Jump to content

Road traffic safety

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Highway safety)

Sidewalks, curbs and traffic signals in Hagerstown, Maryland, United States
Speed limits in different areas, unusually with only a "recommended" limit (130 km/h) for the Autobahn
DRIP[Note 1] variable message sign guiding traffic on the Dutch A13 motorway
Vehicles experiencing a breakdown or an emergency can stop in the emergency lane; these lanes may themselves present risks to traffic.
Sacrifices to the Modern Moloch, a 1923 cartoon published in St. Louis Star, criticizing the apparent acceptance by society of increasing automobile-related fatalities

Road traffic safety refers to the methods and measures used to prevent road users from being killed or seriously injured. Typical road users include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, vehicle passengers, and passengers of on-road public transport (mainly buses and trams).

Best practices in modern road safety strategy:

The basic strategy of a Safe System approach is to ensure that in the event of a crash, the impact energies remain below the threshold likely to produce either death or serious injury. This threshold will vary from crash scenario to crash scenario, depending upon the level of protection offered to the road users involved. For example, the chances of survival for an unprotected pedestrian hit by a vehicle diminish rapidly at speeds greater than 30 km/h, whereas for a properly restrained motor vehicle occupant the critical impact speed is 50 km/h (for side impact crashes) and 70 km/h (for head-on crashes).

— International Transport Forum, Towards Zero, Ambitious Road Safety Targets and the Safe System Approach, Executive Summary page 19[1]

As sustainable solutions for classes of road safety have not been identified, particularly low-traffic rural and remote roads, a hierarchy of control should be applied, similar to classifications used to improve occupational safety and health.[2] At the highest level is sustainable prevention of serious injury and death crashes, with sustainable requiring all key result areas to be considered. At the second level is real-time risk reduction, which involves providing users at severe risk with a specific warning to enable them to take mitigating action. The third level is about reducing the crash risk which involves applying the road-design standards and guidelines (such as from AASHTO), improving driver behavior and enforcement.[1] It is important to note that drivers' traffic behaviors are significantly influenced by their perceptions and attitudes.[3]

Traffic safety has been studied as a science for more than 75 years.[4]


Guardrails save a vehicle from a long fall c. 1920. Guard rails were only sometimes effective at the time. It was not until the 1960s that safety testing ensured adequate protection, and even then only for vehicles of a limited weight-class.

Road traffic crashes have become one of the world's largest public-health and injury-prevention problems. The issue is all the more acute because the victims are overwhelmingly healthy before their crashes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1 million people are killed on the world's roads each year.[5] A report published by the WHO in 2004 estimated that some 1.2 million people were killed and 50 million injured in traffic collisions on the roads around the world each year[6] and that traffic accidents were the leading cause of death among children 10–19 years of age. The report also noted that the problem was most severe in developing countries and that simple prevention-measures could halve the number of deaths.[7]

The standard measures used in assessing road safety interventions are fatalities and killed-or-seriously-injured (KSI) rates, usually expressed per billion (109) passenger kilometres. Countries using older road-safety paradigms[8] replace KSI rates with crash rates – for example, crashes per million vehicle-miles.

Vehicle speed within the human tolerances for avoiding serious injury and death is a key goal of modern road-design, because impact speed affects the severity of injury both to vehicle occupants and to pedestrians. For occupants, Joksch (1993) found the probability of death for drivers in multi-vehicle collisions increased as the fourth power of impact speed (often referred to by the mathematical term δv ("delta V"), meaning change in velocity). Injuries are caused by sudden, severe acceleration (or deceleration); this is difficult to measure. However, crash reconstruction techniques can estimate vehicle speeds before a crash. Therefore, the change in speed is used as a surrogate for acceleration. This enabled the Swedish Road Administration to identify the KSI risk curves using actual crash-reconstruction data which led to the human tolerances for serious injury and death referenced above.

Interventions are generally much easier to identify in the modern road-safety paradigm, which focusses on the human tolerances for serious injury and death. For example, the elimination of head-on KSI crashes simply required the installation of an appropriate median crash-barrier. Also, roundabouts, often with speed-reducing approaches, feature very few KSI crashes.

The old road-safety paradigm of purely crash risk is a far more complex matter. Contributing factors to highway crashes may be related to the driver (such as driver error, illness, or fatigue), the vehicle (brake, steering, or throttle failures), or the road itself (lack of sight distance, poor roadside clear- zones, etc.). Interventions may seek to reduce or compensate for these factors, or to reduce the severity of crashes. A comprehensive outline of interventions areas can be seen in management systems for road safety. Study conducted in Finland revealed that the fatality risk is increased most when a collision type is either pedestrian or meeting[clarification needed] of the vehicles.[9]

In addition to management systems, which apply predominantly to networks in built-up areas, another class of interventions relates to the design of roadway networks for new districts. Such interventions explore the configurations of a network that will inherently reduce the probability of collisions.[10]

Interventions for the prevention of road traffic injuries are often evaluated; the Cochrane Library has published a wide variety of reviews of interventions for the prevention of road-traffic injuries.[11][12]

For the purposes of road-traffic safety it can be helpful to classify roads into three usages:

  • built-up urban streets with slower speeds, greater densities, and more diversity among road users
  • non built-up rural roads with higher speeds
  • major highways (motorways/ Interstates/ freeways/ Autobahns, autostrade, etc.) reserved for motor-vehicles, and which are often designed to minimize and attenuate crashes

Most injuries occur on urban streets but most fatalities on rural roads, while motorways are the safest in relation to distance traveled. For example, in 2013, German autobahns carried 31% of motorized road traffic (in travel-kilometres) while accounting for 13% of Germany's traffic deaths. The autobahn fatality-rate of 1.9 deaths per billion-travel-kilometres compared favorably with the 4.7 rate on urban streets and 6.6 rate on rural roads.[13]

Road Class Injury Crashes Fatalities Injury Rate[rate 1] Fatality Rate[rate 1] Fatalities per 1000 Injury Crashes
Autobahn 18,452 428 82 1.9 23.2
Rural 73,003 1,934 249 6.6 26.5
Urban 199,650 977 958 4.7 4.9
Total, Average 291,105 3,399 401 4.6 11.6
  1. ^ a b per 1,000,000,000 travel-kilometres



Roadways originally carried all sorts of traffic indiscriminately - beasts of burden as well as pedestrians. Road behavior and rules have developed to prioritize certain types of traffic.

Important people traversing crowded streets and alleys in ancient Rome (famous for its Roman roads) deployed minions to clear the way for their litters or (if allowed) carts and chariots.[14] Even the mighty preferred not to trample the bystanders.

In the 19th century the advent of powered vehicles inspired British road-safety law to impose speed limits and to require a person on foot carrying a red flag warning of the arrival of a frightening noisy mechanical contrivance.[15]

Subsequently, motoring lobby-groups pressed for the priority of motorized traffic, and safety laws drove playing children off the streets and ghettoized the likes of walkers, bicycles, wheel-chairs and scooters to the margins.[16][17] Concepts like shared space, living streets and woonerven developed to counter this paradigm.



