada.
- CAUT Bulletin is an electronic newsletter published by the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT).
- The Canadian Journal of Higher Education is a journal published by the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education (CSSHE).
- Canadian Public Policy is a journal that examines Canadian economic and social policy published by the Canadian Economics Association.
- College Canada is a magazine published by the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC).
- University Affairs is a magazine published by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC).
A 2011 study found that Canadian university professors were left leaning but were not "hugely different in this respect from the Canadian university-educated population." There was considerable variation in political views, which suggests "that contemporary characterizations of the North American professoriate as left- or right-leaning tend to be overdrawn". Disadvantaged status and socialization in the field were important in forming these views but self-selection effects were not excluded.
Value of higher education
A 2016 study from Statistics Canada found that the highest-paying bachelor's degrees for both men and women in 2010 were management science and quantitative analyst, followed by chemical engineering. The highest-paying master's degree was financial management & financial services.
Canada ranks first among OECD nations in the number of college and university graduates. In 2016, Statistics Canada found that 54.0% of Canadians (aged 25–64) were college or university graduates. However, a 2016 labour market assessment by the Parliamentary Budget Officer reported that the underemployment rate for university undergraduates under the age of 35 worsened from 1991 to 2015. The equivalent rate for college graduates was similar until 2006. Since then it has fallen.
|Business and administration||19.9||21.8|
|Information science and computer science||8.2||5.8|
|Education and teaching||6.2||8.0|
|General and integrated sciences||21.0||22.2|
|Mathematics and related studies||15.2||11.5|
|Physics and chemistry||17.8||14.7|
|Social science and the behavioural sciences||24.6||28.7|
A 2017 study from Statistics Canada showed that, for women under the age of 35, the median annual pay of undergraduates ranged from $41,238 in the arts to $75,027 in nursing. For men, the figures ranged from $44,327 in the arts to $78,054 in engineering.
A 2017 study from Statistics Canada showed that, among men over the age of 24, the median annual pay of apprenticeship holders is $72,955 per year, which is 7% more than they would have received with a typical college diploma. Among women, the figure is $38,230, which is actually 12% less than if they had started work straight out of high school. This discrepancy is explained by the tendency for men to seek training in engineering-related trades, while women often seek training in service trades such as hairstyling. Four years after certification, median employment incomes for individual trades range from $21,000 for hairdressers to $107,220 for heavy-duty equipment technicians.
A 2018 study from Statistics Canada found that median earnings for women with master's degrees range from $65,200 in the arts to $124,200 in the pharmacy field. For men, the figures range from $69,700 in the humanities to $138,200 in the pharmacy field. Fully one-quarter of all master's degrees are in business subjects, where they typically result in a 27% pay increase compared to bachelor's degrees. In health, education, the arts and the social sciences, the median increase is in the 14% to 17% range. In the STEM subjects, the increase is less than 10%. Finally, three out of five doctoral degrees are awarded in the STEM subjects.
- Academic ranks in Canada
- Rankings of universities in Canada
- List of universities in Canada
- List of private universities in Canada
- List of colleges in Canada
- List of medical schools in Canada
- List of law schools in Canada
- List of business schools in Canada
- List of Canadian universities by endowment
- Constitution Act
- Standing Senate Committee on National Finance. (1987). Federal policy on post-secondary education. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada
- Government of Alberta. "Queen's Printer:Post Secondary Learning Act" retrieved July 15, 2008. 
- Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer. "Council Principles, Policies and Procedures" Retrieved July 15, 2008, 
- Alberta Council on Admissions and Transfer. "About ACAT" retrieved July 15, 2008, 
- Alberta Government "Campus Alberta Quality Council:About the Council" retrieved July 15, 2008 
- Fisher, D & Rubenson, Kjell & Lee, J & Clift, Robert & Macivor, M & Meredith, J. (2014). The transformation of the PSE system in British Columbia. 35-121.
