Highways in Spain
The Spanish motorway (highway) network is the third largest in the world, by length. As of 2019[update], there are 17,228 km (10,705 mi) of High Capacity Roads (Sp. Vías de Gran Capacidad) in the country. There are two main types of such roads, autopistas and autovías, which historically differed in the strictness of the standards they are held up to.
Between 1990 and 2012 Spain had one of the highest rates of motorway growth in Europe..
The first motorways named autopista were financed using sovereign debt..
At the end of the 1980s, and before Olympic Games in 1992 in Barcelona, the autonomous Catalan government was interested in increasing the speed limit on new motorways. Between 1987 and 1990, the operations at four new motorways were transferred to private companies, three by the Catalan region and one by the national government.
Building of new sections of autovia was increased before the 1992 Olympic Games and the Sevilla World Fair.
The 1984-1992 National Plan built around 3500 kilometers of new autovia, to reach a network length of 6000 kilometres by 1992, at a cost of 184 million pesetas ( around 1 million euros). At the same time, the new autovia standard was closer to the autopista standard, as the old autovia standard was understood as not providing enough safety. This generated increasing project costs.
Since traffic density is generally lower in Spain than France, it was required that some motorways were to be untolled.Despite a lower traffic density, Spanish motorways remain profitable, because tolls are twice higher in Spain than in France.
Between 2005 and 2014, Spain was the EU country which best performed for decreasing fatalities on motorways, with a decrease score of 66%.
|Increase of the Spanish motorway network|
|The length of motorways and other roads is expressed in kilometers. It is reported as of 31 December..|
Differences between autopista and autovía
The distinction between two kinds of high capacity roads is mainly a historical one, seldom with practical consequences for most but the oldest motorways. Both kinds are divided highways with full access control and at least two lanes per direction. General speed limits for both are mandated by the Spanish Traffic Law as 60–120 km/h (35–75 mph), though there are groups that ask for the latter to be raised to 140 km/h (85 mph). Specific limits may be imposed based on road, meteorologic or traffic conditions.
Autopistas are specifically reserved for automobile travel, so all vehicles not able to sustain at least 60 km/h (35 mph) are banned from them. Thus, they may not be an upgrade to an older road, since the Spanish legislation requires an alternate route to be provided for such vehicles. Many, but not all, autopistas are toll roads, which also mandates an alternate toll-free route (though not necessarily a freeway) under the Spanish laws. An example is the AP-2 toll autopista, which links Zaragoza with Barcelona through the Monegros desert. In this case, the alternative is the N-II, the national road that preceded the A-2 autovía.
On the other hand, autovías are usually (though not always) upgrades from older roads, and always untolled. In general, slow vehicles like bicycles and agricultural machinery are allowed under certain restrictions so as to not disrupt the traffic excessively or cause any danger. Furthermore, an autovía will most likely follow the original road very closely, only deviating from it to bypass the towns (which are looped around in variantes). Thus, the upgraded road usually serves as the base for one of the two directions of the new autovía, which means the turns can be steeper than in autopistas. All in all, an autovía:
- Allows traffic banned from an autopista, like bicycles. However, if the autovía is built as a new road instead of an upgrade to an older one, this traffic may be banned too.
- May have little to no hard shoulders, which are then marked with a solid line instead of the broken line of a transitable hard shoulder.
- May have acceleration and deceleration lanes that are much shorter than those of autopistas.
- May have tighter turns and steeper gradients than an autopista is allowed to.
- If space-constrained, it may even have bus stops on a service lane in the autovía itself, as opposed to requiring them to be placed on a service lane physically separated from the main road.
However, most of the situations listed here only apply to the oldest autovías, and mainly to the radial A-1 through A-6 plus the A-42 near their endpoints, which were the first to be twinned in the 60s into dual carriageways (with at-level intersections) and then were upgraded to limited-access freeways in the 70s-80s, keeping most of their old route unchanged except where the old national road ventured into towns. In those cases, the freeway would make a semi-loop called a variante around the town, leaving the old national road as the access between the freeway and the town. New autovías usually have perfectly normal acceleration and deceleration lanes, very safe turns and transitable shoulders. Thus, the practical difference between a "new" autovía and a generic autopista is mainly the frequency of exits, which is usually higher in an autovía - upgraded from an old road with many crosses - than in a new, purpose-designed autopista with fewer preconditions imposed on it.
The M-40 autopista is one of the beltways serving Madrid. It is one of the few non-toll autopistas of significant length
Modern autovías such as the A-66 near Guillena, Seville, offer most, if not all, features that are required by an autopista
It is considered that the construction of motorways has helped to increase safety in Spanish roads, while generating a traffic increase.
Fatalities on motorways have decreased from 776 in 2006 to 277 in 2015.
Spain is one of the countries of the EU with most of road fatalities occurring on motorways rather than other roads: 16% in 2015. But the same year, taking into account the fact that Spain counts a longer distance of road as motorways, Spain is one of the countries with the less motorway fatality rates per 1.000 km of motorways, after Finland, Denmark, Croatia, and Hungary: 18,1 fatalities par 1000 kilometers of motorways.
Most of the high capacity roads in Spain are under the authority of the General Roads Directorate (Sp. Dirección General de Carreteras) of the Ministry of Public Works, a department of the central Government of Spain, with the exceptions of Navarre and the Basque Country, the only autonomous communities which have been transferred full powers over all roads in their territories. Usually, the DGC manages all road maintenance, but in the case of the tolled autopistas, the management is commonly delegated to the concessionaire company.