Mortality units


According to the WHO/IRTAD:

Traffic accident data are often compared between countries and between regions. These comparisons are done in numbers of casualties, but also in relation to the number of inhabitants (a measure of national health risk), the number of vehicle kilometres driven (a measure of the transport risk) as well as the number of cars in a country, etc. For a reliable comparison the real volumes should be used (rather than recorded numbers with different recording rates)[18]

Mortality statistics

Killed EU28, 2013 Killed EU27, 2019 Killed Japan, 2017 Killed US
  • EU source: European institutions (EC): EU28 2013;[19] EU27 2019[20]
  • US Source: OECD [21]
  • US Source, 2019: NHTSA[22]
Global mortality by region per million inhabitant in 2015
  • source: World Health Organization, Global status report on road safety 2015[23]
US mortality by state per million inhabitant in 2013
Europe mortality in selected countries per million inhabitant in 2013
  • source Eurostat (trans_r_acci serie) (data provided by member countries on a voluntary basis)
Fatalities by billion traveled km
Fatalities by billion traveled km
Fatalities by VMT allow to compare different class of roads, here in France
  • Maille France: SOeS, 49e Rapport de la commission des comptes des transports de la nation / La documentation française.[25]
  • Setra, Ministère des transports

Built-up areas

Pedestrian crossing, line markings and street furniture
A curb extension at a mid-block crosswalk
A traffic circle applied to a four-way intersection as a means of improving its safety. This device, with a proven record of collision reductions and traffic flow improvement, turns the cross-intersection into four virtual three-way intersections.
Utrecht has specially painted bicycle-only lanes.

On neighborhood roads where many vulnerable road users, such as pedestrians and bicyclists can be found, traffic calming can be a tool for road safety. Though not strictly a traffic calming measure, mini-traffic circles implanted in normal intersections of neighbourhood streets have been shown to reduce collisions at intersections dramatically[26] (see picture). Shared space schemes, which rely on human instincts and interactions, such as eye contact, for their effectiveness, and are characterised by the removal of traditional traffic signals and signs, and even by the removal of the distinction between carriageway (roadway) and footway (sidewalk), are also becoming increasingly popular. Both approaches can be shown to be effective.[27]

For planned neighbourhoods, studies recommend new network configurations, such as the Fused Grid or 3-Way Offset. These layout models organize a neighbourhood area as a zone of no cut-through traffic by means of loops or dead-end streets. They also ensure that pedestrians and bicycles have a distinct advantage by introducing exclusive shortcuts by path connections through blocks and parks. Such a principle of organization is referred to as "Filtered Permeability" implying a preferential treatment of active modes of transport. These new patterns, which are recommended for laying out neighbourhoods, are based on analyses of collision data of large regional districts and over extended periods.[28][29][30][31] They show that four-way intersections combined with cut-through traffic are the most significant contributors to increased collisions.

Modern safety barriers are designed to absorb impact energy and minimize the risk to the occupants of cars and bystanders. For example, most side rails are now anchored to the ground, so that they cannot skewer a passenger compartment. Most light poles are designed to break at the base rather than violently stop a car that hits them. Some road fixtures such as signs and fire hydrants are designed to collapse on impact. authorities have removed trees in the vicinity of roads; while the idea of "dangerous trees" has attracted a certain amount of skepticism, unforgiving objects such as trees can cause severe damage and injury to errant road users. Safety barriers can provide some combination of physical protection and visual protection depending on their environment. Physical protection is important for protecting sensitive building and pedestrian areas. Visual protection is necessary to alert drivers to changes in road patterns.

Most roads are cambered (crowned), that is, made so that they have rounded surfaces, to reduce standing water and ice, primarily to prevent frost damage but also increasing traction in poor weather. Some sections of road are now surfaced with porous bitumen to enhance drainage; this is particularly done on bends. These are just a few elements of highway engineering. As well as that, there are often grooves cut into the surface of cement highways to channel water away, and rumble strips at the edges of highways to rouse inattentive drivers with the loud noise they make when driven over. In some cases, there are raised markers between lanes to reinforce the lane boundaries; these are often reflective. In pedestrian areas, speed bumps are often placed to slow cars, preventing them from going too fast near pedestrians.

Poor road surfaces can lead to safety problems. If too much asphalt or bituminous binder is used in asphalt concrete, the binder can 'bleed' or flush' to the surface, leaving a very smooth surface that provides little traction when wet. Certain kinds of stone aggregate become very smooth or polished under the constant wearing action of vehicle tyres, again leading to poor wet-weather traction. Either of these problems can increase wet-weather crashes by increasing braking distances or contributing to loss of control. If the pavement is insufficiently sloped or poorly drained, standing water on the surface can also lead to wet-weather crashes due to hydroplaning.

Lane markers in some countries and states are marked with cat's eyes, Botts' dots or reflective raised pavement markers that do not fade like paint. Botts dots are not used where it is icy in the winter, because frost and snowplows can break the glue that holds them to the road, although they can be embedded in short, shallow trenches carved in the roadway, as is done in the mountainous regions of California.

Road hazards and intersections in some areas are now usually marked several times, roughly five, twenty, and sixty seconds in advance so that drivers are less likely to attempt violent manoeuvres.

Most road signs and pavement marking materials are retro-reflective, incorporating small glass spheres[32] or prisms to more efficiently reflect light from vehicle headlights back to the driver's eyes.

Turning across traffic


Turning across traffic (i.e., turning left in right-hand drive countries, turning right in left-hand drive countries) poses several risks. The more serious risk is a collision with oncoming traffic. Since this is nearly a head-on collision, injuries are common. It is the most common cause of fatalities in a built-up area. Another major risk is involvement in a rear-end collision while waiting for a gap in oncoming traffic.

Countermeasures for this type of collision include:

  • Addition of left turn lanes[33]
  • Providing protected turn phasing at signalized intersections[34]
  • Using indirect turn treatments such as the Michigan left
  • Converting conventional intersections to roundabouts[33]

In the absence of these facilities as a driver about to turn:

  • Keep your wheels straight, so that in the event of a rear end shunt, you are not pushed into on-coming traffic.
  • When you think it is clear, look away, to the road that you are entering. There is an optical illusion that, after a time, presents an oncoming vehicle as further away and travelling slower. Looking away breaks this illusion.

There is no presumption of negligence which arises from the bare fact of a collision at an intersection,[35] and circumstances may dictate that a left turn is safer than to turn right. The American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) recommends in their publication Geometric Design of Highways and Streets[36] that left or right turns are to be provided the same time gap.[37] Some states have recognized this in statute, and a presumption of negligence is only raised because of the turn if and only if the turn was prohibited by an erected sign.[38]

Turns across traffic have been shown to be problematic for older drivers.[39]

Designing for pedestrians and cyclists


Pedestrians and cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users[40] and in some countries constitute over half of all road deaths. Interventions aimed at improving safety of non-motorised users:

  • Sidewalks (or pavements in British English) of suitable width for pedestrian traffic
  • Pedestrian crossings close to the desire line which allow pedestrians to cross roads safely
  • Segregated pedestrian routes and cycle lanes away from the main highway
  • Overbridges (tend to be unpopular with pedestrians and cyclists due to additional distance and effort)
  • Underpasses (these can pose heightened risk from crime if not designed well, can work for cyclists in some cases)
  • Traffic calming and speed humps
  • Low speed limits that are rigorously enforced, possibly by speed cameras
  • Shared space schemes giving ownership of the road space and equal priority to all road users, regardless of mode of use
  • Pedestrian barriers to prevent pedestrians crossing dangerous locations
  • Cycling infrastructure
  • Protected intersection

American passive traffic safety measures which were adopted in the mid-20th century created roadways which were forgiving to motorists traveling at high speeds but which de-prioritized cycling and pedestrian facilities. Passive traffic safety policies led to excessively wide streets, clear zones adjacent to roadways, wide turn radii and a focus on protecting drivers from the consequences of high speeds. Passive traffic safety measures sought to avoid influencing the behavior of drivers while giving automobiles maximum convenience.[41] Recent complete street policies seek to create design-oriented traffic safety improvements which actively slow drivers down by narrowing roadways while better accommodating pedestrians and cyclists.

