Highways in Estonia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Map of the Estonian national route network (riigimaanteed)

Highways in Estonia are the main transport network in Estonia. The Estonian national classification includes several classes of highways:[1]

  • Main route (põhimaantee) – highway, that connects the capital with other large cities, connects large cities and the capital with major ports, railway points and border crossings.
  • Support route (tugimaantee) – highway, that connects towns with other towns and main routes.
  • Side route (kõrvalmaantee) – highway, that connects towns with boroughs, connects boroughs and villages and all of the previous with main- and support routes.

Other than these, the national road classification includes the following categories which may also be referred to as highways in a general sense, with decreasing order of priority (and applicability of the term highway):

  • Connector road (ühendustee) – constructed for traffic flow on the intersections/interchanges of highways
  • Other (muu) – other roads in the list of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications

All roads in Estonia are officially marked with 1–5 digits numbers, with no official prefixes.

In addition to state highways, there are 23 920 km of local roads and around 18 398 km of private and forest roads. The total Estonian road network is estimated to be almost 59 thousand km.[2]

Classification of highways in Estonia[edit]

The technical classification of highways is as follows:[3]

  • Motorway (kiirtee) – Paved highway designated for appropriately fast-traveling motor vehicles, that does not service areas directly adjacent to it. A motorway has at least two lanes in each traveling direction, separated physically. The road must intersect with railways or other roads on separate levels. The road is entered and exited via acceleration and deceleration lanes. A road must confine to the motorway standards, when the expected AADT is 30,000.
  • I class – Paved highway with at least two lanes in each traveling direction, that intersects with railways or other roads on separate levels. The road is entered and exited via acceleration and deceleration lanes. A road must confine to the I class highway standards, when the expected AADT is 14,500.
  • II class – Paved highway, which may intersect with other roads at-grade. A road must confine to the II class highway standards, when the expected AADT is 6,000.
  • III class – Paved highway, which may intersect with other roads at-grade. A road must confine to the III class highway standards, when the expected AADT is 3,000.
  • IV class – Paved or unpaved highway, which may intersect with other roads at-grade. A road must confine to the IV class highway standards, when the expected AADT is 500.
  • V class – Paved or unpaved highway. A road must confine to the V class highway standards, when the expected AADT is 500.
  • VI class – Paved or unpaved highway. A road must confine to the VI class highway standards, when the expected AADT is 50.

Main routes[edit]

Map of the Estonian national main route network (põhimaanteed)

The backbone of the Estonian national route system, national main routes (põhimaanteed) make up a network of 1,602 kilometres of road, amounting to 10% of the total road network. The traffic numbers however make up nearly 50% of the Estonian road network's traffic volumes. The highest AADT's are around Tallinn, on the T1 between Loo and Maardu, on the T2 between Tallinn and Jüri, and on the T4 between Laagri and Kanama (the highest AADT on Estonian national routes at 31,000). A main route is defined as a highway, that connects the capital with other large cities, connects large cities and the capital with major ports, railway points and border crossings. Currently there are 12 separate main routes. The main routes are marked with 1–2 white digits on a red shield. The speed limits on Estonian main routes are 110 or 120 on 2+2 sections and 90 on regular roads (on newer sections of road, these are adjusted according to conditions by electronic speed limit signs).

The main routes are the only roads with I class highways. The total amount is 186.6 kilometres, found on the T1, T2, T4 and T11. This number will enlarge significantly with further upgrades of the T11 and the T2 between Kose and Mäo to I class highway. There are currently no motorways in Estonia, however 24.4 kilometres of the T2 is restricted-access I class highway. Ten main routes are a part of TEN-T, six routes are a part of the International E-road network. The routes E263, E67, E20, E264 and E265 run through Estonia.

The highways are maintained by the Estonian Road Administration outside city limits. Inside cities and towns, the roads are maintained by the city government. The first stationary speed cameras in Estonia were placed on route T2. Currently there are 67 stationary speed cameras on the main routes.