Traditionally, purpose-built autopistas or autovías were assigned names starting with A plus one or two numbers describing their general orientation, while upgraded autovías kept their original names. Thus, the freeway that is currently known as A-5 was still reported as N-V in road signs for years after the upgrade was completed, making it difficult for drivers to know in advance which roads had become autovías. However, in 2003 all Spanish motorways were uniformly renamed with the following criteria:
- Interurban motorways are named "A-" plus two numbers, except for the six radial roads stemming from Madrid which are named A-1 through A-6. An exception to this naming rule is the radial autopistas R-2 through R-5
- Beltways are named with a one or two letter code identifying the city they orbit, plus two digits indicative of the general distance. For example, the M-50 is further from the city of Madrid than the M-40.
- City access motorways are named similarly to beltways, like TO-21 for a freeway leaving the A-40 towards Toledo.
- Tolled roads add a "P" before the dash, and must be clearly identified as such in road signs.
All such names are posted in white letters on blue background, like: A-49 or AP-4 . Note that none of these naming and coloring requisites affect roads under the authority of the Autonomous Communities. For example, the A-8 road in the Basque Country is a tolled autopista, as are the C-16, C-32 and C-33 in Catalonia. Other communities such as Madrid do follow the convention, and have names as MP-203 for a tolled road and M-501 for a free autovía. Furthermore, roads under the authority of the Andalusian government also start with A, but they have longer numeric codes and different coloring.
The roads listed below form the backbone of the Spanish high capacity network, connecting all provincial capitals and other major towns and destinations. Until recently, the network suffered from a high radiality, which collapsed[clarification needed] the several Madrid beltways and the roads into the city and region. Since the 2000s, an effort to improve the situation was made based on two actions:
- Build a new set of radial autopistas (named R-n instead of A-n) complementary to the old radial autovías near Madrid. Such tolled autopistas would form a new system of accesses to the capital that merges with their autovía counterparts far from Madrid. The main advantage to these roads is that they allow true fast travel from the first kilometre, while the radial autovías near Madrid (among the oldest autovía stretches in Spain) frequently go through populations, have constant entries and exits and suffer several other conditions which both jam them and make their first kilometres limited to speeds well under the normal 120 km/h (75 mph) limit.
- Invest heavily in de-radialization efforts that create true cross-country high-capacity axes without passing through Madrid. For example, the A-66 (Autovía Ruta de la Plata) which connects the southern Andalusia with the northwest area of the country, or the A-43 which will connect the western Extremadura region with the east of Spain.
Beltways, city accesses and urban highways
Most beltways, full or partial, have originated from the upgrading of one or several roads reaching the town to the autovía level, as the several variantes looping around the town were joined in a single beltway that received a new naming such as TO-20 or Z-40. The list below only contains roads that are recognized as autovías or autopistas for at least part of its length, thus disqualifying urban arteries with at-grade intersections or unrestricted direct access to the main lanes, which are better represented by the dual carriageway concept.
*: under construction
The formation of the several Autonomous Communities in the early 1980s led to the transfer of many roads to the new regional authorities. Since then, several of those roads have been upgraded to motorway level in order to ensure the internal vertebration of the region, or to provide alternative high-capacity routes to those managed by the national government when those were inadequate or saturated. All of the old comarcal roads (C-nnn) comprising the secondary network were transferred to the Autonomous Communities, splitting them up as necessary; while the national roads (N-nnn) that formed the primary network were mostly kept by the State.
The level of control each community has over its road network varies: the Basque Country and Navarre have received the titularity of nearly all roads in their territories, while in other communities the regional network coexists with and complements the national one. Whatever the extension of the road network under its control, all communities have full powers over naming and identification of their roads, provided no name conflicts with a national road or a regional road of a neighbouring community.
The regional highway network of Andalusia is very extensive, as the territory itself spans nearly a fifth of Spain. There are no special codes for identifying highways: upgraded roads usually keep their name and sign color (orange, green or yellow). However, confusion sometimes arises due to the fact that most regional roads start with the letter A (for Andalucía), which is also used by the national government for highways.
|A-92||Interurban||Autovía A-92||Seville — Granada — Almería|
|A-92G||City access||Autovía A-92G||Santa Fe (A-92) — Granada|
|A-92M||Interurban||Autovía A-92M||Salinas industrial development (A-92) — Pedrizas pass (A-45/AP-46)|
|A-92N||Interurban||Autovía A-92N||Guadix (A-92) — Vélez-Rubio (A-91)|
|A-306||Interurban||Autovía A-306||El Carpio (A-4) — * — Torredonjimeno (A-316)|
|A-308||Interurban||Autovía A-308||Iznalloz (A-44) — * — Darro (A-92)|
|A-316||Interurban||Autovía del Olivar||Úbeda — Baena — * — Jaén (A-44) — Martos — * — Lucena (A-45) — Estepa (A-92)|
|A-334||Interurban||Autovía del Almanzora||Purchena — * — Fines — Albox — El Cucador — * — A-7|
|A-357||Interurban||Autovía del Guadalhorce||Zalea — * — Casapalma — MA-40 — Málaga (A-7)|
|A-376||Interurban||Autovía A-376||Seville (SE-30) — Alcalá de Guadaira/Dos Hermanas — Utrera|
|A-381||Interurban||Autovía A-381||Jerez de la Frontera (AP-4) — Los Barrios (A-7)|
|A-382||Interurban||Autovía A-382||Jerez de la Frontera (AP-4) — Arcos de la Frontera|
|A-383||City access||Autovía del Higuerón||A-7 — La Línea de la Concepción|
|A-395||City access||Ronda Sur de Granada||A-44 — Granada|
|A-480||Interurban||Autovía A-480||Sanlúcar de Barrameda — Jerez de la Frontera (A-4)|
|A-483||Interurban||Autovía A-483||Bollullos Par del Condado (A-49) — Almonte|
|A-497||Interurban||Autovía A-497||Huelva — Punta Umbría|
|A-8057||Urban||Variante de Mairena||San Juan de Aznalfarache (A-8058) — Mairena|
|A-8058||Urban||Autovía A-8058||Seville (SE-30) — San Juan de Aznalfarache (A-8057)|
*: planned/in construction
The community of Aragon has only very recently started building its own highway network. The first span was opened to traffic just in 2008, and there are at least three more highways in study. Due to the limited financial capabilities of the Aragon regional government, many of them might be built as toll roads.
