Highways in Poland

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Polish motorway and expressway network. Legend:
  completed
  under construction
  planned
Full planned network of motorways (red) and expressways (orange)
Development of the motorway and expressway network in Poland since 1932. Legend:
  completed
  under construction
  planned
Development of the motorway and expressway network in Poland

Highways in Poland are public roads designed to carry large amounts of traffic.

Limited-access highways are part of the national roads network and are divided into motorways and expressways. They feature physical separation of traffic, two-level interchanges with other roads, emergency lanes and dedicated roadside rest areas. Motorways differ from expressways in technical parameters, like designated speed, permitted road curvature or minimal distances between interchanges. Moreover, expressways might have single carriageway (as of 2019, about 5% of the highways are single-lane expressways) and might admit a one-level intersection with a minor public road in exceptional cases (in practice, reconstruction of the last such expressway has begun in May 2019[1][2]).

As of January 2019, there are 1,645 km (1,022.16 mi) of motorways and 2,152.2 km (1,337.32 mi) of expressways in operation (48% of the intended network), while contracts for construction of further 1,233 km (766.15 mi) of motorways and expressways (16% of the intended network) are ongoing.

A1 - A4 Gliwice-Sośnica Interchange
A1 - A2 Łódź Północ Interchange
A4 in Zabrze
A2 (Berlin - Poznań), opened in 2003
A8 in Wrocław

Definitions of highways according to Polish law[edit]

The 21 March 1985 Public Roads Act, with later amendments, defines the motorways and expressways as follows:

  • Znak D9.svgA motorway is a public road with limited access which is designated for motor vehicles only, and features at least two continuous lanes in each direction which are divided by a barrier. They have no one-level interchanges with all the intersecting roads with the land and water transport. They are equipped with roadside rest areas, which are intended only for users on the motorway.

Under current plans, three motorways will have spanned the country by 2022, with two routes running along an east to west axis (A2 running centrally and A4 running southerly) and one motorway traversing a north to south axis (A1 running centrally). In addition, three shorter motorway stretches: A6, A8 and A18, complete the planned motorway network. The only complete motorways are A4 and A8, the others are currently (partially) under construction or in various stages of planning. Some motorway stretches are tolled, others (predominantly the bypasses of large cities and newly-opened stretches) are free of charge. Motorways are the only roads in Poland which use blue background on road signs - others use green road signs.

  • Znak D7.svgAn express road is a public road with limited access which is designated for motor vehicles only, and is marked with one or two continuous divided lanes in each direction. They have no one-level interchanges with the intersecting roads with the land and water transport, intersections with minor public roads being allowed in exceptional cases. They are equipped with roadside rest areas, which are intended only for users on the expressway.

Major expressways (in various stages of use, construction, or planning) include S3, S5, S7, S11, S17 and S19 running north to south, and S6, S8, S10, S12 and S74, running east to west.

Technical parameters[edit]

The parameters of these roads are determined by the Ordinance of the Minister of Transport and Maritime Economy of 2 March 1999 - on technical parameters to be met by public roads and their location. Expressways are different from motorways mainly in that:

  1. Expressways can have a single carriageway.
  2. Motorways can have interchanges only with main roads and the spacing between interchanges should not be less than 15 km (exceptionally 5 km); or not less than 5 km (exceptionally 3 km) within borders or near a big city or a group of cities. Expressways can have interchanges more often.
  3. In exceptional situations, expressways can admit a one-level junction with minor public roads.
  4. Expressways are designated for lower speed than the motorways.
  5. Expressways can have narrower lanes. Emergency lanes can also be narrower and in exceptional situations expressways might not have them at all.
  6. Expressways have narrower road width (with all structures beside it) than motorways have: 40 m versus 60 m in motorways.
  7. Expressways may be constructed as an upgrade of an existing national road (nonetheless, most modern projects are planned and built as a separate road rather than just as an addition of the lanes to the existing one). Motorways can't be built as an upgrade of a national road but only as a separate road, while the old road must be kept as an alternative.

The motorways and expressways built before 1999 do not have to fulfill the technical parameters listed in the ordinance. For instance, S3 near Rzęśnica (West Pomeranian voivodeship) has at-grade road interchanges, yet it was allowed to keep its expressway status because it had been opened in 1979. Nonetheless, its reconstruction has started in 2019 and, according to plans, by 2021 there will be no more expressways with at-grade interchanges left.[3]

Other parameters of the roads:

Projected speed (km/h) 120 100 80[a]
Lane width (m) 3,75 3,5
Emergency lane width (m) 3,0 2,5
Maximum length of a slope (turn in the tunnel) which don't limit sight 2000 1500
Minimum length of a straight section between turns on the same side (m) 500 400 350
Minimum length of turns (m) 300 200 150
Maximum gradient of turn (proc.) 4 5 6

Notes:

  1. ^ Only inside or near borders of large cities.

Maximum speeds allowed on highways[edit]

Maximum speed (km/h)
Vehicle
Znak D9.svg
Motorway
Znak D7.svg
2-lane expressway
Znak D7.svg
1-lane expressway
  • Private car (not towing trailer)
  • Motorbike (not towing trailer)
  • Van up to 3.5 t (not towing trailer)
140 120 100
  • Bus meeting additional technical requirements
100
  • Car towing trailer
  • Motorbike towing trailer
  • Van towing trailer, up to 3.5 t total
  • Trucks and vans over 3.5 t (including towing trailer)
  • Vehicle signed as carrying e.g. dangerous, fragile articles
  • Bus (including towing trailer)
80
  • Vehicle having equipment more than 1.5 m forward of the driver's seat
60
  • Motorbike (including towing trailer) carrying a child up to 7 years-old
40
Not allowed on motorways: pedestrians, bikes, mopeds, agricultural vehicles (e.g., tractors and horse carriages). Minimal speed on motorways is 40 km/h unless there are any extraordinary circumstances (e.g., snow, ice, or a car broken down). It is forbidden to stop or travel backwards unless in very extraordinary cases. Towing is not allowed on motorways, but is permitted on expressways. Roads are protected from animals crossing the road.

Tolls[edit]

This is how the toll motorway is signed in Poland

All expressways are free of payment for vehicles up to 3.5 tons, as are secondary motorways A6, A8 and A18.

