Higher education in China

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Higher education in China is the largest in the world.[1] By September 2021, there were 3,012 colleges and universities, with over 40 million students enrolled in mainland China.[2][3] The system includes Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral degrees, as well as non-degree programs, and is also open to foreign students.

The Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China (MOE) is the government authority for all matters pertaining to education and language. The MOE notes that higher education in China has played a significant part in economic growth, scientific progress and social development in the country "by bringing up large scale of advanced talents and experts for the construction of socialist modernization."[4]

China is also a major destination for international students, being the most popular country in Asia for international students,[5] the leading destination globally for Anglophone African students,[6] and the second most popular in the world.[7] In 2017, China surpassed the U.S. with the highest number of scientific publications.[8][9] The country has the world's second highest number of universities in the Academic Ranking of World Universities's top 500 universities and in the U.S News & World Report Best Global Universities Rankings.[10][11] In the 2021 CWTS Leiden Ranking edition, China had the largest number of universities (221) including in the ranking.[12] China is home to the two best C9 league universities in the whole Asia-Oceania region and emerging countries with Tsinghua and Peking Universities, tied for 16th place in the world, by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[13] China has dominated the QS BRICS University Rankings and the THE's Emerging Economies University Rankings, claiming seven of the top 10 spots for both rankings. China is also the most-represented nation overall.[14][15] China tops the QS Asia University Rankings list with over 120 universities including in the ranking, and five Chinese universities appear in the Asia Top 10, which is more than any other country.[16]


The traditional Chinese education system is based on legalist and Confucian ideals. The teaching of Confucius has shaped the overall Chinese mindset for the past 2500 years.[17] But, other outside forces have played a large role in the nation's educational development. The First Opium War of 1840, for example, opened China to the rest of the world. As a result, Chinese intellectuals discovered the numerous western advances in science and technology. This new information greatly impacted the higher education system and curriculum.

A number of institutions lay claim to being the first university in China. Peking University is the first formally established modern national university of China. It was founded as Imperial Peking University (Chinese: 京師大學堂) in 1898 in Beijing as a replacement of the ancient Guozijian (Chinese: 國子監), the national central institute of learning in China's traditional educational system. Meanwhile, Wuhan University also claimed that its predecessor Ziqiang Institute (自強學堂) was the first modern higher education institution in China. On November 29, 1893, Zhang Zhidong submitted his memorial to Guangxu Emperor to request for approval to set up an institution designed for training students specializing in foreign languages, mathematics, science and business. After Ziqiang was founded in Wuchang, not only courses in foreign languages was taught, courses in science (chemical and mining courses starting from 1896) and business (business course starting from the very beginning) were also developed at the school.[18] Later, although the school officially changed its name to Foreign Languages Institute (方言學堂) in 1902, the school still offered courses in science and business.[18] In China, there had been some earlier schools specializing in foreign languages learning, such as Schools of Combined Learning in Beijing (京師同文館, founded in 1862[remark 1]), in Shanghai (上海同文館/上海廣方言館, founded in 1863), and in Guangzhou (廣州同文館), founded in 1864, but few provided courses in other fields, which hardly qualified as modern education institutions. Some argued that Wuhan University can only traced its history back to 1913, when the National Wuchang Higher Normal College (國立武昌高等師範學校) was established, but Wuhan University officially recognized its establishment as in 1893, relying on the abundance of historical documentation and the experts' endorsement.[19] In 1895, Sheng Xuanhuai (Chinese: 盛宣懷) submitted a memorial to Guangxu Emperor to request for approval to set up a modern higher education institution in Tianjin. After approval on October 2, 1895, Peiyang Western Study School (Chinese: 天津北洋西學學堂) was founded by him and American educator Charles Daniel Tenney (Chinese: 丁家立) and later developed to Peiyang University (Chinese: 北洋大學堂). In 1896, Sheng Xuanhuai (Chinese: 盛宣懷) delivered his new memorials to Guangxu Emperor to make suggestion that two official modern higher education institutions should be established in Beijing and Shanghai. In the same year, he founded Nanyang Public School (Chinese: 南洋公學) in Shanghai by an imperial edict issued by Guangxu Emperor. The institution initially included elementary school, secondary school, college, and a normal school. Later the institution changed its name to Jiao Tong University (also known as Chiao Tung University, Chinese: 交通大學). In the 1930s, the university was well known in the world as the "Eastern MIT"[20][21][22] due to its reputation of nurturing top engineers and scientists. In the 1950s, part of this university was moved to Xi'an, an ancient capital city in northwest China, and was established as Xi'an Jiaotong University; the part of the university remaining in Shanghai was renamed Shanghai Jiao Tong University. These two universities have developed independently since then. Tianjin University celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1995, followed by Jiao Tong University (both in Shanghai and Xi'an) in 1996. Other leading universities, such as Zhejiang University (1897), Peking University (1898), Nanjing University (1902), Central China Normal University (1903), Hunan University (1903), Fudan University (1905), Tongji University (1907) and Tsinghua University (1911) also recently celebrated their hundredth anniversaries, one after another.

