Hilde Holger

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Hilde Holger
Trcka Holger2 Kopie scharf.jpg
Holger in 1925
Hilde Sofer

(1905-10-18)18 October 1905
Died22 September 2001(2001-09-22) (aged 95)
Camden, London
NationalityBritish, Austrian
Known forDance, choreography and teaching
MovementExpressionism and Integrated dance
Spouse(s)Adershir Kavershir Boman-Behram (1940–1975, 1989–2000)
WebsiteOfficial website
Holger in 1926
Holger in 1926
Holger in 1926
Holger in 1925

Hilde Boman-Behram (née Hilde Sofer, stage name Hilde Holger; 18 October 1905 – 22 September 2001) was an expressionist dancer, choreographer and dance teacher whose pioneering work in integrated dance transformed modern dance.[1][2]


Holger came from a liberal Jewish family. She was born in 1905, the daughter of Alfred and Elise Sofer Schreiber.[3] Her father wrote poetry, and had died by 1908. Her grandfather made shoes for the Austrian court.

After Nazi Germany invaded Austria, Holger fled Vienna in 1939, because her entry into England was denied, she went to India.[4] In Mumbai she met the Parsi homeopath and art loving Dr. Ardershir Kavasji Boman-Behram, they married in 1940.[5] Her mother, step-father and fourteen other relatives all perished in the Holocaust.

Hilde Holger had two children. The first was born 1946 in India, her daughter Primavera Boman-Behram. In New York she became a dancer, sculptor and jewelry designer. In 1948 Holger's family emigrated to Britain.[5] Her second child, a son named Darius Boman-Behram, was born in 1949. He had Down syndrome, but inspired Holger to work with physically disabled people.


Hilde Holger started to dance at age six. At that time she was too young to join the Vienna State Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, so she settled for ballroom dancing lessons taken with her sister (Hedi Sofer), until she was accepted to study with radical dancer Gertrud Bodenwieser,[6] then a professor at the Vienna State Academy. They were admirers of the work of Isadora Duncan and Ruth St. Denis, as well as the artists of the Secession. Holger soon rose to be Bodenwieser's principal dancer and friend, and toured with Bodenwieser's company all over Western and Eastern Europe. She toured with her own Hilde Holger Dance Group as well. At age eighteen she had her first solo performance in the Viennese Secession. Later in the Viennese Hagenbund and theaters in Vienna, Paris and Berlin, her much-lauded expressionist dance caused quite a stir. Because of her passion for dance, in 1926 she formed the New School for Movement Arts in Palais Ratibor, right in the heart of Vienna. Her children's performances were danced in parks and in front of monuments there.

On 12 March 1938 Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany sent troops into Austria, and adopted a law to unify the country with Austria, at that time it was forbidden for Jews to perform. She received help to flee Austria from her friend Charles Petrach. She decided to go to India because that country's art was the most compelling to Western people, she said at that time.

In India she had the opportunity to incorporate new experiences into her work, especially the hand movements of Indian dance. Classical Indian dance has over three hundred of them, used to express life and nature. In 1941 Holger founded a new school of dance in Bombay, she took students of all race, religion and nationality without prejudice. Like when she was in Vienna, Holger again took part in the artistic community. Amongst her friends with whom she collaborated with were the Indian dancers Rukmini Devi Arundale, Ram Gopal,[2] Madame Menaka and Uday Shankar.[7] Gopal also danced in Holger's school in Bombay. In 1948 because of the partition of India and the growing violence between Muslims and Hindus she emigrated again, this time to Britain.

Once in England, her Holger Modern Ballet Group performed in parks, churches and theaters. She again opened a new dance school, The Hilde Holger School of Contemporary Dance and remained faithful to their style of teaching that the body and mind must form one unit in order to be a good dancer. Her breakthrough in London, 1951, celebrated Holger with the premiere of "Under the Sea", inspired by the composition by Camille Saint-Saens.

In 1972 she performed a piece titled "Man against flood", it was based on the book of the same name written by Chinese Communist Party member Rewi Alley. It was performed at the Commonwealth Institute with music by Chinese composer Yin Chengzong, and included dancers forming a human wall against a flood of water.[8]

Her performance "Apsaras" (1983) explored her experiences in India. In the summer of 1983 she went back to India, where she had been last in the year 1948. There she worked as a choreographer for a large dance group directed by Sachin Shankar.

