Third-level education in the Republic of Ireland
Third-level education in the Republic of Ireland includes all education after second-level, encompassing higher education in universities and colleges and further education on Post Leaving Certificate (PLC) and other courses. The degree-awarding institutions which can grant awards at all academic levels are the University of Dublin, National University of Ireland (Cork, Dublin, Galway and Maynooth), University of Limerick, Dublin City University, Technological University Dublin, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Munster Technological University and Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest, as well as St. Patrick's College, Maynooth (Pontifical University), and then a State agency, Quality and Qualifications Ireland, can grant awards in other institutions directly, or delegate the authority to do so. and University of Limerick. The King's Inns of Dublin has a limited role in education specialising in the preparation of candidates for the degree of barrister-at-law to practice as barristers. Medical schools in Ireland also have particular regulation. There were seven establishments of higher education within Ireland ranked among the top 500 universities worldwide by the Times Higher Education Supplement in 2008.
|EQF level||EHEA cycle||NFQ level||Major award types|
|1||1||Level 1 Certificate|
|2||Level 2 Certificate|
|2||3||Level 3 Certificate|
|3||4||Level 4 Certificate|
|4||5||Level 5 Certificate|
|Short cycle within 1st||Higher Certificate|
|6||1st||7||Ordinary Bachelor's degree|
|8||Honours bachelor's degree|
The Irish universities include the University of Dublin, better known by the name of its sole college, Trinity College Dublin, the four constituent universities of the National University of Ireland, two universities established in 1989, three technological universities formed by the amalgamation of Institutes of Technology and a professional medical institution. Some colleges are constituent colleges of universities, while others are designated institutions of the State agency Quality and Qualifications Ireland (QQI), which succeeded the Higher Education and Training Awards Council. The latter include the remaining Institutes of Technology, Colleges of Education, and other independent colleges. Some colleges have "delegated authority" from QQI, this allows them to confer and validate awards in their own name.
Some institutions such as the University of Limerick, Technological University Dublin (TU Dublin), and Dublin City University (DCU) have completed a process of modularising their courses (others are still in a transition phase), mostly using the ECTS. The Bologna process and applied research are the current concerns of national educational policy, additional concerns include the structures of the National University of Ireland. Since the mid-2000s, a number of Institutes of Technology have or are in the process of applying for university designation, including IT Sligo, GMIT and LYIT, (known as the Connacht Ulster Alliance), and Waterford. In 2019 TU Dublin amalgamated three institutions in the Dublin region (Dublin Institute of Technology, Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown, and Institute of Technology, Tallaght), and in 2021 Munster Technological University amalgamated two institutions in the Munster region (Cork Institute of Technology, and Institute of Technology, Tralee), while the Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest did the same further north.
The Marks & Standards document, offered by most institutions, can be consulted for information on the range and criteria set down for awards, while programme specifications offer additional information. In contrast to practice in the rest of the education system, entry tends to be highly competitive for school leavers; the so-called "Points Race" administered by the Central Applications Office (CAO). In 2001 the percentage of school leavers transferring to third level exceeded 50% for the first time, while as of 2005 it was in excess of 55% and expected to grow at approximately 1% per annum for the next decade.
There are over 25 third-level courses at graduate and postgraduate level offered through the Irish language. Acadamh na hOllscolaíochta Gaeilge is the Irish language Department of the National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI Galway) and it has different off-campus centres throughout the Gaeltacht regions. Dublin City University has an Irish language department called Fiontar. University College Dublin (UCD), TU Dublin, and Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT) also offer similar courses.
All but two of the seven universities in Ireland offer "open" (omnibus entry) Bachelor of Arts degrees through the CAO where the student can choose their specialisation after their first year of study. The two universities that do not offer "open" (omnibus entry) arts degrees, Trinity College Dublin and DCU, do still offer Bachelor of Arts degrees in specific areas of study such as Drama Studies, Journalism, Latin, History, Japanese, and International Relations.
In one, Trinity College Dublin, the applicants wishing to read an Arts degree may apply to the college to read a combination of two subjects, such as French and Philosophy - which the student may continue to read jointly or with focus on one. DCU's de facto omnibus entry arts degree is offered by St. Patrick's College of Education (a college of DCU) and is titled "BA in Humanities". All Hallows College (a college of DCU) offer BA in Humanities, Theology Pastoral Care, and English.
Entry into higher education institutions is normally done through the CAO. In this way, students wishing to enter university apply to the CAO rather than the individual university. Places in courses are usually awarded based on results in the Leaving Certificate Examination or any international equivalent. Each university has a minimum entry requirement, usually requiring a pass grade in either English or Irish, as well as maths. Some also require a pass grade in a modern continental European language (French, German, Spanish or Italian). Each individual course has further entry requirements, for example, science courses usually require a certain grade in one or two sciences. The student must also achieve the number of points required for the course under the points system. However, universities also have systems in place for accepting mature students, and students who have successfully completed a Post Leaving Certificate or Further Education course.