Soviet influence in the early 1950s brought all higher education under government leadership. Research was separated from teaching. The government also introduced a central plan for a nationally unified instruction system, i.e. texts, syllabi, etc. The impact of this shift can still be seen today. Chinese higher education continues its struggle with excessive departmentalisation, segmentation, and overspecialisation in particular.

From 1967 to 1976, China’s Cultural Revolution took another toll on higher education, which was devastated more than any other sector of the country. The enrollment of postsecondary students can be used as example to illustrate the impacts. The number dropped from 674,400 to 47,800. This has had a major impact on education in the 21st century. The decline in educational quality was profound.

In 1977, Deng Xiaoping made the decision of resuming the National Higher Education Entrance Examination (Gaokao), having profound impact on Chinese higher education in history. From the 1980s on, Chinese higher education has undergone a series of reforms that have slowly brought improvement. The government found that schools lacked the flexibility and autonomy to provide education according to the needs of the society. Structural reform of higher education consists of five parts:

  • reforms of education provision
  • management
  • investment
  • recruitment and job-placement
  • inner-institute management—the most difficult.[4]

The reforms aim to provide higher education institutions more autonomy and the ability to better meet the needs of students. Instead of micromanagement, the state aims to provide general planning.

The Provisional Regulations Concerning the Management of Institutions of Higher Learning, promulgated by the State Council in 1986, led to a number of changes in administration and adjusted educational opportunity, direction and content. Reform allowed universities and colleges to:

  • choose their own teaching plans and curricula
  • to accept projects from or cooperate with other socialist establishments for scientific research and technical development in setting up "combines" involving teaching, scientific research, and production
  • to suggest appointments and removals of vice presidents and other staff members;
  • to take charge of the distribution of capital construction investment and funds allocated by the state
  • to be responsible for the development of international exchanges by using their own funds.[citation needed]

Reforms picked up the pace in 2000, with the state aiming to complete the reform of 200 universities operating under China's ministries and start 15 university-based scientific technology parks.[23]

Present day[edit]

In 2002, there were slightly over 2000 higher education institutions in PRC. Close to 1400 were regular higher education institutions (HEIs). A little more than 600 were higher education institutions for adults. Combined enrollment in 2002 was 11,256,800. Of this close to 40 percent were new recruits. Total graduate student enrollment was 501,000.[4] The number of graduates from Chinese higher educational institutions increased from 1 million per year in 2000 to 7 million per year in 2010.[24]

In 2005, student enrollment increased to 15 million, with rapid growth that was expected to peak in 2008. However, the higher education system does not meet the needs of 85 percent of the college-age population.[25]

Since 1998, 10 universities have been targeted by the Chinese government to become “world-class” — including Peking and Tsinghua universities. To achieve that goal, the government promised to increase the education allocation in the national budget by 1 percent a year for each of the five years following 1998. When CPC General secretary Chinese president Jiang Zemin attended the 100th anniversary ceremony at Peking University (Beida) in 1998 and the 90th anniversary ceremony at Tsinghua University in 2001, he emphasized this ambitious goal of advancing several of China's higher education institutions into the top tier of universities worldwide in the next several decades.

In the meantime, China has received education aid from UNESCO and many other international organizations and sources, including the World Bank, which loaned China $14.7 billion for educational development.