Holger was particularly proud of her work with the mentally handicapped. She created a form of dance therapy for children who, like her son Darius, have Down syndrome. Holger was the first choreographer who mixed professional dancers with young adults with severe learning disabilities. In 1968 at the Sadler's Wells, Holger orchestrated "Towards the Light", with music by Edvard Grieg. It was pioneering, innovative, and one of the first integrated dance pieces to be seen on a professional stage.[9]

In 1992, Holger revived four dances from her early repertoire for her student Liz Aggiss, who first performed them, as Vier Tanze, at the Manchester Festival of Expressionism.[10] The pieces were Die Forelle (1923), Le Martyre de San Sebastien (1923), Mechaniches Ballett (1926) and Golem (1937). In the Guardian review, Sophie Constanti wrote that 'Hilde Holger's choreography reaches the British stage at last and triumphs....Together all four pieces danced with great sensitivity and aplomb by Aggiss accompanied by (Billy) Cowie on piano provided a fascinating insight into the lost Ausdruckstanz of central Europe.'[11]


Hilde Holger left a lasting impression on three generations of dancers and choreographers. While teaching her standards were high and she was not afraid of risk.[2] She accepted students without prejudice, including students with disabilities, as long as they were sincere. One of her students, Wolfgang Stange, continued her work with people with learning difficulties, like Down syndrome and autism, as well as people with physical disabilities. Stange's Amici Dance Theatre Company which was the first physically integrated dance company in Great Britain, which created a performance titled "Hilde" that was performed at the Riverside Theatre in London in 1996, and at the Odeon in Vienna in 1998. This HILDE Performance in Vienna excited the Ballet Master of the Vienna State Opera Ballet, who in turn put a performance on the stage of the Opera House with people with learning disabilities. These performances were received with great applause!

In her last few weeks Holger still held dance lessons in her basement studio in Camden, London, where she lived for more than fifty years. Her students included Liz Aggiss, Jane Asher, Primavera Boman, Carol Brown, Carl Campbell, Sophie Constanti, Jeff Henry, Ivan Illich, Luke Jennings, Thomas Kampe, Claudia Kappenberg, Cecilia Keen Abdeen, Lindsay Kemp,[12][13] Anneliese Monika Koch, Royston Maldoom OBE, Juliet Miangay-Cooper, Anna Niman, David Niman, Litz Pisk, Kristina Rihanoff, Kelvin Rotardier, Feroza Seervai, Rebecca Skelton, Marion Stein, Sheila Styles, Jacqueline Waltz and Vally Wieselthier.


After Holger’s death in 2001 her daughter Primavera began a journey of discovering the truth about her mother’s life as a famous dancer. She started to collate an archive to document her mother’s life and career out of the remaining physical legacy. [14] The archive is not on permanent display, although there have been numerous shows that included many of Holger’s artifacts.


In 2010 six of Holger’s students, Boman, Campbell, Kampe, Maldoom, Stange & Waltz, reunited together to put on a series of talks and dance workshops at The InterChange Studios in Hampstead Town Hall Centre in north London to commemorate Holger’s pioneering work in Inclusive Dance, entitled MoveABOUT: Transformation through movement. Each former student led an inclusive dance workshop to celebrate their own unique style of dance therapy, which Holger helped foster in them. These workshops introduced her work to yet another generation of dancers and interested individuals to her pioneering methods and beliefs in the power of dance, which in her own life crossed many boundaries, cultures, and religions. [15][16][17][18]


