Highland Railway Classes prior to 1870

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The Highland Railway began as the Inverness and Nairn Railway (later the Inverness and Aberdeen Junction Railway), which operated the other lines which became part of the Highland Railway on its formation in 1865. For post-1870 locomotives, see Locomotives of the Highland Railway.

Initial locomotive designs[edit]

William Barclay[edit]

The first locomotive superintendent was William Barclay, who was a nephew of Alexander Allan. The locomotives supplied initially were classic Allan designs, small 2-2-2s and 2-4-0s, outside cylindered and with external framing and (initially at least) not even a weatherboard to protect the enginemen. It was later decided that a cab was essential to protect them from winter weather. Only four of the Barclay era locomotives, all rebuilt by Jones, were still in service at the time of the Grouping in 1923.

Raigmore class[edit]

The first locomotives were two 2-2-2s were supplied by Hawthorns and Company of Leith in 1855, and a second pair delivered in 1857. Cylinder dimensions were 15 by 20 inches (381 by 508 mm), and driving wheel diameters were 6 feet 0 inches (1,829 mm). The boiler pressure was originally 100 psi (6.9 bar; 690 kPa), later being revised to 120 psi (8.3 bar; 830 kPa).

They were :

HR number Name
1
Raigmore
2
Aldourie
3
St Martins
4
Ardross

In around 1869, nos. 3 and 4 were scrapped, and their driving wheels were used by Stroudley to rebuild nos. 1 and 2 as 2-4-0s. No. 1 was withdrawn within a few years, but no. 2 received a more extensive rebuild, gaining a larger boiler and 15.5-by-22-inch (394 by 559 mm) cylinders, and lasted until 1899.

Seafield class[edit]

A batch of seven 2-4-0s with 16 in × 22 in (406 mm × 559 mm) bore x stroke cylinders and 5-foot-0-inch (1,524 mm) driving wheels were supplied by Hawthorns between 1858 and 1859 for goods service. Boiler pressure was originally 100 pounds per square inch (6.9 bar; 690 kPa), later increased to 120 pounds per square inch (8.3 bar; 830 kPa).

HR number Name
5
Seafield
6
Bruce
7
Fife
8
Altyre
9
Aultnaskiah
10
Westhall
11
Stafford

In 1873 Jones rebuilt no. 10 as a 4-4-0 to counter flange wear problems on the Dingwall & Skye line. He used the Adams bogie arrangement and replaced the cylinders with new ones of 17 and 24 in (432 and 610 mm) bore and stroke. This engine was effectively the prototype for the F Class built from 1874 onwards. In 1875 a second locomotive (no. 7) was similarly rebuilt, although this seems to have been a trial for new features adopted for the Skye bogies. The other 5 locomotives of this batch remained as 2-4-0s but were rebuilt with cabs and longer (24 in or 610 mm stroke) cylinders between 1875 and 1880. All were withdrawn between 1893 and 1899.

Belladrum class[edit]

A pair of 2-2-2s with 16-by-22-inch (406 mm × 559 mm) cylinders was supplied by Hawthorns in 1862. Driving wheels were 6 foot 0 inches, boiler pressure was originally 100 lb/square inch, later increased to 120 lb/square inch. They were the first locomotives supplied with cabs from new.

HR number Name
12
Belladrum
13
Lovat

No. 13 was withdrawn in 1890. In 1871 no. 12 was rebuilt by Jones as a 2-2-2T for branch line work, in which form it survived until 1898.

14 class[edit]

Two 2-4-0s were supplied by Hawthorns in 1862. They were similar to but slightly larger than the earlier batch, and were fitted with cabs from new. They were:

HR number Name
14
Loch
15
Sutherland

Later they were rebuilt with 17-by-24-inch (432 mm × 610 mm), bore x stroke, cylinders and 5-foot-2.5-inch (1,588 mm) driving wheels. No. 15 was withdrawn in 1893, while no. 14 lasted until 1901 (having been renumbered 6 and then 49).

Findhorn railway[edit]

In 1862 the Findhorn Railway was taken over, along with its sole locomotive, a Neilson and Company 0-4-0ST locomotive dating from 1860. It had 3-foot-6-inch (1,067 mm) wheels and 12-by-16-inch (305 mm × 406 mm) cylinders.

HR number Name
16
Findhorn (name not confirmed)

It was sold to a contractor in 1872.

Needlefield Tank[edit]

A small 0-4-0T was built by Hawthorns in 1863 for the Burghead branch line. It had 4-foot (1,219 mm) driving wheels and 13-by-18-inch (330 mm × 457 mm) inside cylinders.

HR number Name
17
Hopeman

As built, it proved to be rather unstable and was therefore converted to an 0-4-2T by Stroudley. It later became a stationary engine to power the Lochgorm works sawmill. It returned to traffic as no. 1A in 1898, and was finally withdrawn in 1902.

Small and Medium Goods[edit]

Ten 2-4-0s were supplied by Sharp, Stewart and Company in 1863. They had 17-by-22-inch (432 mm × 559 mm) cylinders, 150 psi (1,000 kPa) boilers and 5-foot-1.5-inch (1,562 mm) driving wheels.