Pedestrians' advocates question the equitability of schemes if they impose extra time and effort on the pedestrian to remain safe from vehicles, for example overbridges with long slopes or steps up and down, underpasses with steps and addition possible risk of crime and at-grade crossings off the desired crossing line. Make Roads Safe was criticised in 2007 for proposing such features. Successful pedestrian schemes tend to avoid over-bridges and underpasses and instead use at-grade crossings (such as pedestrian crossings) close to the intended route. Successful cycling schemes by contrast avoid frequent stops even if some additional distance is involved, because cyclists expend more energy when starting off.

In Costa Rica 57% of road deaths are pedestrians. However, a partnership between AACR, Cosevi, MOPT and iRAP has proposed the construction of 190 km of pedestrian footpaths and 170 pedestrian crossings which could save over 9000 fatal or serious injuries over 20 years.[42]

Safe from traffic for cycling along a fully segregated Fietspad, properly designed cycling infrastructure in Amsterdam

Shared space

A shared space in Brighton (UK)

By 1947 the Pedestrians' Association was suggesting that many of the safety features being introduced (speed limits, traffic calming, road signs and road markings, traffic lights, Belisha beacons, pedestrian crossings, cycle lanes, etc.) were potentially self-defeating because "every nonrestrictive safety measure, however admirable in itself, is treated by the drivers as an opportunity for more speeding, so that the net amount of danger is increased and the latter state is worse than the first."[43]

During the 1990s a new approach, known as 'shared space' was developed which removed many of these features in some places has attracted the attention of authorities around the world.[44][45] The approach was developed by Hans Monderman who believed that "if you treat drivers like idiots, they act as idiots"[46] and proposed that trusting drivers to behave was more successful than forcing them to behave.[47] Professor John Adams, an expert on risk compensation, suggested that traditional traffic engineering measures assumed that motorists were "selfish, stupid, obedient automatons who had to be protected from their own stupidity" and non-motorists were treated as "vulnerable, stupid, obedient automatons who had to be protected from cars – and their own stupidity".[48]

Reported results indicate that the 'shared space' approach leads to significantly reduced traffic speeds, the virtual elimination of road casualties, and a reduction in congestion.[47] Living streets share some similarities with shared spaces. The woonerven also sought to reduce traffic speeds in community and housing zones by the use of lower speed limits enforced by the use of special signage and road markings, the introduction of traffic calming measures, and by giving pedestrians priority over motorists.

Non-built-up areas


Roads outside built-up areas, also known as rural roads not including motorways, are roads which are not classified as urban road and which are not classified as motorway. In the European Union, this is the kind of road with the most people killed (54.3%) in 2015, more than inside urban areas (36.8%).[49] However, such numbers might change country by country.

Fatalities on the rural roads come from the many collisions due to the dangers that exist on such roads, and the important energy involved in those collisions due to the practiced speeds. In contrast, risks of collision are less numerous on motorways, and speeds are lower on rural roads.

Major highways

Guard rail on road in Kaluga Oblast (Russia)
The Pan-American Highway with central median and no freestanding obstructions
The Autostrada A20 (Italy) with large central median

Major highways including motorways, freeways, Autobahnen, autostrade and interstates are designed for safer high-speed operation and generally have lower levels of injury per vehicle km than other roads; for example, in 2013, the German autobahn fatality rate of 1.9 deaths per billion-travel-kilometers compared favorably with the 4.7 rate on urban streets and 6.6 rate on rural roads.[13]

Safety features include:

  • Limited access from the properties and local roads.
  • Grade separated junctions
  • Median dividers between opposite-direction traffic to reduce likelihood of head-on collisions
  • Removing roadside obstacles.
  • Prohibition of more vulnerable road users and slower vehicles.
  • Placements of energy attenuation devices (e.g. guard rails, wide grassy areas, sand barrels).
  • Eliminating road toll booths

The ends of some guard in rails on high-speed highways in the United States are protected with impact attenuators, designed to gradually absorb the kinetic energy of a vehicle and slow it more gently before it can strike the end of the guard rail head on, which would be devastating at high speed. Several mechanisms are used to dissipate kinetic energy. Fitch Barriers, a system of sand-filled barrels, uses momentum transfer from the vehicle to the sand. Many other systems are tear or deform steel members to absorb energy and gradually stop the vehicle.

In some countries major roads have "tone bands" impressed or cut into the edges of the legal roadway, so that drowsing drivers are awakened by a loud hum as they release the steering and drift off the edge of the road. Tone bands are also referred to as "rumble strips", owing to the sound they create. An alternative method is the use of "Raised Rib" markings, which consists of a continuous line marking with ribs across the line at regular intervals. They were first specially authorised for use on motorways as an edge line marking to separate the edge of the hard shoulder from the main carriageway. The objective of the marking is to achieve improved visual delineation of the carriageway edge in wet conditions at night. It also provides an audible/vibratory warning to vehicle drivers, should they stray from the carriageway, and run onto the marking.

Better motorways are banked on curves to reduce the need for tire-traction and increase stability for vehicles with high centers of gravity.

The US has developed a prototype automated roadway, to reduce driver fatigue and increase the carrying capacity of the roadway. Roadside units participating in future wireless vehicle safety communications networks have been studied.

Motorways are far more expensive and space-consumptive to build than ordinary roads, so are only used as principal arterial routes. In developed nations, motorways bear a significant portion of motorized travel; for example, the United Kingdom's 3533 km of motorways represented less than 1.5% of the United Kingdom's roadways in 2003, but carry 23% of road traffic.

The proportion of traffic borne by motorways is a significant safety factor. For example, even though the United Kingdom had a higher fatality rates on both motorways and non-motorways than Finland, both nations shared the same overall fatality rate in 2003. This result was due to the United Kingdom's higher proportion of motorway travel.

Similarly, the reduction of conflicts with other vehicles on motorways results in smoother traffic flow, reduced collision rates, and reduced fuel consumption compared with stop-and-go traffic on other roadways.

The improved safety and fuel economy of motorways are common justifications for building more motorways. However, the planned capacity of motorways is often exceeded in a shorter timeframe than initially planned, due to the under estimation of the extent of the suppressed demand for road travel. In developing nations, there is significant public debate on the desirability of continued investment in motorways.

With effect from January 2005 and based primarily on safety grounds, the UK's Highways Agency's policy is that all new motorway schemes are to use high containment concrete step barriers in the central reserve. All existing motorways will introduce concrete barriers into the central reserve as part of ongoing upgrades and through replacement as and when these systems have reached the end of their useful life. This change of policy applies only to barriers in the central reserve of high speed roads and not to verge side barriers. Other routes will continue to use steel barriers.