|ARA-A1||Partial beltway||Quinto cinturón de Zaragoza||N-II/AP-2 — A-68|
|ARA-AP2||Interurban||Autopista ARA-AP2||Cariñena (A-23) — † — A-2 — † — ARA-AP4 — † — Mallén (AP-68/N-232)|
|ARA-A3 / A-127||Interurban||Autovía ARA-A3||Gallur (AP-68/N-232) — † — Ejea de los Caballeros|
|ARA-AP4||Interurban||Autopista ARA-AP4||Tarazona (A-11) — † — ARA-AP2|
|A-131 / A-230||Interurban||Still unnamed||Huesca — † — Huesca-Pirineos Airport — † — Sariñena — † — Bujaraloz (AP-2/N-II)|
|A-130||Interurban||Still unnamed||Barbastro (A-22) — † — Ontiñena — † — Caspe (AP-2/N-II)|
*: in construction — †: planned
The highway network in the mountainous Principality of Asturias is severely limited by the complexity of its relief, with a dense network of river valleys in between ranges such as the Picos de Europa.
Vertebral Asturian motorways have identifiers in the style of national ones, that is, white text on blue background, while roads in process of upgrading keep their old nomenclature until the full route is completed. Such is the case, for example, with the AS-III, which is an upgrade of the AS-17. The prefix is always AS, and Roman numerals are used.
|AS-I||Interurban||Autovía minera||Mieres (A-66) — A-64 — Gijón (A-8)|
|AS-II||Interurban||Autovía industrial||Oviedo — AS-III — Gijón|
|AS-III / AS-17||Interurban||Autovía del Acero||Avilés (A-8) — * — Llanera — AS-II — A-66|
|AS-117||City access||Autovía AS-117||AS-I — Langreo|
*: planned/in construction
All of the roads in the Balearic Islands were transferred to the regional government when the Autonomous Community was formed, and several are now under the competence of the several Island Councils (Consell Insular). The prefix denotes the island, and the second letter (if any) is lowercase. Autopista identifiers are white on blue background, while twinned roads closer to the autovía category keep their identifiers.
|Signal||Type||Denomination||Itinerary||C-733 — Ibiza Airport|
|Ma-1||Interurban||Eje de Poniente||Palma port — Peguera|
|Ma-13||Interurban||Eje Central||Palma (Ma-20) — Sa Pobla|
|Ma-15||Interurban||Desdoblamiento de Manacor||Palma (Ma-30) — Manacor|
|Ma-19||Interurban||Eje de Levante||Palma — Llucmajor|
|Ma-20||Beltway||Vía de Cintura||Ma-1 — Ma-13 — Ma-19|
A special case together with Navarre, the Basque Country has received full powers over most roads in its territory, including the national roads that comprised the primary network, and nowadays only the AP-1 and the AP-68 are under the direct authority of the Spanish government as part of the Red de carreteras del Estado (National Road Network). Currently, roads are managed by the three Diputaciones Forales of the Basque provinces.
The fact that such transfer took place before the thorough renaming of national roads and highways in 2003 makes the naming of transferred "national" highways inconsistent with the national network: the A-1 is still called the N-I in the Basque Country, and the same identifier (A-8) applies to the tolled and toll-free parts of the Autopista del Cantábrico in Biscay. Furthermore, new highways built since then by the provinces have one of the following prefixes: A for Álava-Araba, BI for Biscay (Vizcaya-Bizkaia) or GI for Guipúzcoa-Gipuzkoa.
|AP-1||Interurban||Autopista de Vitoria a Irún por Eibar||Vitoria airport (N-622/N-624) — N-240 — Arrasate-Mondragón (GI-632) — Vergara-Bergara (GI-632, GI-627) — Eibar (joins AP-8 up to Irún)|
|A-8 / AP-8||Interurban||Autopista del Cantábrico||Cantabria/Basque Country border — Bilbao (AP-68) — Eibar (AP-1) — San Sebastián-Donostia (GI-20 West) — Hernani (GI-131) — Rentería-Errenteria (GI-20 East) — Irún — Spain/France border (A63)|
|BI-30||Partial beltway||Variante Sur Metropolitana de Bilbao||A-8 — * — BI-636 — * — AP-68 — * — A-8|
|BI-631||Interurban||Autovía BI-631||Bilbao — Mungía|
|BI-636||Interurban||Corridor del Cadagua||Bilbao (A-8) — Gueñes|
|BI-637||Interurban||Autovía BI-637||Barakaldo (N-637) — Getxo|
|BI-644||Access road||Autovía BI-644||Santurtzi (A-8) — Bilbao port|
|GI-11||City access||Autovía GI-11||Lasarte-Oria (N-I) — GI-20|
|GI-20||Urban||Variante de Donostia-San Sebastián||AP-8 West — GI-11 — GI-21 — GI-636 — AP-8 East|
|GI-131||Interurban||Autovía del Urumea||Andoain (N-I) — * — Urnieta — AP-8 — San Sebastián-Donostia|
|GI-632||Interurban||Autovía GI-632||Vergara-Bergara (AP-1) — * — Zumarraga — Beasain (N-I)|
|N-102||City access||Western access to Vitoria/Gasteiz||N-I — Vitoria-Gasteiz|
|N-622||Interurban||Autovía de Altube||Vitoria-Gasteiz (N-I) — AP-1/N-624 — AP-68|
|N-624||Access road||Access to Vitoria Airport||AP-1/N-622 — Vitoria Airport|
|N-637||Urban||Asúa Valley corridor||Barakaldo (A-8) — BI-637 — BI-634 — Galdakao (A-8)|
*: in construction — †: planned
Following the example of the other insular community in Spain, all roads in the Canary Islands are under the authority of either the regional government or one of the several Island Councils (cabildo insular). The prefix denotes the island, and identifiers are usually white on blue background.