Year Performance Music Venue Notes
1923 Bouree Johann Sebastian Bach Vienna Secession
1923 Eine Seifenblase Claude Debussy Vienna Secession
1923 Forelle Franz Schubert Vienna Secession
1923 Humoreske Max Reger Vienna Secession
1923 Le Martyre de Saint Sebastien Claude Debussy Vienna Secession
1923 Reiter im Sturm Siegfried Frederick Nadel Vienna Secession
1923 Sarabande Johann Sebastian Bach Vienna Secession
1923 Trout
1923 Vogel als Prophet Franz Schubert Vienna Secession
1926 Funeral March for a Canary Lord Berners
1926 Mechanical Ballet
1929 Chaconne & Variations George Frideric Handel
1929 Englischer Schafertanz Percy Aldridge Grainger
1929 Hebraischer Tanz solo Alexander Veprik
1929 Lebenswende Karel Boleslav Jirák
1929 Marsch Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev
1929 The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastien Claude-Achille Debussy
1929 Mutter Erde Heinz Graupner
1929 Sarabande und Bourree Johann Sebastian Bach
1929 Tanz nach Rumaischene Motive Béla Viktor János Bartók
1931 Javanische Impression Heinz Graupner
1933 Kabbalistischer Tanz Vittorio Rieti
1936 Ahasver Marcel Rubin Volkshochschule, Vienna
1936 Barbarasong Weill Volkshochschule, Vienna
1936 Engel der Verkündigung Händel Volkshochschule, Vienna
1937 Flämischer Bilderboden nach Breughel Volksbildungshaus, Stöbergasse, Vienna
1937 Golem Wilckens Volksbildungshaus, Stöbergasse, Vienna
1937 Mystischer Kreis Reti Volksbildungshaus, Stöbergasse, Vienna
1937 Orientalischer Tanz Graupner Volksbildungshaus, Stöbergasse, Vienna
1937 Passacaglia Händel Volksbildungshaus, Stöbergasse, Vienna
1937 Tango Benatzky Volksbildungshaus, Stöbergasse, Vienna
1948 Annunciation
1948 Emperors new Clothes Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
1948 Pavane Maurice Ravel
1948 Russian Fairy Tales Alexander Borodine, Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky
1948 Selfish Giant
1948 Tales and Legends in Modern Ballet
1948 Viennese Waltz Johann Strauss II
1952 Dance with Cymbals on the Indian Ocean
1952 Dance with Tambourines Fritz Dietrich
1952 Nocturne Heinz Graupner
1952 Slavic Dance Antonín Dvořák
1954 Aztec Cult (Sacrifice)
1954 Barbar the Elephant
1954 Old Vienna
1954 Orchid
1954 Rhythm of the East
1954 Selfish Giant
1954 Tibetan Prayer Songs
1955 Angels
1955 Dance Etudes
1955 Galliarde-Siciliano Ottorino Respighi
1955 Hoops Georges Bizet
1955 Jazz Heinz Graupner
1955 Men & Horses John S. Beckett
1955 Toccata Paradies
1955 Under the Sea Camille Saint-Saëns Sadler's Wells Theatre
1955 Valse Caprice Aram Khachaturian
1956 Etude
1956 Prelude Johann Sebastian Bach
1956 Theme and Variations George Frideric Handel
1957 Allegro Vivaci Johann Sebastian Bach
1957 Bird
1957 Café Dansant George Gershwin
1957 Egypt
1957 The Hunter and the Geese
1957 Madonna
1957 March Lev Knipper
1957 Nativity George Frideric Handel, Franz Schubert, Johann Sebastian Bach
1957 Sale Johann Strauss II
1957 The Toyshop Aram Khachaturian
1957 Stranger Aaron Copland
1957 Witches Kitchen and Walpurgisnight Paul Dukas
1958 Dance Divertissement
1958 Dance for four Women Joaquín Turina
1958 Dance with Bells John S. Beckett
1958 Ritual Fire Dance Manuel de Falla
1958 Song of the Earth Antonín Dvořák
1960 Allegro Arcangelo Corelli
1960 Dawn of Life
1960 The Farmer’s Curst Wife Peter Warlock
1960 Frankie and Johannie Peter Warlock
1960 Imaginary Invalid Gioachino Antonio Rossini
1960 Secret Annexe
1960 West Indian Spiritual
1961 Dance for Two Germaine Tailleferre
1961 Egypt
1961 The House of Bernarda Alba (The Sisters) Joaquín Turina written by Federico Lorca
1961 Metamorphoses Ovid
1961 Pierrot Johann Sebastian Bach
1963 Dance for Men
1963 Dream Wilckens
1963 Lady Isobel and the Elf Knight Peter Warlock
1963 Narcissus (The Image) Heinz Graupner
1965 Ballad of the Hanged (Villons Epitaph)