More people die on the hard shoulder than on the highway itself. Without other vehicles passing a parked car, following drivers are unaware that the vehicle is parked, despite hazard lights. Truck drivers indicate that they are parked by putting their cab seat behind their truck.[citation needed] In the UK, the AA and police park their vehicles on the hard shoulder at a slight angle so that following drivers can see down the side of their vehicle and are therefore aware that they are stopped.[citation needed]

30% of highway crashes occur in the vicinity of toll collection booths in the countries that have them, these can be reduced by switching to electronic toll systems.[50]

Vehicle safety


Safety can be improved in various ways depending on the transport taken.

Buses and coaches


Safety can be improved in various simple ways to reduce the chance of a crash occurring. Avoiding rushing or standing in unsafe places on the bus or coach and following the rules on the bus or coach itself will greatly increase the safety of a person travelling by bus or coach. Various safety features can also be implemented into buses and coaches to improve safety including safety bars for people to hold onto.

The main ways to stay safe when travelling by bus or coach are as follows:

  • Leave your location early so that you do not have to run to catch the bus or coach.
  • At the bus stop, always follow the queue.
  • Do not board or alight at a bus stop other than an official one.
  • Never board or alight at a red light crossing or unauthorized bus stop.
  • Board the bus only after it has come to a halt without rushing in or pushing others.
  • Do not sit, stand or travel on the footboard of the bus.
  • Do not put any part of your body outside a moving or a stationary bus.
  • While in the bus, refrain from shouting or making noise as it can distract the driver.
  • Always hold onto the handrail if standing in a moving bus, especially on sharp turns.
  • Always adhere to the bus safety rules.


Simulated crashes using crash test dummies can help improve automobile design.

Safety can be improved by reducing the chances of a driver making an error, or by designing vehicles to reduce the severity of crashes that do occur. Most industrialized countries have comprehensive requirements and specifications for safety-related vehicle devices, systems, design, and construction. These may include:

  • Passenger restraints such as seat belts – often in conjunction with laws requiring their use – and airbags
  • Crash avoidance equipment such as lights and reflectors
  • Driver assistance systems such as Electronic Stability Control
  • Crash survivability design including fire-retardant interior materials, standards for fuel system integrity, and the use of safety glass
  • Sobriety detectors: These interlocks prevent the ignition key from working if the driver breathes into one and it detects significant quantities of alcohol. They have been used by some commercial transport companies, or suggested for use with persistent drunk-driving offenders on a voluntary basis[51]
The Dutch Reach - Use far hand on handle when opening to avoid dooring cyclists or injuries to exiting drivers and passengers.

Motorists and passengers[52][53] – both front and rear – can make dooring less likely by practicing the "Dutch reach" – opening the car door by reaching across the body with the more distant hand.[52][54]



UK road casualty statistics show that motorcycle riders are nine times more likely to crash, and 17 times more likely to die in a crash, than car drivers.[55] The higher fatality risk is due in part to the lack of crash protection (unlike in enclosed vehicles such as cars), combined with the high speeds motorcycles typically travel at.[56] According to US statistics, the percentage of intoxicated motorcyclists in fatal crashes is higher than other riders on roads.[57] Helmets also play a major role in the safety of motorcyclists. In 2008, The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimated the helmets are 37 percent effective in saving lives of motorcyclists involved in crashes.[58]



According to the European Commission Transportation Department "it has been estimated that up to 25% of accidents involving trucks can be attributable to inadequate cargo securing". Improperly-secured cargo can cause severe crashes and lead to loss of cargo, loss of lives, loss of vehicles, and can be a hazard for the environment. One way to stabilize, secure, and protect cargo during transportation on the road is by using dunnage bags, which are placed in the voids among the cargo and are designed to prevent the load from moving during transport.

Together for Safer Roads (TSR) has developed best practices for implementing corporate road safety programs that includes data management and analysis, route mapping, investment and upkeep of fleets, safety policies and training for employees, and first-aid/safety training in case collisions do occur.[59]



Hundreds of people are killed each year due to high-speed chases of fleeing suspects by police. Different jurisdictions allow such pursuits in different circumstances; fewer injuries might occur if these are restricted to violent felonies.[60]

Regulation of road users


Various types of road user regulations are in force or have been tried in most jurisdictions around the world, some these are discussed by road user type below.

Motor vehicle users


Dependent on jurisdiction, driver's age, road type and vehicle type, motor vehicle drivers may be required to pass a driving test (public transport and goods vehicle drivers may need additional training and licensing), conform to restrictions on driving after consuming alcohol or various drugs, comply with restrictions on use of mobile phones, be covered by compulsory insurance, wear seat belts and comply with certain speed limits. Motorcycle riders may additionally be compelled to wear a motorcycle helmet. Drivers of certain vehicle types may be subject to maximum driving hour regulations.

Some jurisdictions, such as the US states Virginia and Maryland, have implemented specific regulations such as the prohibiting mobile phone use by, and limiting the number of passengers accompanying, young and inexperienced drivers.[61] The State of Safety Report from the National Safety Council released in 2017 ranks states on these road safety regulations.[62] It has been noticed that more serious collisions occur at night, when vehicles are more likely to have multiple occupants, and when seat belts are less likely to be used.[63]

The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety proposes restrictions for new drivers,[64] including a "curfew" imposed on young drivers to prevent them driving at night, an experienced supervisor to chaperone the less experienced driver, forbidding the carrying of passengers, zero alcohol tolerance, raising the standards required for driving instructors and improving the driving test, vehicle restrictions (e.g. restricting access to 'high-performance' vehicles), a sign placed on the back of the vehicle (an N- or P-Plate) to notify other drivers of a novice driver and encouraging good behaviour in the post-test period.

While government has primary responsibility for providing safe roads, the challenges of development and equity require that all segments of society engage and contribute, including the private sector. Private and public sector coalitions, like Together for Safer Roads (TSR) and the Road to Zero Coalition[65] exist to work alongside government policies to advance the business case of having safer roads; they help companies meet their duty of care to employees and minimize fleet-related dangers to the wider community.[66] Safer roads also benefit business by improving employee health and safety, by protecting assets, reducing productivity losses and healthcare costs, and enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of supply chains.

Some countries or states have already implemented some of these ideas through Vision Zero networks. Pay-as-you-drive adjusts insurance costs according to when and where the person drives.

Pedal bicycle users


Dependent on jurisdiction, road type and age, pedal cyclists may be required conform to restrictions on driving after consuming alcohol or various drugs, comply with restrictions on use of mobile phones, be covered by compulsory insurance, wear a bicycle helmet and comply with certain speed limits.



Dependent on jurisdiction, jaywalking may be prohibited. The frequent road safety education for the children helps to improve the dangerous behaviors.[67]



Collisions with animals are usually fatal to the animals, and occasionally to drivers as well.