Primary motorways A1, A2 and A4 are planned as tolled (some parts are already such). There are two systems of collecting tolls:

Open system[edit]

In this system money is only paid at the toll booths put across the road. Different payment is due according to the type of the vehicle. It is relatively cheap to operate, but it forces drivers to stop at each toll booth, thus lowering the capacity of a motorway. For example, the Greater Poland part of A2 has all of its toll booths spaced approx. 50 km apart.

Closed system[edit]

In this system, there are toll stations on every interchange both entering and exiting the motorway, as well as toll booths on the motorway at the ends of the tolled section. In this case the driver receives a ticket upon entering, which must be kept all the time using the motorway. One pays at either toll station while exiting the motorway or at the toll booth. The amount of money depends not only on the type of the car, but also on the distance driven. It is more expensive at building and maintenance, as the toll stations have to be built at every interchange. However, it requires fewer toll booths across the motorway, which is a big advantage, as the traffic is free-flowing, and there is less fuel consumption. The queues before the tolls are put off the motorway, and are put onto the exits and interchanges.

Tolled sections[edit]

The following list of tolled sections is valid as of April 2019, and only applies to vehicles up to 3.5 tons.

Motorway with toll areas

viaTOLL payment system[edit]

This sign shows the cars weighing over 3.5 tons are obliged to pay on this road using the viaTOLL system

From 1.07.2011 all vehicles weighing more than 3.5 tons are obliged to have a special viaTOLL apparatus. On the chosen roads (some motorways, expressways and national roads) the special electronic readers are installed. They connect to the apparatus in the vehicle in a wireless way, and they also count the toll the vehicle has to pay. It is possible to buy it on some petrol stations or at the special points of selling. If the apparatus isn't at the place, fines are applied:

  • 1500 PLN if the car is heavier than 12 tons
  • 750 PLN if the car is heavier than 3.5 tons but lighter than 12 tons.

Planned Electronical Toll Collection System[edit]

In 2014 the Ministry of Infrastructure and Development has uncovered the plans to imply the Electronical Toll Collection System. The new plans were made because of the big problems concerning the Manual Toll Collection System. At the time while there is a huge flow of traffic (especially in the holiday period), there are long queues to the toll booths, which, according to some reports, reached up to 10 km. Drivers in these cases are forced to wait 2 hours to pay the toll at the toll booths. That was the reason the works to construct the toll booths on A4 were suspended, even though there were some stages of construction in progress.

The situation wasn't much relieved even after the toll booths had separated a special lane for those vehicles that have been registered into the ViaAuto system. It came out even worse. A lot of experts tell it is one lane less for those paying traditionally.

At those times a few simple solutions were introduced, for example the cashiers themselves giving the tickets. Next solution came from the Council of Ministers, which claimed that the motorway will be free from the day they gave out the decision (06.08.2014) to the end of the summer holidays (it only concerned the period from 4.00 p.m. on Friday to midnight from Sunday to Monday).

Now the ministry is working on the system new electronic system. According to different concepts, there are two options - either the full liquidation of the toll booths or their reconstruction. The reconstructed toll booths had then the toll applied via the viaTOLL system, so every vehicle must have had the viaTOLL apparatus, as the cars and trucks heavier than 3.5 tons have. Taking into account that not every driver drives regularly on the motorway, there must have been an online registration for light cars introduced. After that, when any car would arrive to such a toll booth, the registration plate will be scanned in order to recognise the car. The implication, however, will become true after signing of agreements with private concessionaires first.

List of Polish motorways and expressways with progress of construction[edit]

In May 2004, the Council of Ministers of Poland published a document including the planned highway network, the length of which was about 7,200 km (4,473.9 mi) and contained most of the expressways in plans today. In 2007, it was determined that a fragment of A2 serving as Warsaw bypass will be constructed in expressway standard as S2[4]. Four additional expressways were introduced in later amendments: S79 (2007), S61 (2009 - S8 has been re-routed and S61 added instead, as a result of the Rospuda Valley conflict)[5], S16 (September 2015), and S52 (May 2016)[6].

The following table summarizes the progress of construction of the motorway and expressway network with approximate lengths, as of 1st January 2019:[7][8][9][10]