|FV-2||Interurban||Autovía FV-2||Puerto del Rosario — Fuerteventura Airport, Barranco del Vachuelo — Marabu|
|GC-1||Interurban & urban||Autopista GC-1||Las Palmas de Gran Canaria — GC-2 — GC-3 — Telde — Gran Canaria Airport — Arinaga — Maspalomas — Puerto de Mogán|
|GC-2||Interurban||Autopista GC-2||Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (GC-1) — GC-20 — Bañaderos, Santa María de Guía — Gáldar|
|GC-3||Interurban||Autopista GC-3||Las Mesas (GC-300) — GC-23 — GC-31 — GC-4 — GC-1|
|GC-4||Interurban||Autovía GC-4||San Francisco de Paula (GC-3) — Monte Lentiscal|
|GC-23||Urban||Autovía GC-23||GC-2 — GC-3|
|GC-31||City access||Autovía GC-31||GC-3 — Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (GC-1)|
|LZ-3||Ring road||Circunvalación de Arrecife||LZ-18 — LZ-1 — LZ-20 — LZ-2|
|TF-1||Interurban||Autopista del Sur||Santa Cruz de Tenerife (TF-5) — TF-4 — TF-2 — Candelaria — Tenerife South Airport — Adeje|
|TF-2||Urban||Autovía TF-2||TF-5 — TF-1|
|TF-4||City access||Autovía TF-4||TF-1 — Santa Cruz de Tenerife|
|TF-5||Interurban||Autopista del Norte||Santa Cruz de Tenerife (TF-1) — TF-2 — San Cristóbal de la Laguna — Tenerife North Airport — Puerto de la Cruz|
|TF-11||Interurban||Autovía TF-11||Fishing docks — San Andrés|
Another community that has recently started building its own high capacity road network, Castile-La Mancha has completed one autovía and has at least five more in varied states of advanced planning and building. In the flat La Mancha, relief does not usually require costly tunnels and bridges, though the region does contain several nature reserves including the Tablas de Daimiel National Park wetlands. Highway identifiers are white on blue background.
|CM-40||Partial beltway||Ronda Suroeste de Toledo||A-40 (West) — TO-21 — CM-42|
|CM-41||Interurban||Autovía de La Sagra||Valmojado (A-5) — Illescas (A-42/AP-41) — * — Borox — * — Seseña (R-4/A-4)
Borox — * — Añover de Tajo
|CM-42||Interurban||Autovía de los Viñedos||Toledo (TO-20) — CM-40 — N-401 — Nambroca — Consuegra — Madridejos (A-4) — Alcázar de San Juan — Tomelloso (A-43)|
|CM-43||Interurban||Autovía de la Solana||Manzanares (A-4) — * — La Solana — † — Albacete (A-32)|
|CM-44||Interurban||Autovía del Júcar||Cuenca (A-40) — † — Motilla del Palancar (A-3) — † — Albacete (A-32)|
|CM-45||Interurban||Autovía IV Centenario||Ciudad Real (A-41) — * — Almagro — * — Valdepeñas (A-4) — † — Alcaraz (A-32)|
*: in construction — †: planned
Castile and León
The largest community in Spain by land area, Castile and León has a dense road network, but until recently most of its highways had been part of the national system. The terrain is varied, from the plains of the Meseta to the rugosities of the Montes de León, and archeological remains abound. Regional highways are renamed to A-nnn, always with three digits to avoid clashes with the national network, but usually keeping the original number of the upgraded regional road CL-nnn. Identifiers are white on blue background.
|A-125||Interurban||Autovía A-125||La Bañeza (A-6) — * — Puebla de Sanabria (A-52) — † — Spain/Portugal border (N103)|
|A-231||Interurban||Autovía del Camino de Santiago||Burgos (BU-30/A-62) — Osorno (A-67) — Sahagún — León (A-66)|
|A-510||Interurban||Autovía A-510||Salamanca (SA-20) — * — Alba de Tormes|
|A-601||Interurban||Autovía de Pinares||Valladolid (VA-30) — Cuéllar — Segovia (N-110)|
|A-610||Interurban||Autovía A-610||Palencia (A-67) — Magaz de Pisuerga (A-62) — † — Aranda de Duero (A-1)|
|A-631||Interurban||Autovía de La Espina||Ponferrada (A-6) — * — Toreno — † — Villablino — † — Los Barrios de Luna (AP-66)|
|A-629||Interurban||Autovía de Las Merindades||Burgos (A-73) - Viarcayo - Viasana de Mena - (Bi-636) - Balmaseda - Bilbao|
*: in construction — †: planned
The only community without a high-capacity network of its own, Cantabria is severely held back in such a development by a highly mountainous terrain that multiplies the cost of building any kind of expressway. Thus, its population is served by the national highway network supplemented by regional conventional roads.