In spring 2007 China planned to conduct a national evaluation of its universities. The results of this evaluation would be used to support the next major planned policy initiative. The last substantial national evaluation of universities was in 1994. That evaluation resulted in the 'massification' of higher education with a renewed emphasis on elite institutions and education through initiatives like Project 985 in the late 1990s and the Thousand Talents Program which was launched in 2008.[26] Since 2010, in some of the elite institutions, there has been an attempt at introducing some aspects of an American-style liberal arts curriculum for selected students.[27]

According to data from 2015 of the People's Republic of China Ministry of Education, there were 2,845 Chinese National Higher Institutions, including 2,553 National General Colleges and Universities and 292 Adult Higher Institutions.[28] The number of enrolled college students including undergraduate students, master and PhD students was 23.91 million in 2012.[29] From 2010 to 2015, the Chinese graduates continued to increase dramatically with almost 7.5 million new graduates entering the job market in 2015.[30] Investment in education accounted for about 4% of total GDP in China in 2015.[31] The Chinese government has been more concerned about education, particularly higher education, in the last decades.

Admission process[edit]

A student's score in the National Higher Education Entrance Examination (Gaokao) is the primary consideration used for admission into universities in China. Regional education development imbalance leads to the different treatment of students from different regions. Enrollment rules in China are based on the scores on the Gaokao, but a given university's minimum score threshold varies depending on the province an applicant is from and the degree of competition in applicants from the province. The more you have more top universities in a region, the better chances its students will be enrolled into a top university.[citation needed] The university admission quotes are not based on the area's population but the university’s enrollment plan. In some populous provinces, the competition is extremely fierce, while, in some areas with more institutions, such as Beijing or Shanghai, access to a prestigious university is more attainable.

Types of colleges and universities[edit]

In China, according to ownership-based categories of HEIs, the higher education can be divided into two categories---State-owned or government-owned HEIs, including Regular HEIs, Independent Institutions, Higher Vocational Colleges, Adult HEIs, and non-government or private universities[32] Due to the long-time influence by Soviet Union and late development of private universities, it has deeply rooted in Chinese heart that government-owned is much better than private ones.[33] Regular HEIs is the cornerstone in China’s higher education, while private universities development could not be ignored.[34]

According to the latest data(2015) of People's Republic of China Ministry of Education, total number of Chinese National Higher Institutions is 2845, including 2,553 National General Colleges and Universities and 292 Adult Higher Institutions.[28] Government-owned HEIs are likely to receive more policy and finance support from official level.

Compared with state-owned universities, private universities’ development is in an awkward position. Different with private universities in Western world, China’s private education is a complement to public universities to meet the needs for those who failed in their college entrance examination and who could not afford the tuition fees to study abroad. Due to the large population, Chinese public universities are impossible to satisfy everyone’s needs. Under this condition, private universities of China come into being. The advantages of their professional setting that more in line with market requirements could not make up for the lack of financial funds and students. Actually, these two factors are equal. The source of funds for them depends largely on students’ tuition fees [35]

Except of competition from public universities and other sino-foreign cooperative private institution, the most deadly weakness is that Chinese officials deny acknowledging their degree. In Private Education Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China, it clearly indicates that “Private university degree is that national recognition of the non national education series, belonging to private colleges awarded diplomas”.[36]

Though followed by “The educated in Private colleges enjoy the same level and rights in further education, employment, social welfare, and participation in advanced selection with the educated public schools” ,[36] it can hardly compensate the flaw that the degree belonging to only private colleges awarded diplomas, but no acknowledgement by officials.

C9 League, "Project 211" universities, "Project 985" universities, and "Double First Class Plan" universities[edit]

The C9 League (simplified Chinese: 九校联盟; traditional Chinese: 九校聯盟) is an official alliance of nine elite and prestigious universities in mainland China, initiated by the Chinese Central Government through Project 985, a new project after Project 211, to promote the development and reputation of Higher education in China. Together they account for 3% of the country's researchers but receive 10% of national research expenditures.[37] People's Daily, an official newspaper of the Chinese Communist Party, refers to the C9 League as China's Ivy League.[38]

This group of 9 elite universities includes Fudan University, Harbin Institute of Technology, Nanjing University, Peking University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Tsinghua University, University of Science and Technology of China, Xi'an Jiaotong University, and Zhejiang University.

Many other lists of elite Chinese universities exists. The C9 League dominates in terms of faculty recruitment, with disproportionate numbers of faculty who receive China's top two academic awards: the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Scholar award and the Thousand Talents Professorship. In 2015, a related initiative to promote the world class universities in China called the Double First Class University Plan was launched.