Znak D9.svg
Motorways
Sign Route Location Total length Existing In realisation Of these under active construction Due date Tender Environmental decision (DŚU)
A1 Gdańsk (S6) - Grudziądz (S5) - Toruń (S10) - Łódź (A2/S8) - Gliwice (A4) - Poland/Czech Republic (Ostrava) NowaMapaA1.svg 566.6 km (352.1 mi) 443.9 km (275.8 mi) 78.4% 37.6 km (23.4 mi)
+ 64.8 km (40.3 mi)
reconstruction of a dual carriageway highway from 1970s to motorway standard
+ 15.9 km (9.9 mi)
upgrade of a substandard motorway from 1980s
2019
/2022
20.3 km (12.6 mi)
Salini Impregilo thrown out from the contract for extensive delays. Tender for completion.
A2 Poland/Germany (Berlin) - S3 - Poznań (S5/S11) - Łódź (A1/S14) - Warsaw (S7/S8/S17) - Poland/Belarus (Minsk) NowaMapaA2.svg 624.9 km (388.3 mi) 475 km (295.2 mi) 76% 14.6 km (9.1 mi) 2020 135.3 km (84.1 mi)
A4 Poland/Germany (Dresden) - Legnica (S3) - Wrocław (A8) - Opole - Gliwice (A1) - Katowice (S1) - Kraków (S7) - Rzeszów (S19) - Poland/Ukraine (Lviv) NowaMapaA4.svg 672 km (417.6 mi) 672 km (417.6 mi) 100%
A6 Poland/Germany (Berlin)Rzęśnica (S3) Szczecin
(southern bypass)
29 km (18.0 mi) 24.35 km (15.1 mi) 83.97% 4.65 km (2.9 mi)
reconstruction of existing very bad quality section from 1930s
2019
/2020
A8 Bielany Wrocławskie (S8) – Wrocław (S8) Wrocław
(western bypass)
22.7 km (14.1 mi) 22.7 km (14.1 mi) 100%
A18 Poland/Germany (Berlin)Krzyżowa (A4) NowaMapaA18.svg 76.5 km (47.5 mi) 7 km (4.3 mi)
+ 69.5 km (43.2 mi) north carriageway
54.77% 21.9 km (13.6 mi) south carriageway 47.6 km (29.6 mi) south carriageway
reconstruction of existing very bad quality carriageway from 1930s
In total
as of 1.06.2019
1,991.7 km (1,237.6 mi) 1,644.95 km (1,022.1 mi)
+ 69.5 km (43.2 mi) 1st carriageway
84.335% 121.85 km (75.7 mi) 20.3 km (12.6 mi)
+ 21.9 km (13.6 mi) 2nd carriageway
135.3 km (84.1 mi)
+ 47.6 km (29.6 mi) 2nd carriageway
Znak D7.svg
Expressways
1) Completed expressways
Sign Route Location Total length Existing
S22 ElblągPoland/Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) NowaMapaS22.svg 48.6 km (30.2 mi) 48.6 km (30.2 mi)
1 carriageway
50%
S79 Warszawa-Lotnisko (S2) – Warszawa-Marynarska Warsaw 4.3 km (2.7 mi) 4.3 km (2.7 mi) 100%
S86 KatowiceSosnowiec Katowice metropolitan area 6.8 km (4.2 mi) 6.8 km (4.2 mi) 100%
2) Expressways fully under development
(100% of length either completed or in realisation)
Sign Route Location Total length Existing In realisation [11] Of these under active construction Expected year of completion Other
S2 Konotopa (A2) - Majdan (A2) Warsaw
(southern bypass)
34.8 km (21.6 mi) 14.6 km (9.1 mi) 42% 20.2 km (12.6 mi) 2020
S3main section Szczecin (A6) - Gorzów Wielkopolski - Jordanowo (A2) - Zielona Góra - Lubin - Legnica (A4) - Poland/Czech Republic (Prague) NowaMapaS3.svg 369.6 km (229.7 mi) 323.2 km (200.8 mi)
+ 0.6 km (0.4 mi)
1st carriageway
87.5% 31.4 km (19.5 mi)
+ 0.6 km (0.4 mi)
2nd carriageway
0.6 km (0.4 mi) 2nd carriageway 2020 (to Legnica)
2023 (to the border)
14.4 km (8.9 mi)
Salini Impregilo thrown out from the contract for extensive delays. Tender for completion awaited.
S5main section Grudziądz (A1) - Bydgoszcz (S10) - Gniezno - Poznań (A2/S11) - Leszno - Wrocław (A8) NowaMapaS5.svg 338.3 km (210.2 mi) 159.4 km (99.0 mi)
+ 12.8 km (8.0 mi)
1st carriageway
49% 94.7 km (58.8 mi)
+ 12.8 km (8.0 mi)
2nd carriageway
2021 71.4 km (44.4 mi)
Impresa Pizzarotti and Toto Costruzioni thrown out from four contracts for extensive delays. Tenders for completion awaited.
S8 Wrocław (A8) - Łódź (A1) - Piotrków Trybunalski - Warsaw (A2/S7/S17) - Ostrów Mazowiecka (S61) - Białystok (S19) NowaMapaS8.svg 538.7 km (334.7 mi) 530.3 km (329.5 mi) 98.4% 8.4 km (5.2 mi) 2019
S17middle section Warsaw (A2) – Lublin (S12/S19) NowaMapaS17.svg 109.3 km (67.9 mi) 12.8 km (8.0 mi) 11.7% 96.5 km (60.0 mi)
2020
S19middle section Lublin (S12/S17) - Stalowa Wola - Rzeszów (A4)
(part of Via Carpathia)
NowaMapaS19.svg 158 km (98.2 mi) 12.9 km (8.0 mi)
+ 16.3 km (10.1 mi)
1st carriageway
13.3% 128.8 km (80.0 mi) 2022
S51 Olsztyn (S16) – Olsztynek (S7) NowaMapaS51.svg 35.1 km (21.8 mi) 18.5 km (11.5 mi) 52.7% 16.6 km (10.3 mi) 2019
S52-PL.svgpart 2 Kraków-Balice (A4) – Kraków-Mistrzejowice (S7) Kraków
(northern bypass)
18.31 km (11.4 mi) 5.76 km (3.6 mi) 31.5% 12.55 km (7.8 mi)
+ 2.33 km (1.4 mi) to be upgraded
2023
S61 Ostrów Mazowiecka (S8) - Łomża - Ełk (S16) - Suwałki - Poland/Lithuania (Kaunas)
(Via Baltica)
NowaMapaS61.svg 214.2 km (133.1 mi) 12.8 km (8.0 mi)
+ 14.5 km (9.0 mi)
1st carriageway
9.4% 167.4 km (104.0 mi)
+ 14.5 km (9.0 mi)
2nd carriageway
12.8 km (8.0 mi)
+ 8 km (5.0 mi)
2nd carriageway
2021 19.5 km (12.1 mi)
Contract between Construcciones Rubau and GDDKiA cancelled. Tender for completion awaited.
3) Expressways partially in development
Sign Route Location Total length Existing In realisation Of these under active construction Tender / Other Environmental decision (DŚU)
S1 Pyrzowice (A1) - Mysłowice (A4) - Bielsko-Biała (S52) - Zwardoń - Poland/Slovakia (Žilina) NowaMapaS1.svg 144 km (89.5 mi) 62.3 km (38.7 mi)
+ 26.7 km (16.6 mi)
1st carriageway
52.5% 9.7 km (6.0 mi) 2nd carriageway 4.8 km (3.0 mi)
+ 3.7 km (2.3 mi)
1st carriageway
46.5 km (28.9 mi)
S3northern section ŚwinoujścieSzczecin/Rzęśnica (A6) NowaMapaS3.svg 85.3 km (53.0 mi) 28.4 km (17.6 mi)
+ 5.4 km (3.4 mi)
1st carriageway
36.5% 22.4 km (13.9 mi)
+ 6.2 km (3.9 mi) upgrade of a substandard expressway from 1970s
29.1 km (18.1 mi)
+ 5.4 km (3.4 mi)
2nd carriageway
S6 Szczecin (A6) - Goleniów (S3) - Koszalin (S11) - Słupsk - Gdańsk (A1)4 NowaMapaS6.svg 432.6 km (268.8 mi) 54.3 km (33.7 mi)
+ 9.4 km (5.8 mi)
1st carriageway
13.7% 172.6 km (107.2 mi) 127.6 km (79.3 mi) 196.3 km (122.0 mi)
+ 9.4 km (5.8 mi)
2nd carriageway
S7 Gdańsk (A1)4 - Elbląg (S22) - Olsztynek (S51) - Warsaw (A2/S8) - Radom (S12) - Kielce (S74) - Kraków (A4) - Rabka-Zdrój NowaMapaS7.svg ca. 674 km (418.8 mi) 413.9 km (257.2 mi) 61.4% 161.2 km (100.2 mi) 36 km (22.4 mi) 6.6 km (4.1 mi)
Contract between Construcciones Rubau and GDDKiA cancelled. Tender for completion awaited.
62 km (38.5 mi)
+ 5.3 km (3.3 mi)
Predesign
+ 25 km (15.5 mi)
No progress
S14 S8 - Pabianice - Zgierz - A2 Łódź
(western bypass)
41.4 km (25.7 mi) 12.9 km (8.0 mi) 31.16% 12.2 km (7.6 mi) 16.3 km (10.1 mi)
4) Planned expressways
Sign Route Total length Existing In realisation Of these under active construction Tender With DŚU Predesign phase No progress
S5eastern section Ostróda (S7) – Grudziądz (A1) ca. 104.3 km (64.8 mi) 8.7 km (5.4 mi) 8.4% 5.6 km (3.5 mi) 90 km (55.9 mi)
S10 Szczecin (A6) - Piła (S11) - Bydgoszcz (S5) - Toruń (A1) - Płock - Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki (S7) - Wołomin (S8) ca. 478 km (297.0 mi) 30.4 km (18.9 mi)
+ 25.5 km (15.8 mi) 1st carriageway
9.3% 17.8 km (11.1 mi)
+ 6.4 km (4.0 mi) 2nd carriageway
17.8 km (11.1 mi) 229.3 km (142.5 mi)
+ 19.1 km (11.9 mi)
175 km (108.7 mi)
S11 Koszalin (S6) - Piła (S10) - Poznań (A2/S5) - Ostrów Wielkopolski - Kępno (S8) - Tarnowskie Góry - A1 ca. 575.5 km (357.6 mi) 66.4 km (41.3 mi)
+ 8.6 km (5.3 mi) 1st carriageway
12.3% 17.8 km (11.1 mi)
+ 3.6 km (2.2 mi) 1st carriageway
14.6 km (9.1 mi) 72.5 km (45.0 mi) 21.7 km (13.5 mi)
+ 3.8 km (1st)
+ 6.1 km (2nd)
381.3 km (236.9 mi)
+ 9.9 km (6.2 mi)
S12 Piotrków Trybunalski (A1) - Sulejów (S74) - Radom (S7) - Puławy - Lublin (S17/S19) - Chełm - Poland/Ukraine (Kyiv) ca. 344 km (213.8 mi) 96.4 km (59.9 mi)
+ 7.5 km (4.7 mi) 1st carriageway
29.1% 79.4 km (49.3 mi) 160.7 km (99.9 mi)
+ 7.5 km (4.7 mi)
S16-PL.svg Olsztyn (S51) - Ełk (S61) - Białystok (S19) ca. 208 km (129.2 mi) 13.4 km (8.3 mi)
+ 17.3 km (10.7 mi) 1st carriageway
10.6% 5.8 km (3.6 mi) 2.3 km (1.4 mi) 13.1 km (8.1 mi) 13.8 km (8.6 mi)
+ 17.3 km (10.7 mi)
144 km (89.5 mi)
S17 Warsaw eastern bypass 17.3 km (10.7 mi) 0 km (0.0 mi) 0% 3.5 km (2.2 mi) 13.8 km (8.6 mi)
Eastern section:
Lublin (S12/S19) - Zamość - Poland/Ukraine (Lviv)
ca. 126 km (78.3 mi) 2 km (1.2 mi) 1st carriageway 0.78% 9.6 km (6.0 mi) 1st carriageway 92.5 km (57.5 mi) 21.8 km (13.5 mi) 11.6 km (7.2 mi) 2nd c/w
S19 Northern section: Poland/Belarus (Minsk) - Białystok (S8) - Lublin (S12/S17)
(mostly a part of Via Carpathia)
ca. 327 km (203.2 mi) 14.5 km (9.0 mi) 1st carriageway 2.2% 124.4 km (77.3 mi) 188.2 km (116.9 mi) 14.5 km (9.0 mi) 2nd c/w
Southern section: Rzeszów (A4) - Poland/Slovakia (Košice)
(part of Via Carpathia)
96.6 km (60.0 mi) 11.4 km (7.1 mi) 11.8% 85.2 km (52.9 mi)
S52-PL.svgpart 1 Poland/Czech Republic (Brno/Ostrava) - Cieszyn - Bielsko-Biała (S1) - Wadowice - Głogoczów (S7) 98 km (60.9 mi) 37 km (23.0 mi)
(constructed as part of S1 before rerouting)
37.8% 61 km (37.9 mi)
S74 Sulejów (S12) - Kielce (S7) - Sandomierz - Nisko (S19) ca. 210.6 km (130.9 mi) 6.8 km (4.2 mi) 3.2% 91.7 km (57.0 mi) 112.1 km (69.7 mi)
In total[8][9][10]
as of 1.01.2019
5,840.5 km (3,629.1 mi) ± 10 km 1,948.9 km (1,211.0 mi)
+ 203.3 km (126.3 mi)
1st carriageway
35.11% 1,102.5 km (685.062 mi)
+ 12.6 km (7.8 mi)
1st carriageway
+ 44 km (27.3 mi)
2nd carriageway
537.1 km (333.7 mi)
+ 9.6 km (6.0 mi)
1st carriageway
+ 31.1 km (19.3 mi)
2nd carriageway
106.7 km (66.3 mi)
+ 3.7 km (2.3 mi)
1st carriageway
938.1 km (582.9 mi)
+ 3.8 km (2.4 mi)
1st c/w
+ 32.8 km (20.4 mi)
2nd c/w
1,242.7 km (772.2 mi)
+ 36.4 km (22.6 mi)
2nd carriageway
290 km (180.2 mi)
+ 26.1 km (16.2 mi)
2nd carriageway