The second most populated community in Spain, Catalonia has a thorough regional road network, with several highways managed by the Generalitat de Catalunya. Also, the state-owned highways previously known as A-16 through A-19 were transferred to the Catalan government and renamed according to the new regional guidelines enacted in 2004. Highway identifiers are white on blue background.
|C-14||Interurban||Autovía C-14||Reus (T-11) — Alcover|
|C-16||Interurban||Eix del Llobregat||Barcelona (Via Augusta/B-20) — Sant Cugat del Vallès (AP-7) — Rubí — Terrassa — Manresa (C-25) — Berga — † — Puigcerdá — † — France (N20)|
|C-17||Urban & interurban||Eix del Congost||Barcelona (Meridiana Avenue/B-20) — C-33/C-58 — Montcada — C-33/C-59 — Montmeló (C-33/AP-7 North) — Granollers — Vic (C-25) — Manlleu (C-37) — Torelló — * — Ripoll|
|C-25||Interurban||Eix Transversal||Cervera (A-2) — * — Manresa (C-16) — * — Vic (C-17) — Vic (C-25) — * — AP-7/Girona Airport — * — Riudellots de la Selva (A-2)|
|C-31||Interurban||Eix Costaner||Castelldefels (C-32) — Barcelona Airport — El Prat de Llobregat — L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (B-10) — Barcelona (Gran Vía de les Corts Catalanes)|
|C-31B||Interurban||Autovía C-31B||Tarragona — Salou|
|C-31C||City access||Autovía C-31C||Sant Boi de Llobregat — El Prat de Llobregat (C-31)|
|C-31D||City access||Autopista C-31D||C-32 — Mataró (Porta Laietana)|
|C-32||Interurban||Corridor del Mediterrani||Autopista Pau Casals: El Vendrell (AP-7) — Calafell — Cunit — Vilanova i la Geltrú — Sitges — Castelldefels (C-31) — B-22 — L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (B-10/B-20)|
|C-33||Interurban||Access to Barcelona from AP-7||Barcelona (C-17/C-58) — Mollet del Vallés (C-17/C-59) — Montmeló (AP-7)|
|C-35||Interurban||Autovía C-35||Vidreres (AP-7/A-2) — Llagostera (C-65)|
|C-58||Interurban||Autopista del Vallès||Barcelona (B-10/B-20) — C-33 — Cerdanyola del Vallès — AP-7 — Sabadell Airport — Sabadell/Sant Quirze del Vallès — Terrassa (Vallès Avenue) — C-16|
|C-60||Interurban||Autovía C-60||Mataró (C-32) — La Roca del Vallès (AP-7)|
|C-65||Interurban||Autovia C-65||Santa Cristina d'Aro (C-31) — Llagostera (C-35) — † — Girona (A-2)|
|C-66||Interurban||Autovía C-66||Sarrià de Ter (AP-7) — Banyoles (C-31) — † — Besalú (A-26)|
|C-68||Interurban||Autovía C-68||Figueres (AP-7) — * — Roses|
*: in construction — †: planned
A sparsely populated community, Extremadura has a terrain that can be considered favourable for a regional highway plan, as the interior is mostly flat. However, the fact that its northern and north-eastern borders are blocked by mountain ranges with typical elevations of 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) over the main mesa, combined with the mentioned demographics of the territory (Extremadura ranks the 5th community in Spain by land area, but only the 12th by population, and none of its cities reach 200,000 inhabitants) has traditionally limited the penetration of even the national highway network.
Nevertheless, the community is in an excellent position for connections between Spain and Portugal (the national highway A-5 reaches Portugal through Badajoz in Extremadura), and in the last decade, the regional government has revealed an ambitious plan that would create four to six regional highways. In addition to the vertebration of the Extremaduran territory, some of these roads are explicitly meant to provide alternative routes to the two national highways in the region (A-5 and A-66), establishing connections between them and an additional route to Portugal to the north of the current one.
It is the policy of the regional government to avoid twinning existing roads (and thus replacing them with the upgraded autovía), so instead all autovías are built from scratch even if they are parallel to the old road. All Extremaduran highways are currently named EX-An, with white identifiers on blue background. Some of them have branches named EX-An-Rm, which also have white-on-blue identifiers, but such branches need not be highways themselves even if they are built concurrently with the main road.
|EX-A1||Interurban||Autovía EX-A1||Navalmoral de la Mata (A-5) — Malpartida de Plasencia — Plasencia (A-66) — * — Coria — * — Moraleja — † — Spain/Portugal border (N103)|
|EX-A2||Interurban||Autovía EX-A2||Miajadas (A-5) — Don Benito (EX-A2-R1) — Villanueva de la Serena (EX-A2-R2)|
|EX-A3||Interurban||Autovía EX-A3||Zafra (A-66) — * — Jerez de los Caballeros|
|EX-A4||Interurban||Autovía EX-A4||Cáceres (A-66) — † — Badajoz (A-5)|
*: in construction — †: planned
Often compared to Scotland because of its orographic similarities, Galicia is a hilly but not mountainous region with an approximate population of 3M people. Its highway network mainly functions as the terminal part of trips, since the vertebral function is mainly coped by the national system. Identifiers start with AG (for Autovía/Autoestrada galega) and are white on blue background.