1965 Cain’s Morning
1965 Canticle of the Sun Johann Pachebel
1965 Creation of Adam & Eve Olivier Messiaen
1965 Nightwalkers Olivier Messiaen
1965 Saint Francis and his sermon to the birds
1968 Angelic Prelude – Inspirations Giuseppe Torelli
1968 Salome Philip Croot
1968 Towards the Light Edvard Greig Sadlers Wells Theatre
1968 The Wise & Foolish Virgins Philip Croot
1970 The Scarecrow
1971 Snowchild
1972 Bamboo Khatshaturian Commonwealth Institute
1972 Bauhaus Erik Satie Commonwealth Institute
1972 Embrace Erik Satie Commonwealth Institute
1972 Flight Commonwealth Institute
1972 Hieronymus Bosch Roger Cutts Commonwealth Institute
1972 Honoré Daumier Commonwealth Institute
1972 The Hypopatic Doctor Gioachino Antonio Rossini, Franz Schubert Commonwealth Institute
1972 Inspirations Sergei Rachmaninoff, Claude Debussy Commonwealth Institute
1972 Man against Flood Yin Chengzong Commonwealth Institute based on book by Rewi Alley
1972 Prelude
1972 Renaissance, Scene on Earth, Scene on Heaven Mompou, Gordon Langford, Banchieri Commonwealth Institute
1972 Shiva and the Grasshopper Gordon Langford Commonwealth Institute based on the poem by Kipling
1972 Suspension Maurice Ravel Commonwealth Institute
1972 Tranquillity Alan Hovhaness Commonwealth Institute
1972 Tribal Nocturne Béla Viktor János Bartók Commonwealth Institute
1974 Archaic
1974 Bamboo Aram Khachaturian
1974 Egypt Giuseppe Verdi
1974 Hieronymus Bosch Roger Cutts
1974 The Hunter and the Hunted
1974 Paul Klee Spring Awakening Béla Viktor János Bartók
1974 Renaissance Federico Mompou
1974 Spring Awakening
1975 Inspirations Sergei Rachmaninoff, Claude Debussy The Hampstead Theatre
1975 Mobiles Alfredo Casella The Hampstead Theatre
1975 Paul Klee Spring Awakening Belá Bartók The Hampstead Theatre
1975 Rockpaintings Roger Cutts The Hampstead Theatre
1975 Toulouse Lautrec Erik Satie The Hampstead Theatre
1976 The Park
1977 Prelude and Chorale César Franck
1977 Sacred and Profane Dance
1979 African Poetry
1979 Apsaras
1979 Homage to Barbara Hepworth Heitor Villa-Lobos
1979 Prelude Giuseppe Torelli
1979 Tower of Mothers Carl Orff
1979 Tradisches Ballet choreographed by Oskar Schlemmer
1979 We are Dancing Johann Sebastian Bach
1983 The Bow and Arrow David Sutton-Anderson The Hampstead Theatre
1983 Fishes David Sutton-Anderson The Hampstead Theatre
1983 The Letter Coleridge The Hampstead Theatre
1983 The Manikin Coleridge The Hampstead Theatre
1983 The Penguin Story David Sutton-Anderson The Hampstead Theatre
1983 Pick a Back Coleridge The Hampstead Theatre
1983 Poems on a Boy’s Painting David Sutton-Anderson The Hampstead Theatre poems by Ke Yan, pictures by Bu Di
1983 Sea and Sand The Hampstead Theatre poems by Rewi Alley
1983 Sea, Clouds, Sparkling Lighthouse, Flames The Hampstead Theatre
1983 Umbrellas The Hampstead Theatre poems by Bu Di and Ke Yan
1983 What is a Poem David Sutton-Anderson The Hampstead Theatre
1984 The City Marcel Rubin The Hampstead Theatre
1984 Don Quixote David Sutton-Anderson The Hampstead Theatre
1984 Ritual David Sutton-Anderson The Hampstead Theatre
1984 Scherzo Frédéric Chopin
1988 Children of the Vorstadt Franz Lehár The Hampstead Theatre
1988 Childrens' Games
1988 Death and the Maiden Franz Schubert The Hampstead Theatre
1988 Egon Schiele in Memoriam, The Dying Empire Strauss The Hampstead Theatre
1988 The Family Hugo Wolf The Hampstead Theatre
1988 Flemish Picture Sheet
1988 Fluteplayers
1988 Four Seasons Antonio Vivaldi The Hampstead Theatre
1988 Golem Wilckens
1988 Hands David Sutton-Anderson The Hampstead Theatre
1988 The Least is the Most Percussion: David Sutton-Anderson The Hampstead Theatre
1988 Mechanical Ballet Ludwig Hirschfeld Mack
1988 Models Schubert, Schönberg The Hampstead Theatre
1995 Whales
2000 Rhythms of the Unconscious Mind