Rankings and international reputation[edit]

The quality of universities and higher education in China is internationally recognized as China has established educational cooperation and exchanges with 188 countries and regions and 46 major international organizations, and signed agreements with 54 countries such as the US, British, Germany, Australia and Canada on mutual recognition of higher education qualifications and academic degrees.[39][40]

The country has the world's second highest number of universities in the Academic Ranking of World Universities's top 500 universities and in the U.S News & World Report Best Global Universities Rankings.[11][10] In 2017, China surpassed the U.S. with the highest number of scientific publications.[8][9] In the 2021 CWTS Leiden Ranking edition, China had the largest number of universities (221) including in the ranking.[12] China has dominated the QS BRICS University Rankings and the THE's Emerging Economies University Rankings, claiming seven of the top 10 spots for both rankings. China is also the most-represented nation overall.[14][15] As of 2020, China tops the QS Asia University Rankings list with over 120 universities including in the ranking, and five Chinese universities appear in the Asia Top 10, which is more than any other country.[16] There were 22 Chinese universities on lists of the global top 200 in the 2020 Academic Ranking of World Universities, behind only the United States in terms of the overall representation.[41] All the C9 League members are ranked in the world's top 150 universities in the Academic Ranking of World Universities.[42] Seven of the C9 universities are ranked in the top 150 universities in the world in all three lists of the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Rankings and the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.[43][44][42]

According to THE China Subject Ratings 2020 conducted by the Time Higher Education World University Rankings, Chinese universities are on a par with their counterparts in the US, the UK, and Germany across 89 subjects ahead of others like France, South Korea, and Russia. The country scores above the global average of B score, with 46 percent of its universities’ grades were A+, A, or A-, only slightly behind the US (49 percent).[45] The QS rankings by subjects 2021 indicated that universities in China now have a record number in the top 50 universities in the world across all 51 subjects in five broad discipline areas: “Arts and Humanities”, “Natural Sciences”, “Social Sciences and Management”, “Engineering & Technology”, and “Life Sciences and Medicines”.[46] In 2020, five Chinese universities appear in the Global Top 10 by the numbers of the International patent applications via the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), which is more than any country.[47]

This reflects the continual development of Chinese higher education and research quality of universities over time.

On 18 September 2020, the members of a Chinese expert group, which was headed by Lin Huiqing, Chairman of the Medical Education Expert Committee of the Ministry of Education and former Vice Minister of the Ministry of Education, unanimously agreed that Tsinghua University has been fully established as a world-class university.[48]

International students[edit]

With China’s rising national strength and popularity of Chinese in the world, China as a study destination attracts thousands of foreign students abroad and the number of foreign students continues to grow rapidly in recent years. Since 2005, China has become the most popular country in Asia and the sixth largest country in the world in hosting international students.[49] The top ten countries with students studying in China include South Korea, Japan, USA, Vietnam, Thailand, Russia, India, Indonesia, France and Pakistan.[50][51][52] According to 2014 data from Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, there were more than 377,054 foreign students from 203 countries or regions study in all the 31 provinces in China, with an increase of 5.77% over the same period last year.[53][54] In 2015, a record breaking 397,635 international students went to China, solidifying its position as the third most popular destination country after only the UK and the US for overseas students.[55] While US and the UK attracted nearly one-third of all globally mobile students, their leadership is under threat in the "Third Wave" of political turbulence and intense competition from English-medium Instruction or English-taught Programs in countries like China and Continental Europe.[56] In 2014, the largest source of foreign students came from Asia, accounting almost 60% of the total, followed by Europe 18%, Africa 11% respectively.[53] For individual country, the top three countries of origins were South Korea (62,923), United States (24,203) and Thailand (21,296).[53] Only 10% of foreign students receive Chinese Government Scholarship and the rest 90% are self-funded.[53]

In 2018, according to the most recent statistics from the Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, China (hosting 492,185 international students in 2018) has overtaken the UK (hosting 458,520 international students in 2018 according to Study in UK) to become the host of second largest international students population, after the USA.[57] In 2018, International students have enrolled in over 1004 higher education institutions in China.[58]

Study Abroad[edit]

More Chinese wealthy families are more likely to send their kids abroad to receive higher education. Free academic atmosphere, high-quality teaching and new way to cultivate talents---all these advantages contribute to the flood of Chinese students arriving in United States, United Kingdom, Germany and other developed countries. Chinese students have been the largest foreign group in USA since 2010, with 157,588 arriving between 2010 and 2011.[53] The same situation happened in United Kingdom and Germany. Western education will likely remain the leading choice for Chinese students due to its cross-disciplinary fields and development of critical thinking.[59]

China has a strong demand for postsecondary education, to the extent that its university system currently cannot keep pace with demand. Consequently, universities in the United States, Europe and Australia play a significant role by partnering with Chinese universities, aggressively recruiting Chinese students for study in their host countries, increasing the number of students they send to study in China, and adding to their presence on the mainland, either through official foreign campuses or extensions. Australia, United Kingdom, and other Asian countries are already making strides into this market.