|AG-11||Interurban||Autovía del Barbanza||Rianxo (AP-9) — Boiro — Ribeira|
|AG-41||Interurban||Autovía del Salnés||Meis (AP-9) — Sanxenxo — * — O Grove|
|AG-46||Interurban||Autovía do Morrazo||Vilaboa (AP-9) — Moaña — Cangas do Morrazo (CG-4.1) — * — Aldán (PO-315)|
|AG-51||Access road||Access to PLISAN||A-52 — † — Salvaterra-As Neves Industrial and Logistic Platform (PLISAN, Plataforma Logístico-Industrial Salvaterra-As Neves)|
|AG-52||Interurban||Autovía AG-52||Tui (A-55) — † — Tomiño|
|AG-53||Interurban||Autoestrada Central Galega||Dozón (AP-53) — Cea — Maside (AG-54) — A-52|
|AG-54||Access road||Access to O Carballiño||Maside (AG-53) — O Carballiño|
|AG-55||Interurban||Autoestrada da Costa da Morte||A Coruña — Arteixo (A-6) — Laracha — Carballo — † — Fisterra|
|AG-56||Interurban||Autovía AG-56||Santiago de Compostela (AP-9) — Brión — Gundín — * — Noia|
|AG-57||Interurban||Autoestrada do Val Miñor||Vigo (VG-20) — AG-57N — Ramallosa — * — Baiona|
|AG-57N||Access road||Autopista AG-57N||AG-57 — Nigrán|
|AG-58||Access road||Autovía AG-58||AG-59 — Cacheiras|
|AG-59||Access road||Autovía AG-59||Santiago de Compostela (AP-53) — AG-58 — Raris — * — Pontevea — * — A Estrada|
|AG-64||Interurban||Autovía Ferrol - Vilalba||Ferrol — Rio do Pozo industrial development — Narón — As Pontes de García Rodríguez — Vilalba (A-8)|
*: in construction — †: planned
The small and mountainous region of La Rioja has just started planning regional highways of its own. After an initial plan to upgrade the LR-134 road (Calahorra—Arnedo) was downgraded to a simple twinning with roundabout intersections, a study is now being drawn to build at least a true highway connecting the national highways AP-68 and A-12, with a possible projection into the south of the community. Another highway would provide access from the regional capital beltway to the tolled AP-68.
|LR-111||Interurban||Autovía LR-111||Haro (AP-68) — † — Santo Domingo de la Calzada (A-12) — † — Ezcaray|
|LR-250||Access road||Autovía LR-250||Logroño (LO-20+A-12) — † — Villamediana de Iregua (AP-68)|
*: in construction — †: planned
The region containing the capital city of Spain, Madrid ranks the 3rd community by population, and is by far the most densely populated. Even though it contains the centre of the national radial highway system, the Madrid regional government (traditionally more committed to the expansion of the Metro system) has dedicated vast resources during the last decade to upgrade the regional road network and, where necessary, create new high-capacity roads that both complement the national system and vertebrate zones of the community not covered by the national network.
Madrid regional highways have codes that are no different from other regional roads, with orange, green and yellow backgrounds, even for newly built highways like the M-45. Usually, the upgrade of long roads, twinned or not, to the motorway level is not undertaken at once, so the list below only contains the itinerary for the spans that actually run as highways or have been planned to. For example, the M-506 is "broken" at its connection with the M-419 and the A-42 by a succession of roundabouts until the link with the R-4, so in the list it is separated in two highway stretches.
|M-45||Partial beltway||Autopista M-45||Madrid/Leganés (M-40) — R-5 — A-42/M-402 — A-4 — M-301 — M-31 — A-3 — R-3 — Coslada — San Fernando de Henares (M-206) — M-50|
|M-100||Interurban||Autovía M-100||San Sebastián de los Reyes (A-1) — † — M-106/M-111 — † — Cobeña — † — Daganzo de Arriba — * — R-2 — A-2/M-203|
|M-203||Interurban||Autopista eje Este||Mejorada del Campo (R-3) — * — Soto de Aldovea — M-224 — A-2/M-100|
|M-206||Interurban||Autovía M-206||Torrejón de Ardoz — * — Loeches|
|M-402||Urban||Autovía M-402||Madrid (Villaverde, A-42) — * — Leganés (ParqueSur mall) — † — Leganés (M-406)|
|M-404||Interurban||Autovía M-404||Navalcarnero (A-5/M-600) — * — R-5 — * — El Álamo — * — Serranillos del Valle (AP-41) — * — Griñón (M-407) — * — Torrejón de la Calzada (A-42) — * — R-4 — * — Valdemoro (A-4) — * — Ciempozuelos|
|M-406||Interurban & beltway||Autovía M-406||Leganés (*M-402) — M-409 — M-407 — Alcorcón (A-5/M-40)|
|M-407||Interurban||Autovía M-407||Leganés (M-406) — * — M-50 — * — Fuenlabrada (M-506) — M-410 — Griñón (M-404)|
|M-409||Interurban||Autovía M-409||Leganés (M-406) — M-50 — Fuenlabrada|
|M-423||Interurban||Autovía M-423||Pinto (M-506) — Valdemoro (M-404/R-4)|
|M-500||Interurban||Carretera de Castilla||Madrid (M-30) — M-503 — A-6|
|M-501||Interurban||Autovía de los Pantanos||M-40/M-511 — Boadilla del Monte (M-50) — Villaviciosa de Odón (M-506) — Brunete (M-600) — Chapinería (M-510) — Navas del Rey|
|M-503||Interurban||Autovía eje Noroeste||M-500 — * — Pozuelo de Alarcón — M-40 — M-50 — Villanueva del Pardillo — Villanueva de la Cañada (M-600)|
|M-506||Interurban & urban||Autovía M-506||Western stretch: Villaviciosa de Odón (M-501) — † — Alcorcón (M-50/A-5) — Móstoles (M-50) — M-407 — Fuenlabrada (M-405/M-413) — M-419|
|M-509||Interurban||Autovía M-509||M-50 — * — Villanueva del Pardillo|
|M-600||Interurban||Autovía M-600||Villanueva de la Cañada (M-503) — † — Brunete (M-501) — † — Sevilla la Nueva — † — Navalcarnero (A-5/M-404)|
|M-607||Interurban||Autovía de Colmenar||Madrid (M-30) — M-40 — Alcobendas (M-616) — Tres Cantos — Colmenar Viejo (M-609)|
|M-609||Interurban||Autovía M-609||Colmenar Viejo (M-607) — * — Soto del Real|
*: in construction — †: planned
The coastal region of Murcia is an important touristic destination in Spain. Its nearly 1.5 million inhabitants are mainly concentrated in the eastern part of the community, from Murcia city to the coast, while inland zones of Yecla, Jumilla and Caravaca de la Cruz are more sparsely populated. The national highway network provides good connectivity along the coast, with three highways links with Andalusia (A-91, A-7 and the tolled AP-7) and another three with the Valencian Community (A-7 and the tolled AP-7 and AP-37), but only the A-30 motorway connects Murcia with inland Spain. It is thus the goal of the regional government to provide alternative highway corridors that connect the inland border of Murcia to the coastal zones.