List of main routes[edit]

Route County Length Description Notes
P1 Harjumaa, Lääne-Virumaa, Ida-Virumaa 212.6 km (132.1 mi) The T1 starts at Viru Väljak in Tallinn. The road passes through Tallinn, intersects with the T11 at Väo and proceeds east towards Rakvere. The route then continues east towards Jõhvi, Sillamäe and Narva, finally terminating in Narva at the Russian border. I class highway for 87.3 kilometres.
P2 Harjumaa, Järvamaa, Jõgevamaa, Tartumaa, Põlvamaa, Võrumaa 287.8 km (178.8 mi) The T2 starts at Ülemiste in Tallinn. The road passes through Tallinn and proceeds south-east towards Jüri. Here the road intersects with the T11. The route then continues southeast towards Tartu, Võru and Luhamaa, finally terminating in Luhamaa at the T7. I class highway for 67.6 kilometres. Construction works ongoing to reroute road between Võõbu and Mäo as I class highway. Several 2+1 sections also exist. Longest highway in Estonia.
P3 Ida-Virumaa, Jõgevamaa, Tartumaa, Valgamaa 219.6 km (136.5 mi) The T3 starts at the T1 interchange in Jõhvi. The road passes through Jõhvi and proceeds southwest through Ahtme and towards Tartu. After Tartu the route continues southwest towards Elva and Valga, finally terminating in Valga at the Latvian border.
P4 Harjumaa, Raplamaa, Pärnumaa 192.3 km (119.5 mi) The T4 starts at Viru Väljak in Tallinn. The road passes through Tallinn and proceeds south towards Pärnu. The route then continues south towards Märjamaa and Pärnu, finally terminating in Ikla at the Latvian border. I class highway for 14.1 kilometres. Several 2+1 sections already exist (total 17.4 km) and several more planned.
P5 Lääne-Virumaa, Järvamaa, Pärnumaa 184.6 km (114.7 mi) The T5 starts at the intersection with the T4 in Pärnu. The road proceeds northeast towards Paide. After intersecting with the T2 at Mäo, the route then continues northeast towards Tapa and Rakvere, finally terminating in Sõmeru at the T1.
P6 Pärnumaa, Viljandimaa, Valgamaa 124.8 km (77.5 mi) The T6 starts at the Latvian border in Valga. The road passes through Valga and proceeds northwest towards Tõrva. After Tõrva the route continues northwest towards Uulu finally terminating in Uulu at the T4.
P7 Võrumaa 22 km (14 mi) The T7 starts at Misso at the Latvian border. The road shortly after passes through Misso and proceeds east towards Luhamaa. The route then intersects with the T2 and continues east towards the Russian border. Shortest highway in Estonia.
P8 Harjumaa 47.2 km (29.3 mi) The T8 starts at Tallinn. The road passes through Tallinn, intersects with the T11 at Keila and proceeds west towards Paldiski. The route then terminates at Paldiski.
P9 Harjumaa, Läänemaa 80.5 km (50.0 mi) The T9 starts at the interchange with the T4 in Ääsmäe. The road proceeds southwest towards Haapsalu. After intersecting with the T10 in Risti, the route continues west towards Haapsalu, finally terminating in Rohuküla port.
P10 Harjumaa, Läänemaa, Saaremaa 143.7 km (89.3 mi) The T10 starts at the intersection with the T9 at Risti. The road proceeds southwest towards Virtsu port. The route includes a ferry crossing to Muhu island (Kuivastu port), shortly after crossing to Saaremaa via the Väinatamm causeway, after which it continues southwest towards Kuressaare, terminating there. Only national route to include a ferry crossing.
P11 Harjumaa 38.1 km (23.7 mi) The T11 is Tallinn's ring road. The T11 starts at the intersection with the T1 at Väo. The road passes by Jüri, intersecting with the T2, by Luige, intersecting with the 15, by Saue, intersecting with the T4 and finally terminating at Keila, when intersecting with the T8. I class highway for 23.9 kilometres. The entire route will be upgraded to I class highway, construction works ongoing at Väo and Tammemäe.
P92 Tartumaa, Viljandimaa, Pärnumaa 122.8 km (76.3 mi) The T92 starts at the intersection with the T2 at Tartu. The road proceeds west towards Viljandi. After going through Viljandi, the route then continues west towards Kilingi-Nõmme, finally terminating in Väljaküla at the T6.