Information campaigns

Annual traffic deaths sign over I-95 in Georgia, US, indicating more than three deaths per day

Information campaigns can be used to raise awareness of initiatives designed to reduce road casualty levels. Examples include:


According to Eurostat, there is almost a linear proportion between the total number of passenger-km driven by car and road fatalities.
Car fatalities per pax-km vs. car usage per pax-day; in Europe. It seems, at least in these European countries, that car fatalities per person-km have no strong correlation with massification of car usage. The average car usage in these countries is around 30km per person-day with varying number of fatalities ratios. These differences might be related with different cultural approaches to traffic codes, or more safety measures implemented on such countries.
According to Eurostat and European Railway Agency, in European railway mode of transport, there is a fatality risk for passengers and occupants 28 times lower compared with car usage. Based on data by EU-27 member nations, 2008–2010.[68][69]

Rating roads for safety


Since 1999 the EuroRAP initiative has been assessing major roads in Europe with a road protection score. This results in a star rating for roads based on how well its design would protect car occupants from being severely injured or killed if a head-on, run-off, or intersection crash occurs, with 4 stars representing a road with the best survivability features.[70] The scheme states it has highlighted thousands of road sections across Europe where road-users are routinely maimed and killed for want of safety features, sometimes for little more than the cost of safety fencing or the paint required to improve road markings.[71]

There are plans to extend the measurements to rate the probability of a collision for the road. These ratings are being used to inform planning and authorities' targets. For example, in Britain two-thirds of all road deaths happen on rural roads, which score badly when compared to the high quality motorway network; single carriageways claim 80% of rural deaths and serious injuries, while 40% of rural car occupant casualties are in cars that hit roadside objects, such as trees. Improvements in driver training and safety features for rural roads are hoped to reduce this statistic.[72]

The number of designated traffic officers in the UK fell from 15% to 20% of police force strength in 1966 to seven per cent of force strength in 1998, and between 1999 and 2004 by 21%.[73] It is an item of debate whether the reduction in traffic collisions per 100 million miles driven over this time[74] has been due to robotic enforcement.

In the United States, roads are not government-rated, for media-releases and public knowledge on their actual safety features. [unclear] However, in 2011, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Traffic Safety Facts found that over 800 persons were killed across the US by "non-fixed objects" that includes roadway debris. California had the highest number of total deaths from those crashes; New Mexico had a best chance for an individual to die from experiencing any vehicle-debris crash.[75]

KSI statistics


According to WHO in 2010 it was estimated that 1.24 million people were killed worldwide and 50 million more were injured in motor vehicle collisions. Young adults aged between 15 and 44 years account for 59% of global road traffic deaths. Other key facts according to the WHO report are:[76]

  • Road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among young people, aged 15–29 years.
  • 91% of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low-income and middle-income countries, even though these countries have approximately half of the world's vehicles.
  • Half of those dying on the world's roads are "vulnerable road users": pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists.
  • Without action, road traffic crashes are predicted to result in the deaths of around 1.9 million people annually by 2020.
  • Only 28 countries, representing 416 million people (7% of the world's population), have adequate laws that address all five risk factors (speed, drunk-driving, helmets, seat-belts and child restraints).

It is estimated that motor vehicle collisions caused the death of around 60 million people during the 20th century, around the same number of World War II casualties.[77]

As the comparatively poor improvements in pedestrian safety have become a concern at OECD level, the Joint Transport Research Centre of OECD and the International Transport Forum (JTRC) convened an international expert group and published a report entitled ”Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health in 2012”.[78]

According to BITRE/Australia agency changes in growth in population, vehicle registration, and estimated vehicle kilometres travelled have various impact on death trend from OECD countries.[79]

KSI 2013


According to the OECD's International Transport Forum (ITF), in 2013 the key figures among their 37 member states and observer countries looked like the following:[80]

Country Deaths per
1 million inhabitants
Deaths per
10 billion vehicle-km
Deaths per
100 000 registered vehicles
Registered vehicles per 1 000 inhabitants Seatbelt wearing rates Front (driver, passenger)/ Rear (adults, children) speed limit
urban / rural / motorways (km/h)
 Argentina 123 n.a. 23 529 52%,45% / 19%,45% 30–60 / 110 / 130
 Australia 51 50 7 751 97% / 96% 50, 60–80 / 100 or 110 / 110
 Austria 54 58 8 710 89% / 77% 50 / 100 / 130
 Belgium 65 71 10 627 86% / 63%,79%[Note 2] 30–50 / 70–90 / 120
 Cambodia 143[Note 3] n.a. 78[Note 3] 151 17% / n.a. 40 / 90 / n.a.
 Canada 55 56 9 644 95% / 95% (estimated) (Metropolitan) 40–70 / 80–90 / 100–110
 Chile 120 n.a. 50 237 62,78% / 15% 50 / 100–120 / 120
 Czech Republic 62 157 11 560 97% / 66%[Note 2] 50 / 90 / 130
 Denmark 34 39 6 523 94% / 81%[Note 2] 50 / 80 / 130 (110)
 Finland 48 48 7 725 95% / 87% 50 / 80 (winter) 100 (summer) / 120 (100)
 France 51 58 8 647 98% / 84%,90%[Note 4] 50 / 90 / 130 (110 bad w.)
 Germany 41 46 6 651 96–98% / 97,98% 50 / 100 / no limit or 130
 Greece 79 n.a. 11 726 77%,74% / 23%[Note 5] 50 / 90 (110) / 130 (110)
 Hungary 60 n.a. 16 366 87% / 57%,90% 50 / 90 / 130 (110)
 Iceland 47 47 6 830 84% / 65% 50 / 90 (80) / n.a.
 Ireland 41 40 8 541 92% / 88%,91% 50 / 80 or 100 / 120
 Israel 34 54 9 352 97% / 74% 50,70 / 80,90,100 / 110
 Italy 57 n.a. 7 821 64%–76% / 10%[Note 6] 50 / 90–110 / 130 (110 bad w., 100 novice, 150)
 Jamaica 122[Note 3] n.a. 87 130 44% / very low (estimated)[Note 7] 50 / 50 / 70 or 110
 Japan 40 69 6 657 96%,94% / 61% 40,50,60 / 50,60 / 100
 Lithuania 87 n.a. 11 766 95% / 33% 50 / 90 (70) / 120 or 130 (110 in winter)
 Luxembourg 84 n.a. 11 771 80% / n.a.[Note 8] 50 / 90 / 130 (110 in rain)
 Malaysia 231 122 29 792[Note 9] 82%,68% / 9% 50 / 90 / 110
 Morocco 116 n.a. 117 100 49%,46% / n.a.[Note 6] 50 / 100 / 120
 Netherlands 34 45 5 537 97% / 82%[Note 4] 50 / 80 / 130
 New Zealand 57 63 8 734 97% / 92%,93% 50 / 100 / 100
 Norway 37 43 5 707 95% / 87–88% 30,50 / 80 / 90,100,110
 Poland 87 n.a. 14 636 90% / 71%,89% 50 (60) / 90–120 / 140
 Portugal 61 n.a. 11 551 96% / 77%,89–100% 50 / 90 / 120
 Russia 124 201 35 353 n.a. 60 / 90 / 110 or 130
 Serbia 71 n.a. 20 347 84% / 19% 50 / 80 / 130
 Slovenia 61 72 10 638 94% / 66%,87–94% 50 / 90 (110) / 130
 South Korea 101 172 23 450 89%,75% / 22% (on motorways) 60 / 60–80 / 110 (100)
 Spain 36 n.a. 5 662 90% / 81%[Note 2] 50 / 90 or 100 / 120
 Sweden 27 34 5 597 97% / 81%,95% 30,40,50 / 60,70,80,90,100 / 110 or 120
  Switzerland 33 43 5 708 94%,93% / 77%,93% 50 / 80 / 120
 United Kingdom 28 35 5 551 96% / 92% 48 / 96 or 113 / 113
 United States 103 68 12 852 87% / 74% set by state / set by state / 88–129 (set by state)