All in all, the autonomous government is investing heavily in its highway network, both for trips along the coast and inland-coast connectivity. Due to the expansion of the regional network that this effort is expected to produce, Murcia has recently implemented a new naming scheme for its regional highways, more in accordance with the national network. When the renaming is complete, all highways will be identified by white-on-blue names that start with RM (for Región de Murcia).
|RM-1||Interurban||Autovía RM-1||San Javier (AP-7) — Zeneta (MU-30/RM-30/†AP-37)|
|RM-2||Interurban||Autovía Alhama - Campo de Cartagena||Alhama (A-7) — RM-23 — Fuente Álamo (MU-602) — Cartagena (A-30)|
|RM-3||Interurban||Autovía RM-3||Totana (A-7) — RM-23 — Mazarrón (AP-7)|
|RM-11||Interurban||Autovía RM-11||Lorca (A-7) — N-332 — Águilas (AP-7)|
|RM-12||Access road||Autovía de La Manga||Cartagena (AP-7/CT-32) — El Algar (N-332) — La Manga del Mar Menor|
|RM-15||Interurban||Autovía del Noroeste||Alcantarilla (MU-30/A-7) — Mula — Caravaca de la Cruz (C-415/RM-714)|
|RM-19||Access road||Autovía del Mar Menor||A-30 — Polaris World — San Javier (AP-7)|
|RM-23||Interurban||Autovía de conexión RM-23||RM-2 — RM-3|
*: in construction — †: planned
The Foral Community of Navarre is another community with full powers over most roads in its territory. However, in contrast to the neighbouring Basque Country, the regional government has decided to keep the identifiers of some highways — namely, those which were part of a national highway before being transferred — in sync with the national system. The only road in Navarrese territory not under the authority of the regional government is the national toll highway AP-68 (Autopista Vasco-Aragonesa), which was kept by the state to avoid a four-pronged management by the concessionaire and the Basque, Navarrese and Spanish governments.
|A-1||Interurban||Autovía del Norte||Álava/Navarre border — Ziordia — Altsasu (A-10) — Navarre/Guipúzcoa limit|
|A-10||Interurban||Autovía de la Barranca||Irurtzun (A-15/AP-15) — Irañeta — Lakuntza — Arbizu — Etxarri-Aranatz — Altsasu (A-1)|
|A-12||Interurban||Autovía del Camino de Santiago||Zizur Mayor (A-15) — Puente la Reina — Estella-Lizarra — Los Arcos — Lazagurría — Viana — * — Navarre/La Rioja border (LO-20/A-12)|
|A-15||Interurban||Autovía A-15||Ronda de Pamplona Oeste (beltway): Noain (AP-15/A-21) — PA-30 — Pamplona-Iruña (PA-31) — Zizur Mayor (A-12) — Orkoyen — Berriozar (PA-34) — AP-15|
|AP-15||Interurban||Autopista AP-15||Southern stretch: AP-68 — A-68 — Castejón (N-113) — Tafalla (NA-132) — Pueyo — Baranoain/Garinoain — NA-601/N-121 — Noain (A-15/A-21)
Northern stretch: A-15 — PA-34 — Sarasate (N-240a) — Irurtzun (A-10/A-15)
|A-21||Interurban||Autovía del Pirineo||Noain (A-15/AP-15) — Monreal — Ibargoiti — * — Liédena — * — Yesa — * — Navarre/Huesca border|
|AP-68||Interurban||Autopista del Ebro||Zaragoza/Navarre border (N-232) — Cortes — Fontellas (NA-134) — Tudela (AP-68) — Liédena — AP-15/N-232|
|PA-30||Partial beltway||Ronda de Pamplona||A-15 — Pamplona (PA-31) — Aranguren — PA-33 — Olaz — NA-150|
|PA-34||Access road||Western access to Pamplona||AP-15 — Berriozar (A-15) — Pamplona-Iruña (N-240)|
*: in construction — †: planned
The regional motorways do not have identifiers different from other roads, so orange, green and yellow backgrounds are possible. All identifiers are prefixed with CV for Comunitat Valenciana, the official name of the region. The regional highway CV-10 is currently being expanded to the boundary with Catalonia and will be transferred to the national Government as a new stretch of the A-7 (Autovía del Mediterráneo). The same applies to the CV-40 highway.