Notes:
1) A18 is not signed as a motorway except for a short section where both carriageways have been reconstructed. The under-reconstruction part of A6 with damaged surface is signed as an expressway rather than a motorway. Some short fragments of expressways are not signed as such if currently detached from the major sections (such situations occur on S3, S5, S10, S12, S16, S19 and S61).
2) Some expressways (like S12/S17/S19 on Lublin bypass) can overlap. The table shows data without overlapping sections such that each fragment is counted exactly once, in accordance with how they are attributed in the ministry ordinance,[12] i.e. each common section is attributed to the road with the lower number (in case of two expressways overlapping) or to a motorway (in case of a motorway and an expressway overlapping).
3) When a section is listed with 1 carriageway constructed, it is to be understood that the existing carriageway carries bidirectional traffic in 1x2 or, less frequently, 2+1 profile. The exception is DK18/A18, which is open in 2x2 profile, west-bound traffic being carried by new motorway lane and east-bound traffic being carried by old low quality lane. One-carriageway sections are accounted as half-length in percentages.
4) According to the ordinance, a fragment of S6 (1st Tricity bypass) is ultimately to become a section of S7 after 2nd Tricity bypass (S6) is constructed. Until the actual relabelling takes place, this fragment is being accounted to S6 and not to S7 in the table.
5) Aggregate length statistics for expressways listed in the table under more than one category, are as follows:
S3: 454.9 km (282.7 mi) (Completed: 78%, in realisation: 15%)
S5: 442.6 km (275.0 mi) (Completed: 41.3%, in realisation: 37.2%)
S17: 252.6 km (157.0 mi) (Completed: 5.5%, in realisation: 41.5%)
S19: 581.6 km (361.4 mi) (Completed: 7.1%, in realisation: 22.1%)
6) Length statistics including the existing sections of dual carriageway highways not up to expressway standard (for example featuring at-grade intersections), are as follows:
A1: motorway 443.9 km (275.8 mi), 78.4%; motorway + dual carriageway 566.1 km (351.8 mi), 100%
S1: expressway 89 km (55.3 mi), 61.8%; expressway + dual carriageway 135.5 km (84.2 mi), 94.1% (including single-carriageway expressway sections)
S7: expressway 414 km (257.2 mi), 61.4%; expressway + dual carriageway 509 km (316.3 mi), 75.5%