KSI 2020


According to the OECD's International Transport Forum (ITF)/IRTAD, in 2020 the key figures of 34 members among their 62 member states and observer countries looked like the following:[81]

Country Deaths per
1 million
10 billion vkm
Deaths per
10 billion vkm
Deaths per
100 000
1 000 inhabitants
(driver, passenger)
Rear (adults, children)
speed limit
urban / rural / motorways (km/h)
general BAC g/L lower BAC g/L
 Austria 46 10 49 6 97/98 96 50 / 100 / 130 0.5 0.1
 Belgium (2017) (c) 53 24 59 8 95 (2017) 86 (2015) 30–50 / 70–90 / 120 0.5 0.2
 Czech Republic 62 26 117 9 95 (2015) 95 (2015) 50 / 90 / 130 0.0 -
 Denmark (2017) (c) 30 8 32 (or 31) 5 97 (2018) 93 (2019) 50 (sections with 30, 40 or 60) /
70, 80 (90 for specific sections) /
110, 130
0.5 -
 Finland 43 6 47 5 95 87 30–60 / 80, 100 / 100, 120 0.5 -
 France 50 22 54 7 99 86 50 /
80 with 90 sections /
110 on dual carriageways
(110 wet + novice)
0.5 0.2
 Germany (c) 40 17 44 6 99 98.5 50 / 100 /
None < (130 recommended)
0.3-0.5 0.0
 Netherlands (2017) (b) 39 10 40 (or 49) 6 >95 (2010) 82 (2010) 30–50 / 60–80 / 100–130 0.5 0.2
 Slovenia (2017) 44 25 49 (or 42) 6 95/96 (2018) 78 (adults 2018) 50 / 90 (110 on expressways) / 130 (110 on expressways) 0.5 0.0
  Switzerland 27 8 34 4 96/95 77 50 / 80 / 120 (100 on expressways) 0.5 0.0
 Great Britain / UK 28 10 33 5 99 drivers,
97 passengers
for GB)
48 (30 mph) 96, 113 (60, 70 mph) 113 (70 mph) 0.8
Northern Ireland)
 Japan 33 56 5 99 drivers,
96 passenger
39 40, 50, 60 / 50, 60 / 100 0.3 -
 USA 112 70 12 90.9 drivers, 89.8 passengers 76.1 (2018) (see note)
(see note)
0.8 0.0 - 0.4
(b) Real data (actual numbers instead of reported numbers by the police).

(c) Mopeds are not included in the registered vehicles.
VKM: vehicle-km
In United-States, speed limit vary state by state

Time effect

  • EU: Source EU[82]
  • EU28, ETSC.[83][84]
  • EU, 2010–2017 provisional data[85]
  • EU, 2010–1018, source Eurostat.[86]
  • EU, 2019, estimated.[87]
  • United-States: Source OCDE/ITF[88] for 1990, 2000 and 2010–2015 period (killed after 30 days)
  • United States, Sources IIHS.[89]
  • United States, 2010–2019, Sources NHTSA.[90]

Traveled distance effect


In some countries, the safety is computed mixing two metrics: the fatalities and the traveled distance, to establish fatalities by traveled distance.

US Fatalities vs VMT US Fatalities compared to VMT
In the US, between 1994 and 2007, VMT increased by 28% while fatalities remains stable (6%) variation

Between 2007 and 2009, VMT decreased by 2% while fatalities decreased by 20%
Since 2009 (to 2015), VMT increased by 4%, while fatalities increased by 3%,

In the US, Distance safely traveled by fatalities increase with distance increase.
* Source NHTSA.[91]
UK Fatalities vs VMT UK VMT compared to fatalities
Till 1966, in the UK, fatalities have increased in the same time that traveled distance increased.

Since 1966, fatalities have decreased in the same time that traveled distance increased.

In the UK, traveled distance by fatalities has regularly increased, even when traveled distance decreased.

According to the BITRE, traveled distance has a limited impact on death trend from OECD countries.[79]

Road traffic safety professional societies


Institute of Transportation Engineers: An international educational and scientific association of transportation professionals who are responsible for meeting mobility and safety needs.

National Association of City Transportation Officials

International Municipal Signal Association: A traffic standard organization.

Road traffic safety guide and reference manuals


Signalized Intersections Informational Guide


Published by the Federal Highway Association of the U.S. Department of Transportation.[92]

Advocacy groups


The Automobile Association was established in 1905 in the United Kingdom to help motorists avoid police speed traps.[93] They became involved in other safety issues and also erected thousands of roadside warning signs.[93]

The Pedestrians Association (now known as Living Streets) in the United Kingdom was formed in 1929 to press for better road safety. Other groups have been active in other countries.[citation needed]

The International Road Federation has an issue area and working group dedicated to road safety. They work with their membership to advocate measures that improve road safety through infrastructure and cooperation with other international organizations.[94]

Motoring advocacy groups including the Association of British Drivers (UK), Speed cameras.org[95] (UK), National Motorists Association (US/Canada) argue that the strict enforcement of speed limits does not necessarily result in safer driving, and may even have negative effect on road safety in general. Safe Speed was a UK group set up specifically to campaign against the use of Speed cameras.

Together for Safer Roads (TSR) is a coalition that brings together global private sector companies, across industries, to collaborate on improving road safety. TSR brings together members' knowledge, data, technology, and global networks to focus on five road safety areas with the goal of bringing about the greatest impact globally and within local communities.[96]

In 1965, Ralph Nader put pressure on car manufacturers in his book Unsafe at Any Speed, detailing resistance by car manufacturers to the introduction of safety features such as seat belts, and their general reluctance to spend money on improving safety. The GM President James Roche was later forced to appear before a United States Senate subcommittee, and to apologize to Nader for the company's campaign of harassment and intimidation. Nader later successfully sued GM for excessive invasion of privacy.[97]

RoadPeace was formed in 1991 in the United Kingdom to advocate for better road safety and founded World Day of Remembrance for Road Traffic Victims in 1993 which received support from the United Nations General Assembly in 2005.[98][99]

See also


Notes and references



  1. ^ Dynamic Route Information Panel
  2. ^ a b c d 2012
  3. ^ a b c 2014
  4. ^ a b 2010
  5. ^ 2009
  6. ^ a b 2011
  7. ^ 2008
  8. ^ 2003
  9. ^ Including motorised two-wheelers