Partnering can be economically salubrious, either if the scholars choose to stay in the host country or return to the mainland. Most Chinese students who go abroad are among the best and brightest from their home country. Thus, if they choose to stay, they can benefit the economy of their host country when they gain employment and become members of their new communities. If they leave, they may maintain the contacts and connections they may have established, and also leave a positive impression on their hosts.[60]


Compared with commonwealth countries’ tuition, tuition of China’s higher education is relatively inexpensive. Nevertheless, the Chinese per capita income is much lower than western countries, so there are still some students from rural and mountainous areas facing funding problems. Chinese government has taken some measures to ensure the smooth enrollment of this group, like students loans, part-time jobs within campus, etc. It's seldom the case that college students discontinue their studies because of tuition or cost of living.

Considering institution funding, it varies dramatically among different universities. In order to adapt to the fierce global competition in education, the Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China initiated Project 211 in the 1990s aimed at strengthening about 100 institutions of higher education and key disciplinary areas as a national priority for the 21st century.[61] On May 4, 1998, President Jiang Zemin declared that “China must have a number of first-rate universities of international advanced level”, so Project 985 was launched.[61] The total number of Project 985 is 39 and all of them belong to 211 project at the same time.[61] The initial aim is to promote China’s educational competitiveness and establishment of a number of leading disciplines in the world. In September 2017, a related plan to promote the world class universities in China called the Double First Class University Plan was announced.

Meanwhile, it is also the beginning to widen the gap and cause the imbalanced distribution of scientific research funds between 211 project universities and common public universities. Within the project, it is not only a glory but also hints numerous tangible benefits. The majority of public universities’ development lies to all levels of government funds. Entry in this project means you will gain more research funds. According to another data from Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China, from 2009 to 2013, the total government research funding for 39 985-Project institutions is 13.9 billion RMB, with 73 211-Project Institutions approximately 5.1 billion RMB and rest of 670 common undergraduate colleges only 7.9 billion RMB. .[61]

The majority of Chinese universities are state-owned universities. The financial support from government level, in most circumstances, decides one university’s development. The imbalanced distribution of scientific research funds will deepen the gap among universities.


China exhibits a great need for better regulation as well as more academic qualifications, teaching experience, and understanding of social changes and technology. To achieve success, the state realizes that the impacts of the Cultural Revolution on education must be reversed. To this end, top universities now function as centers of excellence that serve as a model for all other institutes. A helpful model involved "twinning" of poorer institutes with model institutes to provide equipment, curricula, and faculty development.

There is also an issue of funding and equity. Although academic praise reforms for moving the higher education sector from a unified, centralized and closed system to one that allows openness and diversification, they understand that decentralization and semi-privatization has led to further inequity in educational opportunity.

According to a report from the Economist Magazine in 2006, many corporations feel the quality of rote memorization instilled in Chinese students serves as a detriment to creative thinking and the lack of real-world experience during the formative years negatively impacts students' ability to adapt to the global business environment easily. These issues will need to be addressed in the coming years if China aims to continue its drive for excellence.[62]

Although numbers of students have been increasing there are some serious concerns about the quality of education they are receiving and the skills they have at graduation. A study conducted in 2005 estimated that only 1.2 million of 15.7 million university graduates (or 7.6%) had skills that were valued by international markets for human capital.[63] Between 2002 and 2020, the percentage of young adults holding a higher diploma increased from 15% to 54%. This aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment, overqualification, credentialism and educational inflation.[64] As a result of the predicament of unemployment, educators, students, and the Ministry of Education is promoting training in skills for the market economy that would complement the more traditional classroom learning and the focus on "hard" credentials. In Chinese universities, students clubs and special training activities aim to cultivate soft skills in students, assisting in promoting resilient personalities and life skills as preparation for the uncertainties in the job market.[65]


  1. ^ In 1902, School of Combined Learning in Beijing was merged with Imperial Capital University, now Peking University. However, Peking University never claims 1862 as its year founded. Neither does Peking University claim the year of establishing the Guozijian, which can date back more than one thousand years. Hunan University, with a similar history with Peking, often traced its history back to a school established in 976 A.D, thus giving this university a thousand years of history. See "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 7, 2015. Retrieved February 2, 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link).