Kind of highway Planned mileage Existing In realisation [11] Of which under active building Tendered With DŚU
Motorways
as of 1.05.2019
1,991.7 km (1,237.6 mi) 1,644.9 km (1,022.1 mi)
+ 69.5 km (43.2 mi)
1st carriageway
84.34% 142.15 km (88.3 mi) 142.15 km (88.3 mi) 21.9 km (13.6 mi)
2nd carriageway
135.3 km (84.1 mi)
+ 47.6 km (29.6 mi)
2nd carriageway
Expressways
as of 1.01.2019
5,840.5 km (3,629.1 mi) ± 10 km 1,948.9 km (1,211.0 mi)
+ 203.3 km (126.3 mi)
1st carriageway
35.11% 1,102.5 km (685.062 mi)
+ 56.6 km (35.2 mi)
1st / 2nd carriageway
537.1 km (333.7 mi)
+ 40.7 km (25.3 mi)
1st / 2nd carriageway
106.7 km (66.3 mi)
+ 3.7 km (2.3 mi)
1st carriageway
938.1 km (582.9 mi)
+ 36.6 km (22.7 mi)
1st / 2nd carriageway
Total 7,832.2 km (4,866.7 mi) ± 10 km 3,593.8 km (2,233.1 mi)
+ 272.8 km (169.5 mi)
1st carriageway
47.63% 1,244.65 km (773.4 mi)
+ 56.6 km (35.2 mi)
1st / 2nd carriageway
679.25 km (422.1 mi)
+ 40.7 km (25.3 mi)
1st / 2nd carriageway
106.7 km (66.3 mi)
+ 25.6 km (15.9 mi)
1st / 2nd carriageway
1,073.4 km (667.0 mi)
+ 84.2 km (52.3 mi)
1st / 2nd carriageway

History[edit]

The network planned prior to WWII

Before World War II[edit]

The first plans of creation of a national highway network in Poland were conceived in the interwar period. The main promoter of this concept was Professor Melchior Wladyslaw Nestorowicz of the Warsaw University of Technology, who organized three Road Congresses, during which a group of specialists discussed the creation of the network. On March 5, 1939, in the trade magazine Drogowiec, Professor Nestorowicz proposed a very ambitious plan for the construction of almost 5,000 kilometres of category I and II roads, based on similar programmes in Germany and Italy.[13] Nestorowicz sketched a map of the future system with the following routes:

First class roads would, according to the plans, consist of the following motorways (totalling some 2,500 km (1,553.43 mi):

Second class roads would consist of the following motorways, totalling another 2,295 km (1,430 mi):

In 1937-1939 there was built 28 km part between Warlubie and Osiek in a motorway standard with beton surface, which was projected by Italian engineer, Piero Puricelli (today part of voivodeship road 214). The motorway had to reach Gdynia, but outbreak of World War II halted the plans.

At the same time the fascist Germany started the construction of parts of their motorway system that exists today as S22 (the motorway to Konigsberg), A18 and A4 to Wroclaw(Breslau), as well as the A6 motorway as the Szczecin bypass(the same road to Konigsberg). Those were all completed by 1938.

The World War II warfare expenses meant little money would be invested into any infrastructure of the occupied Poland. Only the piece of what is now A4 motorway near the GOP was constructed.

Given to the usage till 1972(Date shown: DD.MM.YYYY)

Signature Section Length Date of the beginning of construction Date of opening Notes
A4-PL.svg Krzywa-Bielany Wrocławskie 91 km (56.54 mi) 1934 27.09.1936
Krzywa-Krzyżowa 12.3 km (7.64 mi) 17.10.1937
Bielany-Wrocławskie-Brzeg(Owczary) 34.1 km (21.19 mi) 1938 Southern carriageway only
Ujazd(Nogowczyce)-Łany 9.1 km (5.65 mi) 1940 1942
Łany-Kleszczów 8.8 km (5.47 mi) 1936 1938
A6-PL.svg Flag of germany 800 480.png-Szczecin-Zachód 2.6 km (1.62 mi) 1934 27.09.1936
Szczecin-Zachód-Rzęśnica 26.6 km (16.53 mi) 1938
A18-PL.svg Krzyżowa-Golnice(bridge over Bóbr) 5.9 km (3.67 mi) 1936 1938
Krzyżowa-Iłowa 37.9 km (23.55 mi) 1935 17.10.1937 Southern carriageway only
Iłowa-Olszyna 37.2 km (23.12 mi) 1936 1938
S22-PL.svg Elbląg-Grzechotki 51.4 km (31.94 mi) 1934
Total 189.8 km (117.94 mi)+127.1 km (78.98 mi) first carriageway Note: Signature of the roads at the time of opening was different.