Support routes[edit]

Map of the Estonian national support route network (tugimaanteed)

Support routes (tugimaanteed) are the second highest classification in the Estonian national route system. They make up a network of 2,405 kilometres of road, amounting to 15% of the total road network. A support route is defined as a highway, that connects towns with other towns and main routes. Currently there are 77 separate support routes. The support routes are marked with 2 black digits on an yellow shield. The support roads have no special prefix, as all Estonian roads have the prefix T.

List of support routes[edit]

Route Control city Intermediate point(s) Control city Length
T12 Kose ( P2) Jägala ( T13) 36.1 km (22.4 mi)
T13 Jägala ( P1) Käravete ( P5) 52.7 km (32.7 mi)
T14 Kose ( P2) Purila ( T15) 39.1 km (24.3 mi)
T15 Tallinn ( P4) Rapla Türi ( P5) 97.2 km (60.4 mi)
T17 Keila ( P8) Haapsalu ( P9) 68.8 km (42.8 mi)
T18 Niitvälja ( P8) Kulna ( T17) 4.7 km (2.9 mi)
T20 Põdruse ( P1) Kunda Pada ( P1) 28.3 km (17.6 mi)
T21 Rakvere Luige ( T36) 69.6 km (43.2 mi)
T22 Rakvere ( P5) Väike-Maarja Vägeva ( T39) 52.0 km (32.3 mi)
T23 Rakvere ( P5) Haljala ( P1) 8.3 km (5.2 mi)
T24 Tapa ( P5) Loobu ( P1) 26.0 km (16.2 mi)
T25 Mäeküla ( P2) Koeru Kapu ( T39) 25.3 km (15.7 mi)
T26 Türi ( P5) Arkma ( T49) 21.2 km (13.2 mi)
T27 Rapla Järvakandi Kergu ( T58) 40.8 km (25.4 mi)
T28 Rapla Märjamaa ( P4) 21.6 km (13.4 mi)
T29 Märjamaa ( P4) Koluvere ( P10) 25.1 km (15.6 mi)
T31 Haapsalu ( P9) Laiküla ( P10) 36.0 km (22.4 mi)
T32 Jõhvi ( P1) Vasknarva 49.9 km (31.0 mi)
T33 Jõhvi ( P3) Kose ( T32) 3.6 km (2.2 mi)
T34 Varja ( P1) Kiviõli 8.7 km (5.4 mi)
T35 Iisaku Tudulinna Avinurme ( T21) 33.5 km (20.8 mi)
T36 Jõgeva Mustvee 38.9 km (24.2 mi)
T37 Jõgeva Põltsamaa 26.1 km (16.2 mi)
T38 Põltsamaa Võhma ( T49) 27.6 km (17.1 mi)
T39 Tartu ( P3) Jõgeva Aravete ( P5) 108.0 km (67.1 mi)
T40 Tartu ( P3) Tiksoja ( P2) 7.0 km (4.3 mi)
T41 Kärevere ( P2) Kärkna ( T39) 12.9 km (8.0 mi)
T42 Kärkna ( T39) Kobratu ( P3) 7.1 km (4.4 mi)
T43 Aovere ( P3) Kallaste Kasepää ( P3) 57.0 km (35.4 mi)
T44 Aovere ( T43) Luunja ( T45) 11.4 km (7.1 mi)
T45 Tartu ( P3) Räpina Värska 85.5 km (53.1 mi)
T46 Tatra ( P2) Otepää Sangaste ( T69) 46.6 km (29.0 mi)
T47 Sangla ( P92) Rõngu ( T52) 22.4 km (13.9 mi)
T49 Imavere ( P2) Viljandi Karksi-Nuia ( P6) 82.1 km (51.0 mi)
T50 Aindu ( T49) Viljandi ( P92) (also known as Viljandi road) 4.4 km (2.7 mi)
T51 Viljandi Põltsamaa ( T38) 43.4 km (27.0 mi)
T52 Viljandi Rõngu ( P3) 61.1 km (38.0 mi)
T53 Ojaperve ( T49) Viiratsi ( T52) (also known as Laidu road) 3.6 km (2.2 mi)
T54 Karksi-Nuia ( P6) Lilli border with Latvia 17.0 km (10.6 mi)
T55 Kamara ( P6) Mõisaküla border with Latvia (also known as Mõisaküla road) 4.4 km (2.7 mi)
T57 Mudiste ( T49) Suure-Jaani Vändra ( P5) 42.8 km (26.6 mi)
T58 Aluste ( P5) Kergu ( T27) 12.2 km (7.6 mi)