Physical health tests[edit]

In China, undergraduates are required to attend the physical health test every academic year.

The standard scores=body mass index (BMI) scores*15%+vital capacity scores*15%+50 metres scores*20%+sit-and-reach scores*10%+standing long jump scores*10%+pull-up (male) / 1-minute sit-up (female) scores*10%+1000 metres (male) / 800 metres (female) scores*20%

The additional scores=pull-up (male) / 1-minute sit-up (female) scores+1000 metres (male) / 800 metres (female) scores

The total scores of an academic year=the standard scores+the additional scores

90.0 scores or above: excellent

80.0~89.9 scores: good

60.0~79.9 scores: pass

59.9 scores or below: fail

In order to participate in the appraising and awards, the students (excluding physically disabled students) need to achieve good or above. If a student fails, he or she may have a make-up test in the academic year. If he or she fails in the make-up test, he or she will be graded unpassed in the academic year.

The final scores=the total scores of the last academic year*50%+the average total scores of the other academic years*50%

If a student (excluding physically disabled students) has fewer than 50 final scores, he or she will be unable to graduate.

Standard scores[edit]

body mass index (BMI) (unit: kg/m²)
grade standard scores male female
normal 100 17.9~23.9 17.2~23.9
underweight 80 ≤17.8 ≤17.1
overweight 24.0~27.9
obese 60 ≥28.0

body mass index (BMI) =weight (kg) /height² (m²)

vital capacity (unit: mL)
grade standard scores 1st and 2nd academic year (male) 1st and 2nd academic year (female) 3rd and 4th academic year (male) 3rd and 4th academic year (female)
excellent 100 5040 3400 5140 3450
95 4920 3350 5020 3400
90 4800 3300 4900 3350
good 85 4550 3150 4650 3200
80 4300 3000 4400 3050
pass 78 4180 2900 4280 2950
76 4060 2800 4160 2850
74 3940 2700 4040 2750
72 3820 2600 3920 2650
70 3700 2500 3800 2550
68 3580 2400 3680 2450
66 3460 2300 3560 2350
64 3340 2200 3440 2250
62 3220 2100 3320 2150
60 3100 2000 3200 2050
fail 50 2940 1960 3030 2010
40 2780 1920 2860 1970
30 2620 1880 2690 1930
20 2460 1840 2520 1890
10 2300 1800 2350 1850

50 metres (unit: s)
grade standard scores 1st and 2nd academic year (male) 1st and 2nd academic year (female) 3rd and 4th academic year (male) 3rd and 4th academic year (female)
excellent 100 6.7 7.5 6.6 7.4
95 6.8 7.6 6.7 7.5
90 6.9 7.7 6.8 7.6
good 85 7.0 8.0 6.9 7.9
80 7.1 8.3 7.0 8.2
pass 78 7.3 8.5 7.2 8.4
76 7.5 8.7 7.4 8.6
74 7.7 8.9 7.6 8.8
72 7.9 9.1 7.8 9.0
70 8.1 9.3 8.0 9.2
68 8.3 9.5 8.2 9.4
66 8.5 9.7 8.4 9.6
64 8.7 9.9 8.6 9.8
62 8.9 10.1 8.8 10.0
60 9.1 10.3 9.0 10.2
fail 50 9.3 10.5 9.2 10.4
40 9.5 10.7 9.4 10.6
30 9.7 10.9 9.6 10.8
20 9.9 11.1 9.8 11.0
10 10.1 11.3 10.0 11.2