After 1945[edit]

Situation[edit]

The Potsdam conference defined the new borders for Poland, which were completely different from the 1939 ones. It received the so-called Regained Territories from the former Third Reich with the following parts of motorways (some with one carriageway only, some destroyed because of the warfare):

  • "Berlinka" (the road to Konigsberg (Kaliningrad)) at the sections between Kołbaskowo and Łęczyca(now A6 and DW142) and between Elbląg and Grzechotki(now S22), in total 106 km
  • Silezian, between Olszyna and Brzeg(now A18 and A4, ca. 220 km) and the Ujazd-Gliwice-Zabrze part (about 40 km, now DK88)

Most of the motorway bridges were destroyed by the armies, but only a few were repaired or rebuilt in the first post-war years. The bridge over Ina river was reconstructed in 1972, and those on S22 only between 1996 and 2003.

Apart from the bridges, almost all the motorways and expressways were left in the same condition as they were in 1945 until the mid-1990s. The only road left from Nazi times that was completed by the People's Republic of Poland(PRP) was a one-carriageway small section between Łęczyca and Lisowo (15 km of what is now DW142) in the powiat stargardzki, which was built on the previous works of Nazis.

Plans[edit]

At the post-war year there were very ambitious plans to make a motorway network for the whole Poland. For example, engineer Eugeniusz Buszma has published his propositions to the network in the magazine "Drogowiec" (1946, issue 1):

  1. East – West (SłubiceWarsawBiałystok) – 680 km
  2. North – South (Gdynia – Warsaw – Balkans) – 650 km
  3. Silesia – Baltic I (GdańskŁódźKatowice) – 460 km
  4. Pomeranian (Gdańsk – Szczecin) – 280 km
  5. Silesian (Wrocław – Katowice – Kraków) – 190 km
  6. Mazurian (Kaliningrad – ElblągMalbork) – 20 km
  7. Silesia – Baltic II (Bydgoszcz – Wrocław) – 260 km
  8. Łódź – Wrocław – (Prague) – 310 km
  9. Katowice – (Vienna) – 60 km
  10. Poznań – Szczecin – 200 km
  11. RadomLublin – (Lviv) – 220 km

In total, the mileage, according to the proposal, would total more than 3,300 km (2,050 mi).

After the addition of the sections built by the Third Reich the total network length had to be ca. 3700 km. In 1963 the Motorization Council at the Council of Ministers had prezented the similar plan plus the motorways: Warsaw-Kraków-Zakopane, Kraków-Przemyśl, Warsaw-Bydgoszcz-Koszalin, Poznań-Koszalin i Warsaw-Terespol (ca. 1250 km). None of those plans were realized, however.

Despite announcing such pompous plans, no motorway was opened in the meantime.

In the 1970s[edit]

Only in the 1970s did any works start. In 1972 it was planned to build:

  • the Gliwice-Kraków motorway (now A4)
  • The second carriageway of the Wrocław-Gliwice motorway (also A4)
  • the Warsaw-Katowice motorway (so-called "Gierkówka", now the S8/A1 road), in the near future

The plans were expanded in 1976 by the following sections:

Motorways opened in the 1970s:

Signation Section Length Date of the beginning of construction Date of opening
S6-PL.svg Obwodnica Trójmiasta(eastern carriageway)(to Rusocin) 37.7 km (23.43 mi) 1973 1977
Rzęśnica-Goleniów 19.3 km (11.99 mi) 1976 1979
Total 57 km (35.42 mi)

In the 1980s[edit]

A4 as the southern bypass of Kraków, opened in 1988

In the 1980s the really first period of massive construction started.

In 1985 the government already planned to build the expressways apart from the motorways. The only roads left as motorways were A1, A2 and A4.(A6 to Rzęśnica and A18 were signed as motorways as they were built by the motorway standards in the 1930s). The realization of these plans however came at a very slow pace. In the 1980s only the following sections of motorways were given to use: Jaworzno(Byczyna)-Kraków(Balice I) of A4(35.7 km (22.18 mi)), Września-Konin(Modła) of A2(49.2 km (30.57 mi)) and Tuszyn-Piotrków-Trybunalski of A1(16.1 km (10.00 mi)).

Motorways opened in 1980s

Signation Section Length Date of beginning of the construction Date of opening Notes
A1-PL.svg Tuszyn-Piotrków Trybunalski 16.1 km (10.00 mi) 1978 18.12.1989 DŚU issued for reconstruction
A2-PL.svg Września-Sługocin (Golina) 35.7 km (22.18 mi) 1977 9.10.1985
Sługocin-Konin West (Modła) 13.5 km (8.39 mi) 1986 10.11.1988
A4-PL.svg Chrzanów-Kraków (Balice I) 29.6 km (18.39 mi) 1976 3.01.1983
Chrzanów-Jaworzno (Byczyna) 6.1 km (3.79 mi) 1978 22.11.1986
Kraków (Balice I)-Kraków (Tyniec) 7.8 km (4.85 mi) 1979 8.12.1988
S1-PL.svg Dąbrowa Górnicza-Tychy 34.7 km (21.56 mi) 1978 1983 After completion of Lędziny-Biesko-Biała section of S1 the Lędziny-Tychy road will be signed as S1A
S6-PL.svg Obwodnica Trójmiasta (to Straszyn) 32.4 km (20.13 mi) 1978 1984 Only western carriageway
S7-PL.svg Kielce bypass 22.9 km (14.23 mi) 1974 1984 Only eastern carriageway
S86-PL.svg Katowice (węzeł Roździeńskiego)-Sosnowiec (węzeł Pogoń) 6.8 km (4.23 mi) 1978 1985 First completely done expressway
Total 150.3 km (93.39 mi)+55.3 km (34.36 mi) single carriageway

In the 1990s[edit]

In the III Republic of Poland the plans started to change again. The following expressways were promoted to motorway standards, temporarily however: A3 on the planned length became S3, and A8 was shortened to the Wrocław bypass instead of the Łódź-Wrocław-Bolków motorway, in 2001, There are some changes that survived, however: the Szczecin bypass(A6) and the Krzywa-Olszyna roads were promoted to motorways at that time, and still are ones. The signage of Krzywa-Olszyna section was A12, however, instead of the A4 at Krzywa-Krzyżowa and A18 at Krzyżowa-Olszyna.