Entry into third-level is generally very high in Ireland (as it also is in Northern Ireland), and among young adults (those aged 25 to 34), 41.6% of them have attained third-level degrees—the second highest level in the EU after Cyprus, and substantially ahead of the average of 29.1%. Broken down by gender, approximately 43% of women and 40% of men Ireland attend third level education.
Under the "Free Fees Initiative" the Government pays the tuition fees of students who meet relevant course, nationality and residence requirements as set down under the initiative. These requirements include:
- Holding EU nationality, or are a national of member country of the European Economic Area or Switzerland, or those who have been granted official refugee status.
- Having been a resident in an EU Member State for at least three of the five years preceding entry to the course.
- Are not undertaking a second undergraduate course.
Students are required to pay a "registration fee" on entry to their courses. These charges cover costs such as equipment usage, administration fees and exam fees. Charges were €1,500 per student for the 2009/10 school year. These charges have been labelled as "unofficial fees", and some university heads admitted that "student registration charges are fees by any other name". In 2011, after large annual increases, the registration fee was abolished and replaced with a "student contribution". For the school year 2019/2020 this fee stood at €3,000.
Further education is vocational and technical education and training in post-compulsory education. Awards are offered by a multitude of bodies, both ad-hoc and statutory. Typical areas included are craft and trade apprenticeships, childcare, farming, retail, and tourism. These are typical areas of the economy that do not depend on multinational investment and recognition. There are many different types of further education awards, known as Post Leaving Certificates.
The Further Education and Training Awards Council conferred awards in the extra-university system. Further education has expanded immensely in recent years helped by the institutions, and because of this the type and range of these awards have been formalized to restore confidence. There were two separate schemes enabling progression for holders of FETAC awards to universities and institutes of technology. FETAC awards carried points that could be used to access higher education. FETAC was dissolved and its functions were passed to Quality and Qualifications Ireland (QQI) on 6 November 2012, and the progression schemes continued.
Ireland has a higher proportion of third-level graduates than any other EU country, although many university students are better suited to further education and training, including PLC, apprenticeship and traineeship courses. At the same time, the proportion of graduates with first-class honours has reached record levels, particularly in institutes of technology. There is disagreement about whether this increase is due to improved methods of instructing increasingly motivated students, or simple grade inflation. President Michael D. Higgins believes that it is due to grade inflation, and has expressed concern about the continued quality and value of university degrees. Whatever the reason might be, employers increasingly examine graduates' extracurricular activities, work experiences, and soft skills as they search for the most able applicants. 
List of higher education establishments
These are lists of colleges and universities within Ireland; some colleges are constituent colleges of universities.
- Dublin City University
- National University of Ireland
- Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
- University of Limerick
- University of Dublin
Technological Universities have been formed by the merger of former Institutes of Technology.
- Atlantic Technological University
- Munster Technological University
- South East Technological University
- Technological University Dublin
- Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest
Institutes of technology
- St Patrick's College, Maynooth (also known as Maynooth College or the Pontifical University at Maynooth)
Colleges of education
- St Angela's College of Education, Sligo NUIG 
- Marino Institute of EducationDU 
- Mary Immaculate College, LimerickUL 
- St. Patrick's College, Thurles UL
Recognised, associated or constituent colleges of Irish universities
- Institute of Public Administration NUI 
- Irish School of Ecumenics DU 
- National College of Art and Design UCD 
- National Maritime College of Ireland MTU 
- Shannon College of Hotel Management NUIG 
- Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies
- Garda Síochána College
- Military College, Curragh Camp
- National Ambulance Service College
State-aided and chartered institutions
- Honorable Society of King's Inns
- National College of Ireland (formerly National College of Industrial Relations)
- Royal Irish Academy of Music
- Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (postgraduate medical qualifications)
- American College Dublin
- Burren College of Art
- Carmelite Institute of Britain and Ireland, theology programmes validated by St. Patrick's College, Maynooth
- Cavan Institute
- Christian Leadership in Education Office (CLEO), postgraduate education programmes validated by the University of Hull
- Church of Ireland Theological Institute (partly in cooperation with Trinity College Dublin)
- City Colleges
- Coláiste na hÉireann
- Coláiste Stiofáin Naofa
- College of Progressive Education
- Cork College of Commerce
- Digital Skills Academy (historically validated by Dublin Institute of Technology and Boston College)
- Dorset College
- Dublin Business School
- Dublin Institute of Design
- Gaiety School of Acting
- Galway Business School
- The Grafton Academy of Fashion Design
- Griffith College Cork
- Griffith College Dublin
- Griffith College Limerick
- Hibernia College
- IBAT College Dublin
- ICD Business School
- Independent College Dublin
- Irish Bible Institute (a component of the University of Wales(2005-2013), York St John University since 2014.)