- Harmsen, Robert & Tupper, Allan. (2017). The governance of post‐secondary education systems in British Columbia and Ontario: Path dependence and provincial policy. Canadian Public Administration. 60. 10.1111/capa.12220.
- Cleveland, Jim. (1995). A Policy Review of Government Intervention in Post-Secondary Vocational Education in British Columbia..
- Gregor, A.D. (1997). Higher education in Manitoba. In Jones, G.A. (Ed.), Higher education in Canada: Different systems, different perspectives (pp.115-136). New York: Garland
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2014-04-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Newfoundland and Labrador. (2005). Foundation for success: White paper on public post-secondary education. St. John’s, NL: Department of Education Retrieved on May 15, 2008
- Academy of Learning. (n.d.). About Us. Retrieved June 19, 2008, from http://www.academynorth.ca/About_Us/index.htm Archived 2005-08-30 at the Wayback Machine
- canadian-universities.net. (n.d.). Yellowknife Career Colleges and Trade Schools. Retrieved June 19, 2008, from http://www.canadian-universities.net/Career-Colleges/Northwest_Territories-Yellowknife.html#Academy%20of%20Learning%20-%20Yellowknife
- Nova Scotia Department of Education. (n.d.). Department of Education. Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.ednet.ns.ca/
- Statistics Canada. (2008, June 25). The Daily: Canada's population estimates. Ottawa, Ontario Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2008-07-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Nova Scotia Office of Immigration. (n.d.). Universities, Colleges, and Trade Schools. Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.novascotiaimmigration.com/en-page1068.aspx Archived 2008-08-20 at the Wayback Machine
- Nova Scotia Community College. (n.d.). Campuses Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.nscc.ca/About_NSCC/Locations/Campuses.asp
- Nova Scotia Community College. (n.d.). Community Learning Centres. Retrieved on July 29, 2008 from http://www.nscc.ca/About_NSCC/Locations/Community_Learning_Centres.asp
- Fortier, M. and Jones, F. "Engineering Public Service Excellence for Nunavut: The Nunavut Unified Human Resources Development Strategy" (page 191 - 195) Retrieved July 27, 2008
- Crockatt, Kim; Suzanne Smythe. "Building culture and community: Family and Community Literacy Partnerships in Canada's North" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-07-27.
- "Policies, Procedures and Services (pg. 10)" (PDF). Nunavut Arctic College: Calendar of Courses. Nunavut Arctic College. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-04-22. Retrieved 2008-07-27.
- "Policies, Procedures and Services (pg. 7-8)" (PDF). Nunavut Arctic College: Calendar of Courses. Nunavut Arctic College. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-04-22. Retrieved 2008-07-27.
- "Policies, Procedures and Services (pg. 6)" (PDF). Nunavut Arctic College: Calendar of Courses. Nunavut Arctic College. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-04-22. Retrieved 2008-07-27.
- "Policies, Procedures and Services (pg. 9)" (PDF). Nunavut Arctic College: Calendar of Courses. Nunavut Arctic College. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-04-22. Retrieved 2008-07-27.
- Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities Ontario. Organization chart (PDF 40KB). Retrieved May 30, 2008, from
- Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities Ontario. Role of the ministry. Retrieved May 29, 2008, from
- Jones, G. & Skolnik, M. (1997). Governing boards in Canadian universities [Electronic version]. The Review of Higher Education, 20, 3, p. 290.