Motorways opened in the 1990s:

Signation Section Length Date of beginning of the construction Date of opening Notes
A4-PL.svg Mysłowice (Brzęczkowice)-Jaworzno(Byczyna) 15.9 km (9.88 mi) 1986 29,11,1990 Northern carriageway only
4.09.1991 Southern carriageway only
Kraków (Tyniec)-Kraków (Sidzina) 3.5 km (2.17 mi) 1988 1993
JędrzychowiceFlag of germany 800 480.png-Zgorzelec 1.8 km (1.12 mi) 1992 15.07.1994
Kraków Skawina (Sidzina)-Kraków (ul.Kąpietowa) 5.4 km (3.36 mi) 1993 27.10.1995 A4 had a crossroads with ul. Kąpielowa(ca. 750 m (820.2 yd) from Kraków Zakopiańska) till 2002, when the bridge was built over it.
Katowice Francuska-Mysłowice (Brzęczkowice) 11.1 km (6.90 mi) 1989 30.10.1996
Katowice Mikołowska-Katowice Francuska 1.9 km (1.18 mi) ? 10.11.1999
A18-PL.svg OlszynaFlag of germany 800 480.png-Królów 9.6 km (5.97 mi) 1993 Northern carriageway only, southern renovated to Olszyna interchange(350 m (382.76 yd))
Krzyżowa-Golnice 5.9 km (3.67 mi) 1995 Modernized both carriageways
S1-PL.svg CieszynFlag of the Czech Republic-Cieszyn-East 5.2 km (3.23 mi) 1991 1995
S3-PL.svg Sulechów-Zielona Góra (Niedoradz) 26.8 km (16.65 mi) 1985 1995 Western carriageway only
S5-PL.svg Świecie (West)-Świecie (North) 7 km (4.35 mi) ? 1996 Single carriageway only, 6.9 km (4.29 mi) were built as double carriageway(mostly near the interchanges)
Świecie (West)-Świecie (South) 6 km (3.73 mi) 1996 1998
S7-PL.svg Zakroczym-Czosnów (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki bypass) 14.6 km (9.07 mi) 1990 1999
Miłomłyn North-Miłomłyn South 5.1 km (3.17 mi) 1995 1997 Single carriageway only
S8-PL.svg Radzymin North-Radzymin South 8.15 km (5.06 mi) 1996 1998
Total 74.8 km (46.48 mi)+47.6 km (29.58 mi) single carriageway+5.9 km (3.67 mi)modernized+350 m (382.76 yd) single carriageway modernized

At the beginning of the new millennium[edit]

Before Poland received the EU membership[edit]

Express road S7 near Białobrzegi, opened in 2003

A few years before Poland entered the EU the tempo of motorway construction increased significantly. The main focus was yet on the east-west motorway A4, although the A2 around Poznań was built, too. Thanks to that by 2005 there was a direct motorway connection to Kraków from Berlin. It was the time when most of the bridges that the World War II destroyed were rebuilt or renovated, especially on A4. However, the pieces of the motorways couldn't have been yet called a network, as only A4 could have been considered as an intercity highway, as it was in 2004. The rest of the highways built were mostly the bypasses of cities. These years started the focus to build comfortable and quick connections between cities. This is also a period when Poland started introducing motorway tolls, as it happened in 2000 with the A4 section between Mysłowice and Kraków(Balice I).

Motorways opened in 2000-1.05.2004

Signation Section Length Date of beginning of the construction Date of opening Notes
A2-PL.svg Poznań Komorniki-Poznań Krzesiny 11.2 km (6.96 mi) 1998 13.09.2003
Poznań Krzesiny-Września 37.3 km (23.18 mi) 2002 27.11.2003
A4-PL.svg Bielany Wrocławskie-Brzeg (Owczary) 34.1 km (21.19 mi) 1997 16.12.2000 North carriageway built
Brzeg (Owczary)-Przylesie 6.6 km (4.10 mi)
Prądy-Dąbrówka Górna 21.4 km (13.30 mi)
Przylesie-Prądy 28.6 km (17.77 mi) 30.09.2000
Dąbrówka Górna-Nogowczyce 34.3 km (21.31 mi) 26.07.2001
Nogowczyce-Kleszczów 17.9 km (11.12 mi) 2001 4.12.2003 South carriageway built
ul.Kąpielowa-Kraków (Wielicka) 1.1 km (0.68 mi) ? 19.12.2002
3.09.2003 North carriageway built
S5-PL.svg Śmigiel bypass 4.1 km (2.55 mi) 2002 One carriageway only
S6-PL.svg Straszyn-Pruszcz Gdański (Rusocin) 5.4 km (3.36 mi) 2000 2001 Second carriageway built
S7-PL.svg Białobrzegi bypass 7.7 km (4.78 mi) 2001 2003
S8-PL.svg Podborze-Brok 7.6 km (4.72 mi) 2000
Total 173.7 km (107.93 mi)+61.5 km (38.21 mi) one carriageway

Poland in EU[edit]

1 May 2004 was a crucial day for the history of motorway construction, and that is when the highway boom started. The main advantage of signing the document is that Poland from the day on request money from the funds in the European Union, so the money could help build, renovate and upgrade the existing road infrastructure(and not only). Under the government of Prime Minister Marek Belka, the Council of Ministers regulations issued in May 2004 detailed plans for a network of motorways and expressways totaling to 7,200 km (4,473.87 mi) across the republic, including 2,033 km (1,260 mi) of designated motorways (A1, A2 (at that times the S2 section was planned as A2), A4, A6, and A18), and the rest being the expressways (S1, S3, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9 (now S19), S10, S11, S12, S14, S17, S22, S51, S69, and S74).[14] S86 existed, but it was not shown in the legal documents until 2015 as part of network. That plan is now the basis of the whole highway network, with only small amendments added in later years.