standing long jump (unit: cm)
grade standard scores 1st and 2nd academic year (male) 1st and 2nd academic year (female) 3rd and 4th academic year (male) 3rd and 4th academic year (female)
excellent 100 273 207 275 208
95 268 201 270 202
90 263 195 265 196
good 85 256 188 258 189
80 248 181 250 182
pass 78 244 178 246 179
76 240 175 242 176
74 236 172 238 173
72 232 169 234 170
70 228 166 230 167
68 224 163 226 164
66 220 160 222 161
64 216 157 218 158
62 212 154 214 155
60 208 151 210 152
fail 50 203 146 205 147
40 198 141 200 142
30 193 136 195 137
20 188 131 190 132
10 183 126 185 127

pull-up (male) / one-minute sit-up (female)
grade standard scores 1st and 2nd academic year (male) 1st and 2nd academic year (female) 3rd and 4th academic year (male) 3rd and 4th academic year (female)
excellent 100 19 56 20 57
95 18 54 19 55
90 17 52 18 53
good 85 16 49 17 50
80 15 46 16 47
pass 78 44 45
76 14 42 15 43
74 40 41
72 13 38 14 39
70 36 37
68 12 34 13 35
66 32 33
64 11 30 12 31
62 28 29
60 10 26 11 27
fail 50 9 24 10 25
40 8 22 9 23
30 7 20 8 21
20 6 18 7 19
10 5 16 6 17

1000 metres (male) / 800 metres (female) (unit: m′s″)
grade standard scores 1st and 2nd academic year (male) 1st and 2nd academic year (female) 3rd and 4th academic year (male) 3rd and 4th academic year (female)
excellent 100 3′17″ 3′18″ 3′15″ 3′16″
95 3′22″ 3′24″ 3′20″ 3′22″
90 3′27″ 3′30″ 3′25″ 3′28″
good 85 3′34″ 3′37″ 3′32″ 3′35″
80 3′42″ 3′44″ 3′40″ 3′42″
pass 78 3′47″ 3′49″ 3′45″ 3′47″
76 3′52″ 3′54″ 3′50″ 3′52″
74 3′57″ 3′59″ 3′55″ 3′57″
72 4′02″ 4′04″ 4′00″ 4′02″
70 4′07″ 4′09″ 4′05″ 4′07″
68 4′12″ 4′14″ 4′10″ 4′12″
66 4′17″ 4′19″ 4′15″ 4′17″
64 4′22″ 4′24″ 4′20″ 4′22″
62 4′27″ 4′29″ 4′25″ 4′27″
60 4′32″ 4′34″ 4′30″ 4′32″
fail 50 4′52″ 4′44″ 4′50″ 4′42″
40 5′12″ 4′54″ 5′10″ 4′52″
30 5′32″ 5′04″ 5′30″ 5′02″
20 5′52″ 5′14″ 5′50″ 5′12″
10 6′12″ 5′24″ 6′10″ 5′22″

Additional scores[edit]

pull-up (male) / one-minute sit-up (female)
additional scores 1st and 2nd academic year (male) 1st and 2nd academic year (female) 3rd and 4th academic year (male) 3rd and 4th academic year (female)
10 10 13 10 13
9 9 12 9 12
8 8 11 8 11
7 7 10 7 10
6 6 9 6 9
5 5 8 5 8
4 4 7 4 7
3 3 6 3 6
2 2 4 2 4
1 1 2 1 2

After a student gets 100 standard scores of pull-up or sit-up, the additional scores are added for the more pull-ups or sit-ups.

1000 metres (male) / 800 metres (female) (unit: m′s″)
additional scores 1st and 2nd academic year (male) 1st and 2nd academic year (female) 3rd and 4th academic year (male) 3rd and 4th academic year (female)
10 -35″ -50″ -35″ -50″
9 -32″ -45″ -32″ -45″
8 -29″ -40″ -29″ -40″
7 -26″ -35″ -26″ -35″
6 -23″ -30″ -23″ -30″
5 -20″ -25″ -20″ -25″
4 -16″ -20″ -16″ -20″
3 -12″ -15″ -12″ -15″
2 -8″ -10″ -8″ -10″
1 -4″ -5″ -4″ -5″

After a student gets 100 standard scores of 1000 metres or 800 metres, the additional scores are added for the fewer seconds.

Discrimination against trans female students[edit]

Trans female students, even during HRT and after SRS, are generally viewed as male students by the universities in China and the Ministry of Education of China. As the standard of almost all the items (excluding sit-and-reach, the weight of which is only 10% of the standard scores) for the male is stricter than that for the female, a considerable number of excellent Chinese trans female students have lost the chances in the appraising and awards, and even failed to graduate.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]