- Salmi, J. & Hauptman, A. (2006). Resource allocation mechanisms in tertiary education: A typology and an assessment. In Global University Network for Innovation (GUNI), Higher education in the world 2006: The financing of universities (pp. 60 - 81). Beccles, Suffolk: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Government of Prince Edward Island. (2008). Prince Edward Island: Education and early childhood development / higher education and corporate services. Charlottetown: Prince Edward Island. Retrieved May 20, 2008. http://www.gov.pe.ca/education/heacs-info/index.php3
- Government of Prince Edward Island. (2004). 200 years of learning and innovation. Retrieved May 20, 2008, from http://www.gov.pe.ca/200years/
- Henchey, N. and Burgess, D.(1987) Between Past and Future: Quebec Education in Transition (p. 112) Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Limited
- Smith, W. Foster, W. and Donahue, H. (1999) The Contemporary Education Scene in Quebec: A Handbook for Policy Makers, Administrators and Educators (p.7) Montreal: Office of Research on Educational Policy (OREP)
- Government of Saskatchewan. (2015). Retrieved June 1, 2015 from https://www.saskatchewan.ca/live/post-secondary-education/universities-colleges-and-schools/post-secondary-institutions Archived 2015-06-14 at the Wayback Machine
- The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. (2006). Retrieved June 2, 2015 from http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/campus_saskatchewan.html
- Ministry of Advanced Education. (2013). Retrieved June 2, 2015 from http://finance.gov.sk.ca/budget2014-15
- Ministry of Advanced Education. (2014). Retrieved June 2, 2015 from http://www.aeel.gov.sk.ca/programs-services/ Archived 2008-07-23 at the Wayback Machine programs
- Government of Saskatchewan. (2015). Retrieved June 2, 2015 from https://www.saskatchewan.ca/government/government-structure/ministries/advanced-education#legislation
- Saskatchewan Polytechnic. (September 24, 2014). Retrieved June 2, 2015 from http://saskpolytech.ca/about/about-us/history.aspx
- BC Stats. (2007). "2006 Census Profile:Yukon Territory" Retrieved July 15, 2008
- Senkpiel, Aron. (1997). Postsecondary Education in Yukon. In "Higher Education in Canada" (pp. 285 - 300). Ed. Jones, G.A., New York, N.Y.: Garland Publishing
- Yukon College. (n.d.). "Our Programs" Retrieved July 15, 2008
- The Ideological Orientations of Canadian University Professors, M. R. Nakhaie & R. J. Brym, Canadian Journal of Higher Education, Volume 41, No. 1, 2011, pages 18 –33
- Frenette, Marc; Frank, Kristyn (11 March 2016), Earnings of Postsecondary Graduates by Detailed Field of Study, Statistics Canada, retrieved 1 April 2016
- Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2017-11-29). "The Daily — Education in Canada: Key results from the 2016 Census". www150.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-02-01.
- Labour Market Assessment 2016 (PDF). Ottawa: Parliamentary Budget Office. 27 October 2016. p. 29.
- "Are young bachelor's degree holders finding jobs that match their studies?". Statistics Canada. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Is field of study a factor in the earnings of young bachelor's degree holders?". Statistics Canada. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Does education pay? A comparison of earnings by level of education in Canada and its provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. 29 November 2017. Retrieved 12 December 2017.
- "Pathways and earnings indicators for registered apprentices in Canada". Statistics Canada. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Wall, Katherine (26 September 2018). "Is field of study a factor in the payoff of a graduate degree?". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
- Coates, Ken & Bill Morrison. Campus Confidential: 100 startling things you don't know about Canadian universities. Toronto, Lorimer, 2013. ISBN 978-1459404359
- Coates, Ken & Bill Morrison. What to Consider If You're Considering University: New Rules For Education and Employment. Toronto, Dundurn, 2014. ISBN 978-1459722989
- Coates, Ken & Bill Morrison. Dream Factories: Why Universities Won't Solve the Youth Jobs Crisis. Toronto, Dundurn, 2016. ISBN 978-1459733770
- Cote, James & Anton Allahar. Ivory Tower Blues: A University System in Crisis. University of Toronto Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0802091819
- Prevost, Kyle & Justin Bouchard. More Money for Beer and Textbooks: A Financial Guide for Today's Canadian Student. Winnipeg, Young and Thrifty Publications, 2013. ISBN 978-0991748204
- Rybak, Jeff. What's Wrong with University: And How to Make It Work for You Anyway. Toronto, ECW Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1550227765