The current planned network consists of six motorways (A1, A2, A4, A6, A8, A18) and 21 expressways (S1-S3, S5-S8, S10-12, S14, S16, S17, S19, S22, S51-52, S61, S74, S79 and S86).[5]

Motorways opened from 1.05.2004 to 31.10.2009

Signation Section Length Date of beginning of the construction Date of opening Notes
A1-PL.svg Rusocin-Swarożyn 24.2 km (15.04 mi) 2005 2007
Swarożyn-Nowe Marzy 64.7 km (40.20 mi) 2008
Sośnica-Bełk 15.6 km (9.69 mi) 22.01.2007 20.10.2009
Bełk-Świerklany 14.3 km (8.89 mi) 7.08.2008 2009
A4-PL.svg Kleszczów-Sośnica 19.1 km (11.87 mi) 2003 October 2005
Wieliczka-Targowisko 19.5 km (12.12 mi) 2007 2009
S1-PL.svg Miłówka-Szare 2.9 km (1.80 mi) 30.06.2004 14.11.2006 Single carriageway
Szare-Laliki 4.9 km (3.04 mi) 26.10.2007 18.11.2009
Laliki-Zwardoń 1.8 km (1.12 mi) 12.06.2007 26.12.2008
Zwardoń-border with SlovakiaSlovakia flag 300.png 1.4 km (0.87 mi) 15.11.2002 22.12.2004
S3-PL.svg Gorzów Wielkopolski bypass

(Gorzów Połusnie i/c-Sułęcińska str.)

2.38 km (1.48 mi) 2003 2004 Single carriageway
Gorzów Wielkopolski bypass

(Sułęcińska str.-Gorzów-Północ (Małyszyn))

9.47 km (5.88 mi) 2005 2007
Międzyrzecz bypass 6.37 km (3.96 mi) 2004 2006
Nowa Sól bypass 18 km (11.18 mi) 2006 2008
S5-PL.svg Szubin bypass 4.5 km (2.80 mi) 2004 2006
S7-PL.svg Jędrzejów bypass 5.8 km (3.60 mi) 2003 2005 3.1 km (1.93 mi) double-

carriageway; rest single carriageway

Myślenice-Lubień 16.2 km (10.07 mi) 2004 2009
Nowy Dwór Gdański bypass 2.5 km (1.55 mi) 2005 2007
Elbląg southern bypass 4.2 km (2.61 mi)
Płońsk bypass 4.7 km (2.92 mi) 28.09.2007 03.06.2009
Grójec bypass 8.3 km (5.16 mi) 18.10.2006 19.09.2008
Białobrzegi-Jedlińsk 15.7 km (9.76 mi) 06.07.2006 30.06.2008
Kielce bypass (northern part) 7.1 km (4.41 mi) 2007 2009
S8-PL.svg Oleśnica bypass 7.21 km (4.48 mi) 2004 2006
Wyszków bypass 12.8 km (7.95 mi) 27.02.2006 14.11.2008
Wyszków-Radzymin 17.3 km (10.75 mi) 08.12.2006 31.07.2009
S52-PL.svg Bielsko-Biała (Komorowice)-Jasienica 9.5 km (5.90 mi) 4.06.2003 27.10.2006

Total length of motorways and expressways in Poland (end of the year)[15][edit]

1936 – 95 km (then Nazi Germany)
1937 – 133 km (then Nazi Germany)
1938-1945 – 133 km (then Nazi Germany) and 28 km inside Poland (today not considered as a highway)
1945-1976 – 133 km
1977 – 169 km
1978 – 169 km
1979 – 190 km
1980 – 190 km
1981 – 190 km
1982 – 190 km
1983 – 255 km
1984 – 278 km
1985 – 321 km
1986 – 327 km
1987 – 327 km
1988 – 348 km
1989 – 366 km
1990 – 381 km
1991 – 399 km
1992 – 399 km
1993 – 403 km
1994 – 405 km
1995 – 440 km
1996 – 453 km
1997 – 456 km
1998 – 490 km
1999 – 502 km
2000 – 592 km
2001 – 630 km
2002 – 639 km
2003 – 727 km
2004 – 781 km
2005 – 848 km
2006 – 1013 km
2007 – 1083 km
2008 – 1282 km
2009 – 1454 km
2010 – 1560 km
2011 – 1865 km
2012 – 2495 km
2013 – 2805 km
2014 – 3100 km
2015 – 3131 km
2016 – 3252 km
2017 – 3510 km
2018 – 3811 km
2019 – 4301 km (forecast [16])
2020 – 4504 km (forecast [17])
2021 – 4971 km (forecast [17])
2022 – 5400 km (acc. to plans from 2017 [15][citation needed])
2023 – 5755 km (acc. to plans from 2017 [15][citation needed])
2024 – 6038 km (acc. to plans from 2017 [15][citation needed])
2025 – 6145 km (acc. to plans from 2017 [15][citation needed])
20?? – 8000 km (year unknown; forecast; according to plans)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.gddkia.gov.pl/pl/a/7815/s3-miekowo-rzesnica
  2. ^ http://s3.miekowo-rzesnica.pl/aktualnosci
  3. ^ https://www.gddkia.gov.pl/pl/a/7815/s3-miekowo-rzesnica
  4. ^ Dz.U. 2007 nr 35 poz. 220‹See Tfd›(in Polish)
  5. ^ a b Dz.U. 2009 nr 187 poz. 1446‹See Tfd›(in Polish)
  6. ^ "Zmiany w rozporządzeniu w sprawie sieci autostrad i dróg ekspresowych - Ministerstwo Infrastruktury i Budownictwa". mib.gov.pl. Retrieved 2016-07-05.
  7. ^ "Strona główna :: Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad - Serwis informacyjny". www.gddkia.gov.pl/pl/1077/mapa-stanu-budowy-drog. Retrieved 2015-10-05.
  8. ^ a b "Zestawienie realizacji autostrad i dróg ekspresowych w Polsce".
  9. ^ a b "OpenStreetMap". www.openstreetmap.org. Retrieved 2015-10-05.
  10. ^ a b "Mapa autostrad i dróg ekspresowych w Polsce - SISKOM & SSC". ssc.siskom.waw.pl. Retrieved 2015-10-05.
  11. ^ a b Sections under active construction and sections under a joint Design & Build contract.
  12. ^ http://prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/DocDetails.xsp?id=WDU20180000741: Appendix 2, footnote 1 (in Polish)
  13. ^ Prof. M. W. Nestorowicz, Problem budowy dróg samochodowych (autostrad) w Polsce
  14. ^ Dz.U. 2004 nr 128 poz. 1334‹See Tfd›(in Polish)
  15. ^ a b c d e http://mib.gov.pl/files/0/1796809/RMUchwala1052017.pdf
  16. ^ https://www.tvp.info/40712499/zapomnijmy-o-zlych-drogach-jezdzimy-coraz-wygodniej
  17. ^ a b "List of ongoing road contracts signed by GDDKiA".

External links[edit]