  1. ^ a b International Transport Forum (2008). "Towards Zero, Ambitious Road Safety Targets and the Safe System Approach". OECD. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2012. It recognises that prevention efforts notwithstanding, road users will remain fallible and crashes will occur.
  2. ^ McLeod, Sam; Curtis, Carey (21 December 2020). "Integrating urban road safety and sustainable transportation policy through the hierarchy of hazard controls". International Journal of Sustainable Transportation. 16 (2): 166–180. doi:10.1080/15568318.2020.1858376. ISSN 1556-8318. S2CID 234431488.
  3. ^ Mehri, Mahsa; Khazaee-Pool, Maryam; Arghami, Shirazeh (2019). "Phenomenology of being a safe taxi driver". BMC Public Health. 19: 1753. doi:10.1186/s12889-019-8106-1. PMC 6937910.
  4. ^ Evans L (2014). "Traffic fatality reductions: United States compared with 25 other countries". Am J Public Health. 104 (8): 1501–7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.301922. PMC 4103211. PMID 24922136.
  5. ^ Statistical Annex, World report on road traffic injury prevention
  6. ^ "World report on road traffic injury prevention". World Health Organisation. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  7. ^ "UN raises child accidents alarm". BBC News. 10 December 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  8. ^ KSI league tables
  9. ^ Sirvio, Konsta; Hollmén, Jaakko. PIARC Paris 23rd World Road Congress: Exploratory Analysis of Road Accidents with the Self-Organising Map. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320857470_EXPLORATORY_ANALYSIS_OF_ROAD_ACCIDENTS_WITH_THE_SELF-ORGANISING_MAP
  10. ^ Lovegrove G.; Sayed T. (2006). "Macro-level collision models for evaluating neighbourhood traffic safety". Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 33 (5): 609–621. doi:10.1139/l06-013.
  11. ^ "Speed Cameras". ROSPA. Archived from the original on 10 December 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011. The Cochrane Collaboration published out a second systematic review in 2006, which was updated in 2010. These studies only included before-and-after trials with comparison areas and interrupted time series studies.
  12. ^ Willis Charlene (1996). "Reduce Injuries Associated with Motor Vehicle Crashes". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2004 (3). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: CD004168. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004168.pub2. PMC 6986691. PMID 15495082. Alcohol ignition interlock programmes for reducing drink driving recidivism.
  13. ^ a b "Traffic and Accident Data: Summary Statistics – Germany" (PDF). Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (Federal Highway Research Institute). October 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2014. Alt URL
  14. ^ Laurence, Ray; Newsome, David J., eds. (24 November 2011). Rome, Ostia, Pompeii: Movement and Space. Oxford: Oxford University Press (published 2011). pp. 191, 342. ISBN 9780199583126. Retrieved 13 October 2021. Some carts were preceded by a 'runner' (cursor) with a whip who would clear the way and who could make sure a one-lane street was clear of oncoming traffic. [...] During transport of lumbering loads, someone ran ahead to clear the way of pedestrians and other blockages.
  15. ^ Merkin, Robert M.; Stuart-Smith, Jeremy (2004). "Framework of Motor Insurance Law". The Law of Motor Insurance. Insurance practitioners library. London: Sweet & Maxwell. p. 4. ISBN 9780421839304. Retrieved 13 October 2021. Once steam-driven vehicles had begun to proliferate, draconian legislative steps were taken to protect other road users. The Locomotives on Highways Act 1865, generally known as the 'Red flag Act'. required a vehicle of this nature to be manned by three persons: one to steer; one to stoke; and one to walk 60 yards ahead with a red flag, primarily to alert those in control of horses of the imminent presence of the vehicle. The 1865 Act also imposed a 2 mph speed limit in cities and a 4 mph speed limit in the open.
  16. ^ Reid, Carlton (9 April 2015). Roads Were Not Built for Cars: How Cyclists Were the First to Push for Good Roads & Became the Pioneers of Motoring. Washington, D.C.: Island Press (published 2015). pp. 250–251. ISBN 9781610916899. Retrieved 13 October 2021. The marginalisation - framed by legislators as a safety concern - was highly successful and by the late 1950s almost everybody had bought into the concept [...]. A cinema news snippet from British Pathé described the Western Avenue cycle track as 'a new safety innovation' [...].
  17. ^ Davis, Robert (1993). Death on the Streets: Cars and the Mythology of Road Safety. Leading Edge Press (published 1992). ISBN 9780948135460. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  18. ^ https://www.who.int/roadsafety/publications/irtad_underreporting.pdf [dead link]
  19. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ "Road accident fatalities - statistics by type of vehicle".
  21. ^ "Road Safety Annual Report, Books / Road Safety Annual Report / 2016" (PDF). www.oecd-ilibrary.org. Retrieved 27 March 2018.[permanent dead link]
  22. ^ "NHTSA Releases 2019 Crash Fatality Data | NHTSA".
  23. ^ "Global status report on road safety 2015". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  24. ^ "The Geography of Car Deaths in America". Bloomberg.com. 15 October 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  25. ^ "La Sécurité routière en France: Bilan de l'année 2011" [Road safety in France: Review of the year 2011] (PDF) (in French). Paris: Observatoire national interministériel de sécurité routière.
  26. ^ Neighborhood Traffic Calming: Seattle's Traffic Circle Program http://www.usroads.com/journals/rmej/9801/rm980102.htm Archived 18 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ "Traffic Calming 101 - Project for Public Spaces". Project for Public Spaces. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  28. ^ Sun, J. & Lovegrove, G. (2008). Research Study on Evaluating the Level of Safety of the Fused Grid Road Pattern, External Research Project for CMHC, Ottawa, Ontario
  29. ^ Eric Dumbaugh and Robert Rae. Safe Urban Form: Revisiting the Relationship Between Community Design and Traffic Safety. Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 75, No. 3, Summer 2009
  30. ^ Vicky Feng Wei, BASc and Gord Lovegrove PhD (2011), Sustainable Road Safety: A New Neighbourhood Road Pattern that saves VRU Lives, University of British Columbia
  31. ^ Xie, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Zunjing (2018). "Multiscale crash analysis: A case study of integrating FARS, Maryland's crash data, and Montgomery County's traffic violation data" (PDF). Transportation Research Board (TRB) Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, USA.
  32. ^ "Reflective Glass Beads". Archived from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  33. ^ a b NEUMAN, TIMOTHY R.; et al. (2003). NCHRP REPORT 500 Volume 5: A Guide for Addressing Unsignalized Intersection Collisions (PDF). WASHINGTON, D.C.: TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD.
  34. ^ ANTONUCCI, NICHOLAS D.; et al. NCHRP REPORT 500 Volume 12: A Guide for Reducing Collisions at Signalized Intersections (PDF). Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board.
  35. ^ "Cordova v. Ford, 46 Cal. App. 2d 180". 2. Official California Appellate Reports. 7 November 1966. p. 180. Retrieved 27 July 2013. All courts are agreed that the mere fact of a collision of two automobiles gives rise to no inference of negligence against either driver in an action brought by the other. ...When a vehicle operated by A collides with a vehicle operated by B, there are four possibilities. A alone was negligent; B alone was negligent; both were negligent; or neither. Of these four only the first will result in liability of A to B. The bare fact of a collision affords no basis on which to conclude that it is the preponderant probability. The odds are against it. See Official Reports Opinions Online
  36. ^ A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington D.C.: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. 2004.
  37. ^ Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials. 7 November 2010. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2013. Exhibit 9-54. Time Gap for Case B1-Left turn from Stop
  38. ^ "Cal. Veh C. § 22101. Regulation of Turns at Intersection". State of California. 1 January 1975. Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013. When right- or left-hand turns are prohibited at an intersection notice of such prohibition shall be given by erection of a sign. See opinions on C.V.C. § 22101: Official Reports Opinions Online
  39. ^ Staplin, L.; et al. (2001). Highway Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians. Washington D.C.: Federal Highway Administration.
  40. ^ "Vehicle Pedestrian Crashes". International Road Assessment Programme. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2008.
  41. ^ "Design-Oriented Traffic Safety Vs. Passive Safety". Car Free America. 12 April 2017. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  42. ^ "Vaccines for Roads; The new iRAP tools and their pilot application" (PDF). International Road Assessment Programme. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2008.