|CV-10||Interurban||Autovía de la Plana||Nules (A-7/N-340) — Betxí — CV-20 — Castellón de la Plana (CV-17) — CV-16 — Borriol — La Pobla Tornesa — Cabanes — * — Vilanova d'Alcolea — † — La Jana — † — Castellón/Tarragona border|
|CV-18||Interurban||Autovía CV-18||Castellón de la Plana (CV-197) — † — Almassora — * — Burriana — † — Nules (N-340)|
|CV-30||Partial beltway||Ronda Nord de València||V-30 — Paterna (CV-31) — Valencia (CV-35) — † — Alboraia — † — V-21|
|CV-31||Urban||Distribuïdor Nord||Paterna (CV-30) — CV-365 — Burjassot (CV-35)|
|CV-32||Interurban||Eix de la Gombalda||Massalfassar (V-21) — * — Massamagrell/Museros (CV-300) — † — A-7|
|CV-33||Interurban||Distribuïdor Sud||Torrent (CV-366) — Albal|
|CV-35||Urban & interurban||Autovía de Ademuz||Valencia (CV-30) — Burjassot (CV-61/CV-365) — A-7 — San Antonio de Benagéber — La Pobla de Vallbona — CV-50 — Llíria|
|CV-36||Iinterurban||Autovía de Torrent||Valencia (Camí Nou de Picanya) — Picanya (CV-366) — Torrent — Alaquàs — El Mas del Jutge — A-7|
|CV-40||Interurban||Autovía CV-40||Xàtiva (A-7) — Ontinyent — Albaida — * — Cocentaina — * — Alcoi — * — A-7|
|CV-60||Interurban||Autovía CV-60||L'Olleria (CV-40) — † — Alfarrasí (N-340) — † — CV-610 — Gandia (CV-600)|
|CV-70||Interurban||Autovía CV-70||Alcoi (A-7) — † — Polop (N-340) — † — Benidorm (AP-7)|
|CV-80||Interurban||Autovía CV-80||Sax (A-31) — Castalla — A-7|
|CV-365||Urban||Northeastern access to Paterna||Burjassot (CV-35) — CV-31 — V-11/V-30|
|CV-500||Urban||Autovía del Saler||Valencia (Alcalde Reig Street) — V-30 — El Saler|
|CV-864||Partial beltway||Ronda Sud de Elx||EL-20 — † — CV-866|
*: in construction — †: planned
- Transport in Spain
- List of controlled-access highway systems
- Evolution of motorway construction in European nations
- "CIA - The World Factbook -- Spain". Central Intelligence Agency.
- (in Spanish) movimiento140.com asks for the general limits on both autopistas an autovías to be raised to 140 km/h (85 mph).
- Spans marked with * are under construction
- Transferred to the Madrid City Council
- "Medio Ambiente retoca una autopista para preservar cañadas". El Periódico de Aragón (in Spanish). Zaragoza: Grupo Zeta. 6 December 2007. p. 24. Archived from the original on 7 December 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
El Departamento de Medio Ambiente de la DGA ha emitido una declaración de impacto ambiental favorable al estudio informativo de la autopista autonómica que conectará la autovía Mudéjar desde Cariñena con la A-68 y la N-232 en Mallén.
- "La DGA hará una autovía entre Huesca y Bujaraloz para comunicar Gran Scala" [The Aragón Government will build a highway between Huesca and Bujaraloz to communicate Gran Scala]. Heraldo de Aragón (in Spanish). Zaragoza. 17 December 2007. p. 7. Archived from the original (JPG) on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2010.
- "Licitan el tramo entre Villaseca y Seseña de la Autovía de la Sagra". La Tribuna de Toledo (in Spanish). Toledo. 16 June 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
El tercer tramo de la autovía (que se desarrolla entre Villaseca de la Sagra y Seseña), tendrá 21 kilómetros y contará con un presupuesto de 91,1 millones de euros
- "Las autovías de La Sagra y del IV Centenario estarán listas en 2010" [The Sagra and IV Centenario highways will be completed in 2010]. La Tribuna de Toledo (in Spanish). Toledo. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
En 2010 estarán abiertas al tráfico las autovías de La Sagra, en el norte de Toledo, y la del IV Centenario, que en su primera fase unirá Ciudad Real y Valdepeñas y después llegará hasta la A32 a la altura de Alcaraz (Albacete).
Belén, Rodríguez (10 June 2009). "En un año habrá circulación por la nueva Autovía del IV Centenario" [Users will be able to travel the new IV Centenario Highway in a year]. Lanza digital (in Spanish). Ciudad Real: Diario Lanza. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
De aquí a doce meses se podrá ir por autovía desde la capital hasta Granátula de Calatrava o acceder a los pueblos calatravos que aparecen en los nueve enlaces incluidos en los 28 kilómetros del primer tramo del trazado
- The tolled autopista ends at Manresa, where a non-tolled autovía with the same name takes on.
"Duplicación de calzadas" [Roads to be twinned]. Ampliación de la Red de Carreteras 2007-2011 (in Spanish). Madrid: General Roads Directorate, Madrid Transports and Infrastructures regional Ministry. June 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
DESDOBLAMIENTO DE LA M-100 ENTRE ALCALÁ DE HENARES Y LA R-2
- Contreras, Mercedes (10 October 2009). "Una autovía de 70 kilómetros de largo vertebrará 14 municipios del suroeste" [A 70 kilometre-long highway will connect 14 towns in the Southwest]. ABC (in Spanish). Madrid. Retrieved 8 April 2010.
Así, el tramo correspondiente a la M-600, en el que se invertirán según las previsiones 187,7 millones de euros, contará con 8 enlaces, mientras que en la zona de la M-404, con una inversión de de 303 millones, se construirán 16 enlaces más.
"Eliminación de cruces a nivel" [Removal of level crossings]. Ampliación de la Red de Carreteras 2007-2011 (in Spanish). Madrid: General Roads Directorate, Madrid regional Ministry of Transports and Infrastructures. June 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
SUSTITUCIÓN DE TRES ENLACES EN LA M-407
- "La Comunidad transformará en autovía la M-407 al paso por Leganés". El Mundo (in Spanish). Madrid. EFE. 23 September 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2010.