T59 Pärnu ( P4) Tori ( P5) 23.5 km (14.6 mi)
T60 Pärnu ( P4) Lihula ( P10) 56.1 km (34.9 mi)
T61 Põlva Reola ( P2) 37.1 km (23.1 mi)
T62 Kanepi ( P2) Leevaku ( T45) 41.8 km (26.0 mi)
T63 Karisilla ( T45) Koidula border checkpoint with Russia Petseri (Печоры) 17.8 km (11.1 mi)
T64 Võru Põlva 24.7 km (15.3 mi)
T65 Võru Räpina 44.0 km (27.3 mi)
T66 Võru Verijärve ( P2) 6.5 km (4.0 mi)
T67 Võru Mõniste Valga 83.3 km (51.8 mi)
T68 Mõniste ( T67) border with Latvia Ape 8.9 km (5.5 mi)
T69 Võru ( P2) Kuigasti Tõrva ( P6) 71.3 km (44.3 mi)
T70 Antsla Vaabina ( T69) 6.9 km (4.3 mi)
T71 Rõngu ( P3) Otepää Kanepi ( P2) 39.3 km (24.4 mi)
T72 Sangaste ( T69) Tõlliste ( P3) 16.6 km (10.3 mi)
T73 Tõrva ( P6) Pikasilla ( T52) 12.0 km (7.5 mi)
T75 Tumala ( P10) Orissaare Väinatamm causeway ( P10) 8.3 km (5.2 mi)
T76 Kuressaare ring road 13.5 km (8.4 mi)
T77 Kuressaare Sääre 47.4 km (29.5 mi)
T78 Kuressaare Kihelkonna Veere 47.8 km (29.7 mi)
T79 Upa ( P10) Leisi 36.8 km (22.9 mi)
T80 Heltermaa port Kärdla Luidja ( T84) 50.2 km (31.2 mi)
T81 Kärdla Käina ( T83) 21.7 km (13.5 mi)
T82 T80 Lehtma port (also known as Lehtma port road) 7.0 km (4.3 mi)
T83 Suuremõisa ( T80) Käina Emmaste 31.2 km (19.4 mi)
T84 Emmaste ( T83) Luidja ( T80) 29.9 km (18.6 mi)
T85 Liiapeksi ( P1) Loksa 15.5 km (9.6 mi)
T86 Kuressaare Võhma Panga 36.8 km (22.9 mi)
T87 Põlva ring road 6.0 km (3.7 mi)
T88 Rakvere Rannapungerja ( P3) 70.8 km (44.0 mi)
T89 Põlva Saverna ( P2) 20.4 km (12.7 mi)
T90 Põlva Karisilla ( T45) 34.2 km (21.3 mi)
T91 Narva ( P1) Narva-Jõesuu Hiiemetsa ( P1) 26.3 km (16.3 mi)
T93 Kohtla-Järve Kukruse Tammiku ( P3) 15.6 km (9.7 mi)
T94 Liivamäe ( P1) Muuga container port (also known as Muuga port road) 3.4 km (2.1 mi)
T95 Kõrveküla ( P3) Tartu 1.9 km (1.2 mi)

European routes[edit]

Map of the Estonian international E-roads

Estonia is a part of the UNECE, and therefore also has numerous E-roads running through it. The E-roads in Estonia form a network on top of the main routes and are usually signposted on all signs. They make up a network of 994 kilometres (618 miles) of road. Currently there are six separate European routes in Estonia.

List of European routes[edit]

Route Estonian route Control cities Length
E 20 P1 Tallinn, Narva 212.6 km (132.1 mi)
E 67 P4 Tallinn, Pärnu, Ikla 192.3 km (119.5 mi)
E 77 P7 Luhamaa border checkpoint, Misso border crossing 22.0 km (13.7 mi)
E 263 P2 Tallinn, Tartu, Võru, Luhamaa 287.8 km (178.8 mi)
E 264 P3 Jõhvi, Tartu, Valga 219.6 km (136.5 mi)
E 265 P8 / P11 Tallinn ring road, Paldiski 60.4 km (37.5 mi)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2016-07-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ Eesti teedevõrk Transpordiamet (Retrieved 2021-08-22)
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2016-07-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)