- Irish Management InstituteUCC
- Kimmage Development Studies Centre (merged into Maynooth University)
- Mallow College of Further Education
- Newman College Ireland
- Pitman Training Ireland
- Portobello Institute
- The Priory Institute (validated by Institute of Technology, Tallaght)
- Spirituality Institute for Research and Education (Masters validated by Waterford Institute of Technology)
- St. John's Central College, Cork
- St. Nicholas Montessori College
- St. Patrick's, Carlow College
- Setanta College
- Turning Point
Foreign institutions with a presence in Ireland
As well as "Study Abroad" programmes from US universities, a UK institution, a French business school and a number of US universities have presences in Ireland:
- Boston College Ireland – delivers "Study Abroad" and summer programmes on St. Stephens Green, central Dublin
- Champlain College Ireland - delivers "Study Abroad" programmes to US students at a campus on Leeson Street, central Dublin
- Duquesne University – students study in UCD and stay at Duquesne University's St. Michael's House facility
- École de management de Normandie - A Dublin campus opened in 2017
- Georgia Southern University - Opened in 2019, Georgia Southern University has a campus in Wexford Town
- University of Notre Dame – have two centres in Ireland, the new Notre Dame Center at Kylemore Abbey in Connemara and O'Connell House in Dublin wfrom where students study at Trinity or UCD
- Open University – the UK based Open University has an Irish office in Dublin
- Sacred Heart University – has an Irish studies base in Dingle, County Kerry
Foreign institutions who validate programmes in Ireland
Historically a number of institutions, including seminaries such as St. Patrick's, Carlow College, St. Kieran's College, Kilkenny, St. Patrick's College, Thurles, and Tullabeg College, would have prepared students from examinations with the University of London. In recent years a number of mainly private colleges have had programmes accredited by UK universities.
- University of Chester - National Training Centre, Dublin
- University of Dundee - in partnership with Ballyfermot College of Further Education since 2004
- University of East London - Institute of Child Education Psychology Europe, Dublin and Chevron Training and Recruitment
- Heriot-Watt University - Griffith College, Limerick
- University of Hull - Christian Leadership in Education Office, Cork
- Liverpool John Moores University - validated programmes for DBS
- London Metropolitan University - Portobello Institute
- Middlesex University - PCI College, Dublin
- University of Northumbria - Law Society of Ireland
- Nottingham Trent University - validated degrees for Griffith College
- University of Reading - Irish Management Institute
- University of Ulster - Irish Times Training and Marino Institute of Education
- University of Wales - validated degrees for Portobello College, The Priory Institute and Irish Bible Institute
- University of Wales Trinity Saint David - IBAT College, Dublin
- University of West London - British/Irish Modern Music Institute, Dublin
- University of the West of Scotland - Filmbase, Dublin
- University of Wolverhampton - Coláiste Dhúlaigh College of Further Education, Coolock and Edenmore
- York St John University - Irish Bible Institute since 2014
The following are defunct institutions, due to closure or merger. This list does not include institutions that were renamed.
- Albert Agricultural College (1838–1979), part of UCD from 1926-1979, NIHE Dublin (now DCU) was built on Albert College
- All Hallows College (1842–2016), now part of Dublin City University 
- Apothecaries' Hall, Dublin (1791–1971)
- Bandon University, Bandon, Co. Cork (? - Reformation of King Henry VIII) Considered a University by the Papacy
- Catholic University of Ireland (1854–1908), evolved into University College Dublin
- Church of Ireland College of Education (1816-2016), previously linked to University of Dublin, now part of DCU
- Cork Institute of Technology, merged with IT Tralee in 2021 to form Munster Technological University
- Froebel College of Education (1943–2013), now part of Maynooth University 
- HSI College
- IT Tralee, merged with CIT in 2021 to form Munster Technological University
- Irish Academy for the Performing Arts (2002–2004)
- Kimmage Mission Institute (1991-2005) moved to Milltown and merged with Milltown Institute
- Mater Dei Institute of Education (1966–2016), now part of Dublin City University 
- Media Lab Europe (2000–05)
- Mid West Business Institute, now part of Griffith College Limerick 
- Milltown Institute of Theology and Philosophy (1968–2015) 
- Newman College, Dublin, merged into Griffith College
- Our Lady of Mercy College, Carysfort (1877–1988)
- Portobello College Dublin, acquired by Dublin Business School in 2007 
- Queen's University of Ireland (1850–82)
- Royal University of Ireland (1880–1909), succeeded by the National University of Ireland
- St Catherine's College of Education for Home Economics
- St Patrick's College of Education (1875–2016), now part of Dublin City University 
- Tipperary Institute (1999-2011), now part of Limerick Institute of Technology
- Thomond College of Education, Limerick (1973–1991), became part of University of Limerick
- Tourism College Killybegs (? - 2001), now part of Letterkenny Institute of Technology
- University of Dublin (medieval) (operated intermittently 1320–1534)
- Limerick Institute of Technology, merged with AIT in 2021 to form the Technological University of the Shannon (TUS).