  43. ^ J.S.Dean (2017). "Murder most foul". New Scientist. 233 (3111): 33. Bibcode:2017NewSc.233...33M. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(17)30226-9.
  44. ^ Matthias Schulz (16 November 2006). "European Cities Do Away with Traffic Signs". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
  45. ^ Ted White (September 2007). "Signing Off: Visionary traffic planners". Urbanite Baltimore. Archived from the original on 20 January 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
  46. ^ Gray, Sadie (11 January 2008). "Obituaries: Hans Monderman". The Times. London: Times Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
  47. ^ a b Andrew Gilligan (7 February 2008). "It's hell on the roads, and I know who's to blame". The Evening Standard. Associated Newspapers Limited. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
  48. ^ Professor John Adams (2 September 2007). "Shared Space – would it work in Los Angeles?" (PDF). John Adams. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
  49. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 February 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  50. ^ "Bringing U.S. Roads into the 21st Century". July 2010.
  51. ^ Bjerre Bo (November 2005). "Primary and secondary prevention of drink driving by the use of alcolock device and program: Swedish experiences". Accident Analysis & Prevention. 37 (6): 1145–1152. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2005.06.020. PMID 16055069.
  52. ^ a b "Dutch Reach: What is the Dutch Reach? - Road Safety, Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, UK". Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  53. ^ "Commonwealth of Massachusetts Revised 2017 Driver's Manual, Chapter 4, Rules of the Road: "The Danger of Open Doors to Bicyclists"[cf. The Danger of Open Doors to Bicyclists, p. 109]" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
  54. ^ "This cyclist wants drivers to do the 'Dutch Reach' - The Boston Globe". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  55. ^ "Reported road casualties Great Britain: annual report 2013 - Publications - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  56. ^ "Anatomy of a Motorcycle Crash". National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  57. ^ Driving Safety. http://www.nhtsa.gov/Safety/Motorcycles. NHTSA. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  58. ^ Motorcycles: Traffic Safety Facts-2008 Data. http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pubs/811159.pdf. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  59. ^ Together for Safer Roads. "Advancing Best Practices for Companies and Their Fleets: Guidelines for Developing and Managing Transportation Programs" (PDF). TSR. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  60. ^ "In Hot Pursuit Of Public Safety, Police Consider Fewer Car Chases". NPR.org. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  61. ^ Williamson, Elizabeth (1 February 2005). "Brain Immaturity Could Explain Teen Crash Rate". Washington Post.
  62. ^ Williams, Mark. "Ohio gets 'D' in safety report on preventable deaths, injuries". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  63. ^ "The Good, the Bad and the Talented: Young Drivers' Perspectives on Good Driving and Learning to Drive" (PDF). Road Safety Research Report No. 74. Transport Research Laboratory. January 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
  64. ^ "Beginning teen drivers". www.iihs.org. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  65. ^ matthew.lynberg.ctr@dot.gov (9 October 2016). "U.S. DOT, National Safety Council Launch 'Road to Zero' Coalition to End Roadway Fatalities". NHTSA. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  66. ^ Together for Safer Roads. "Investing in Road Safety: A Global Imperative for the Private Sector" (PDF). TSR. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  67. ^ Duperrex, O; Roberts, I; Bunn, F (2002). "Safety education of pedestrians for injury prevention" (PDF). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2002 (2): CD001531. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001531. hdl:2299/5191. PMC 7025789. PMID 12076415.
  68. ^ "Statistics database for transports" (statistical database). Eurostat, European Commission. 20 April 2014. Archived from the original on 3 June 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  69. ^ Vojtech Eksler, ed. (5 May 2013). "Intermediate report on the development of railway safety in the European Union 2013" (PDF) (report). Safety Unit, European Railway Agency & European Union. p. 1. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  70. ^ "Star rating roads for safety: UK trials 2006–07". EuroRAP. 3 December 2007. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. (Note: see country maps here [1] Archived 24 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine)
  71. ^ John Dawson, John. "Chairman's Message". Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
  72. ^ "Star rating roads for safety, UK trials 2006–07" (PDF). TRL, EuroRAP & ADAC. December 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008.
  73. ^ "Section 21, traffic officer numbers reduction in the UK" (PDF). Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  74. ^ "page 147 Transport statistics 2009 edition" (PDF). Dft.gov.uk. 31 March 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  75. ^ "Traffic Safety Facts 2011: Motor Vehicle Crash Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the General Estimates System" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2013. Retrieved 27 March 2018.[page needed]
  76. ^ Global status report on road safety 2013: Supporting a Decade of Action (report). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation WHO. 2013. ISBN 978-92-4-156456-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 March 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2014. data from 2010
  77. ^ "Visualizing Major Causes of Death in the 20th Century" (news article). Visual News. 19 March 2013. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  78. ^ "Pedestrian Safety, Urban Space and Health: Summary Report" (PDF) (research report). Paris, France: International Transport Forum, OECD. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  79. ^ a b "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 14 May 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  80. ^ "Road Safety Annual Report 2014" (report). Paris, France: International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group irtad, International Transport Forum, OECD. 2015. pp. 22, 32, div. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2015. data from 2013
  81. ^ "Road Safety Annual Report 2020" (PDF) (report). Paris, France: International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group irtad, International Transport Forum, OECD. 23 October 2020. data from 2018-2019-2020
  82. ^ SÉCURITÉ ROUTIÈRE: Quelle est la situation dans votre pays? ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/pdf/statistics/dacota/scoreboard_2015_en.pdf D'après des données CARE/Eurostat
  83. ^ SemiColonWeb. "11th Annual Road Safety Performance Index (PIN) Report - ETSC". etsc.eu. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  84. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2018.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  85. ^ "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - 2017 road safety statistics: What is behind the figures?". europa.eu. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  86. ^ "Persons killed in road accidents by sex (source: CARE)". Eurostat. 17 June 2021.
  87. ^ "Road safety: Europe's roads are getting safer but progress remains too slow". 10 June 2020.
  88. ^ Base de donénes IRTAD_CASUAL_BY_AGE stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=IRTAD_CASUAL_BY_AGE
  89. ^ "General statistics". IIHS. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  90. ^ National Center for Statistics and Analysis (December 2020). "Overview of motor vehicle crashes in 2019. (Traffic Safety Facts Research Note. Report No. DOT HS 813 060)". National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
  91. ^ Administration, National Highway Traffic Safety. "FARS Encyclopedia". www-fars.nhtsa.dot.gov. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  92. ^ Signalized Intersections Informational Guide (dot.gov)
  93. ^ a b "About us". The AA. Retrieved 26 February 2010.
  94. ^ IRF Road Safety Archived 30 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  95. ^ "Speed cameras.org". Speed cameras.org. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  96. ^ "About Us – TogetherForSaferRoads". www.togetherforsaferroads.org. Archived from the original on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  97. ^ "Legal Audio Opinions and Courtroom Video - LexisNexis Courtroom Cast". lawschool.courtroomview.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  98. ^ "about". World Day of Remembrance. Archived from the original on 16 June 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2010.
  99. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 60 Resolution 5. Improving global road safety A/RES/60/5 page 3. 26 October 2005. Retrieved 9 July 2008.