HR number Name
18
Inverness
19
Dingwall
20
Birnam
21
Forres
22
Aviemore
23
Murthly
24
Invergordon
25
Novar
26
Beauly
27
Conon

The next year, Sharp, Stewart supplied ten more, with the stroke increased to 24 inches (610 mm) but otherwise identical.

HR number Name
36
Nairn
37
Struan
38
Kincraig
39
Aviemore
40
Keith
41
Kingussie
42
Lentran
43
Dava
44
Brodie
45
Dalcross

All were rebuilt by Jones between 1874 and 1893, gaining 18-by-24-inch (457 mm × 610 mm) cylinders, and having their driving wheels increased to 5 feet 3 inches (1,600 millimetres) by means of applying thicker tyres. Withdrawals commenced in 1896, but nos. 27, 37 and 42 survived into LMS ownership.

Glenbarry class[edit]

Three batches of 2-2-2s were supplied in 1863/64. They all had 120-pound-per-square-inch (8.3 bar; 830 kPa) boilers and cylinders with a 22-inch (559 mm) stroke. Driving wheels were 6 feet 1.5 inches (1,867 mm).

Two were built by Hawthorns in 1863 with 17-inch (432 mm) cylinders:

HR number Name
28
Glenbarry
29
Highlander

Six more were built by Neilson and Company in 1863 with 16.5-inch (419 mm) bore cylinders. They were all converted to 17-inch (432 mm) bore at an unspecified later date.

HR number Name
30
Prince
31
Princess
32
Sutherland
33
Atholl
34
Seafield
35
Kingsmills

A further batch of ten was built by Neilson in 1864. They had 17-inch (432 mm) inch bore cylinders.

HR number Name
46
Clachnacuddin
47
Bruce
48
Cadboll
49
Belladrum
50
Aultnaskiah
51
Caithness
52
Dunphail
53
Stafford
54
Macduff
55
Cluny

With increased traffic, especially over the Perth line, heavier locomotives were needed, but the company was short of money. Jones responded by following Stroudley's example of rebuilding 2-2-2s as 2-4-0s. No. 29 was the first to be rebuilt in 1871, and by 1893 all except no. 32 had been so converted. Cylinder dimensions were increased to 18 by 24 inches (457 mm × 610 mm). Seven locomotives received larger boilers between 1881 and 1896, and the others were withdrawn between 1897 and 1900. The reboilered examples lasted longer, and no. 35 was still in service (latterly renumbered 35A) at the Grouping.

William Stroudley[edit]

Lochgorm Tanks[edit]

During William Stroudley's tenure as locomotive superintendent from 1865–69 only one new locomotive was built. This was No. 56, an 0-6-0ST built at the Highland Railway's Lochgorm works in Inverness in 1869. This is generally considered the basis of the LB&SCR "Terrier" locomotives he produced later in his career. Two similar locomotives were built under Jones' in 1873 and 1874. They had 3-foot-7-inch (1,092 mm) wheels and 14-by-20-inch (356 mm × 508 mm) cylinders. The boiler of the first is believed to have come from no. 3.

They were classified as class R in Peter Drummond's 1901 classification scheme.

HR number Name Built LMS No. Withdrawn Notes
56 Balnain< 1869 16118 1926 Renamed Dornoch in 1902. Renumbered 56A in 1920, and 56B in 1922
57 Lochgorm 1872 16119 1932 Name removed in 1898. Renumbered 57A in 1920, and 57B in 1922
16 St Martins 1874 16383 1928 Renamed Fort George in 1899. Renumbered 49 in 1901, and 49A in 1912

No. 56 was rebuilt by Jones in 1895, and the other two were similarly rebuilt by Drummond in 1897. Alterations included thicker tyres to increase the wheel diameter to 3 feet 6 inches (1,067 mm), and the provision of larger bunkers. No. 16 was later renumbered 49. All three passed to the LMS in 1923; who removed the names when applying LMS livery.

Naming and Numbering[edit]

As will be apparent, the original numbering scheme was a simple chronological sequence, although Stroudley tank no. 16 was built as a replacement for the original Findhorn branch engine and received its number. In later years, new locomotives took some of the early numbers, and surviving early engines were either renumbered or given an 'A' suffix.

Renaming of locomotives was common in the early years, and only the first name is recorded here. Part of the reason for multiple engines having the same name was that names were applied to locomotives used on an appropriate part of the line. If an engine was reallocated then the name was moved to another. The name Bruce was commonly used for Highland Railway locomotives (five bore it all told), and contrary to common opinion it is not in memory of King Robert the Bruce but of the Hon. C. T. Bruce who was Chairman of the company from 1885 to 1891 (and had earlier been Chairman of the Inverness and Perth Junction Railway).

Classic Features[edit]

Features that arrived during the 1860s and stayed until the Peter Drummond days were the louvered chimneys and counter-pressure brake.

The chimney was really a pair of concentric ones. It is usually considered to have been adopted to aid forward visibility for the driver (a rather different pattern of smoke deflector), but there is some evidence that the real reason was to reduce the chance of lineside fires (rather like the prominent 'stacks' of early United States designs).

References[edit]

  • Baxter, Bertram (1984). Baxter, David, ed. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 4: Scottish and remaining English Companies in the LMS Group. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. 
  • Vallance, H. A. (1938). The Highland Railway.