- Athlone Institute of Technology, merged with LIT in 2021 to form the Technological University of the Shannon (TUS).
- Chartered Accountants Ireland - Accounting professional body
- Institution of Engineers of Ireland (Engineers Ireland) - Engineers professional body
- Law Society of Ireland - Solicitor professional body
- The Honorable Society of King's Inns - Barrister professional body
- Association of Chartered Certified Accountants - Accounting professional body
- Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland - the professional body for Architects in Ireland
- ^DU College is linked to University of Dublin.
- MTU College is linked to Munster Technological University
- ^NUI College is linked to National University of Ireland.
- ^NUIG College is linked to National University of Ireland, Galway.
- ^UCC College is linked to University College Cork.
- ^UL College is linked to University of Limerick.
- List of Ireland-related topics
- Education in the Republic of Ireland
- List of schools in the Republic of Ireland
- Central Applications Office
- HEAnet - Ireland's National Education & Research Network
- Higher Education Authority
- Higher Education and Training Awards Council
- Further Education and Training Awards Council
- ITnet - Institute of Technology Network
- National Qualifications Authority of Ireland
- Postgraduate Applications Centre
- State Examinations Commission
- Education in the Republic of Ireland
- List of colleges and universities
- Open access in the Republic of Ireland
- Final report on alignment of St. Patrick’s College, Maynooth awards made in Ireland to the National Framework of Qualifications www.nqai.ie, September 2011.
- Times Higher Education Supplement Top 500 Universities Worldwide 2008 Archived 20 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Ireland faces a university challenge Archived 4 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Measuring Ireland's Progress - 2007
- "Census of Population 2016 – Profile 10 Education, Skills and the Irish Language - CSO - Central Statistics Office". Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- "Undergraduate courses of not less than two years duration in colleges in List 1". Archived from the original on 25 January 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2010. Student Finance.ie, information for Undergraduate students
- "Fees FAQ". Retrieved 24 February 2010. University College Dublin, Administrative Services - Fees & Grants
- "Universities admit student charge is an unofficial fee". Irish Independent. 29 January 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2010. Independent.ie - Universities admit student charge is an unofficial fee
- Mooney, Brian (17 August 2019). "Alternative career routes boost options for school-leavers". Irish Times. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
Practical, hands-on courses offer career progression and skills enhancement outside the traditional CAO system.
- "Minister Quinn merges educational agencies to establish QQI". Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- O'Brien, Carl (8 June 2021). "Grade inflation undermining quality of university degrees, President Higgins warns". Irish Times. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
Grade inflation was the sign of an “ongoing slip in examination standards, emanating from pressure, sourced internally and external to the university, to report the achievement of continually higher ‘outputs’”.
- McGuire, Peter (13 August 2019). "Grade inflation is soaring: Are degrees losing all meaning?". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
Third-level degrees are becoming ubiquitous, with employers struggling to differentiate one first-class honours or 2.1 degree from another in their search for top talent.
- McGuire, Peter (21 September 2021). "What skills do employers look for in candidates?". Irish Times. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
- "Electronic Irish Statute Book (EISB)".
- "Providers of Higher Education in Ireland". Minister of Education and Skills, Republic of Ireland. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "Providers of Higher Education in Ireland". Minister of Education and Skills, Republic of Ireland. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Royal College of Surgeons becomes States ninth university by Carl O'Brien, Irish Times, December 9, 2019.
- "Irish School of Ecumenics". Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "National Maritime College of Ireland". NMCI.ie. 26 January 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
- "HETAC Registered Providers". Higher Education Training and Awards Council. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "Institutions and Courses: Irish Bible Institute, Dublin" Archived 21 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, University of Wales
- "Search for FETAC Service Providers". Further Education Training and Awards Council. Archived from the original on 19 June 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Country Report Republic of Ireland Transnational Education, The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education(UK), www.qaa.ac.uk.
- "Froebel Department of Primary and Early Childhood Education". Maynooth University.
- "Higher Education Outcomes - Graduation Years 2010-2016". Central Statistics Office. July 2019.
- "An Analysis of Labour Market Earnings for Higher Education Graduates in their Early Careers" (PDF). Higher Education Authority. December 2019.
- Department of Education and Science list of higher education providers in Ireland, updated regularly