Year Title Role Notes
1996 Spirit Levels herself


  1. ^ "Hilde Holger : Central European Expressionist Dancer". www.50yearsindance.com/category/hilde-holger/. 2011. Archived from the original on 12 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  2. ^ a b c "Hilde Holger: Central European Expressionist Dancer". hildeholger.com. 2007. Archived from the original on 14 November 2006. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  3. ^ Sassenberg, Marina (2009). "Hilde Holger" in Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. Jewish Women's Archive
  4. ^ Pascal, Julia (8 March 2000). "Adi Boman : Scientist on an unresolved search for a cancer cure". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Ardeshir Kavasji Boman Behram 1909–2000". sueyounghistories.com. 22 December 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  6. ^ Vernon-Warren, B. and Warren, C. (eds.) (1999) Gertrud Bodenwieser and Vienna's Contribution to Ausdruckstanz. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 90-5755-035-0.
  7. ^ Lee, Rachel (2019). https://metromod.net/2019/04/04/hilde-holger/ "Bombay, Fieldwork, London: Hilde Holger"]. Metromod
  8. ^ Lei, W. (28 October 1972) "Man Against Flood". The New Evening Post(in Chinese).
  9. ^ Pascal, Julia (26 September 2001). "Hilde Holger : As a dancer and teacher she kept the spirit of German expressionism alive in London". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  10. ^ 'List of Works', Aggiss and Cowie (eds) Anarchic Dance, Routledge, 2006, p.177
  11. ^ Sophie Constanti, 'Dancing Diva: Hilde Holger's choreography reaches the British stage at last and triumphs', Arts Section, The Guardian, 9 June 1993, p3-4
  12. ^ "Lindsay Kemp obituary". The Guardian. 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  13. ^ "British choreographer and mime Lindsay Kemp dies". The Guardian. 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  14. ^ Gulliver, J. (04 November 2010) "Prim Boman-Behram and the pioneering dancer Hilde Holger - Old letters reveal her mother’s true identity". Camden New Journal.
  15. ^ "Hilde Holger centenary". Hilde Holger archive. 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  16. ^ "MoveABOUT: Transformation through movement". Austrian Cultural Forum London. 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  17. ^ "MoveABOUT: Transformation through movement". YouTube. 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  18. ^ "MoveABOUT Jacqueline Waltz's workshop". YouTube. 2019. Retrieved 23 June 2019.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bernstein, Magda. Magda Nachman: An Artist in Exile. Academic Studies Press, 2020, ISBN 978-1-6446-9267-7
  • Waltz, Jacqueline. Hilde Holger: Legacy of an Expressionist, Emigrant, Innovator, in Dance Today, The Dance Magazine of Israel, No. 36, pg. 39-43. Israel 2019. ISSN 1565-1568 .
  • Amort, Andrea ed.: Alles Tanzt; Kosmos Wiener Tanzmoderne. Hatje Cantz, Berlin - Stuttgart 2019/20, ISBN 978-3-7757-4567-3. Exhibition at the Theatre Museum Vienna.
  • Corbett O’Malley, Elizabeth: Hilde Holger and the Embodiment of the In-Betweenness. Hollins University, Virginia, USA 2019.
  • Akinleye, Adesola and Helen Kindred: In-the-between-ness, Decolonizing and Re-inhabiting Our Dancing. In Narratives in Black-British dance. Middlesex University, London 2018.ISBN 9783319703138
  • Sawyers, Adam and Geanina Beres: Indepen-Dance, an oral history (PDF), p. 46. Report on Inclusive Dance. Glasgow 2017.
  • Barbieri, Donatella and Melissa Trimingham: Costume in Performance – Materiality, Culture, and the Body. Bloomsbury Academic 2017.ISBN 978-1-4742-3687-4
  • Colah, Zasha: Body Luggage. Catalogue of Exhibition, Kunsthaus Graz 2016/7.
  • Franz, Dr. Margit and Karl Wimmler: Fritz Kolb, Leben in der Retorte. Als österreichischer Alpinist in indischen Internierungslagern. In Gateway India. Deutschsprachiges Exil in Indien zwischen britischer. Kolonialherrschaft, Maharadschas und Gandhi. Clio, Graz 2015.ISBN 3902542314
  • Chowdhury, Indira: A Season to Dance, Hilde Holger (1905-2001). In Kenneth X. Robbins: Jews and the Indian National Art Project. Publications, Research and Exhibitions. Niyogi books 2015.ISBN 9789383098545
  • Herrberg, Heike and Heidi Wagner: Wiener Melange – Frauen zwischen Salon und Kaffeehaus. Ebersbach, Berlin 2014. 2nd Edition.ISBN 3869150939
  • Franz, Dr. Margit: Exile meets Avantgarde, Exiles Art Networks in Bombay. In Margit Franz & Heimo Halbrainer: Going East – Going South. Austrian Exile in Asia and Africa. Graz 2014.ISBN 3902542349
  • Faber, Dr. Monika: Tanz der Hände. Tilly Losch und Hedy Pfundmayr in Fotografien 1920-1935. Photoinstitute Bonartes, Walter Moser, Wein 2014.ISBN 3700318960
  • Krejci, Harald and Patrick Werkner (curators): Wiener Kinetismus. A Dynamic show consisting of Cubist and Futurist paintings, and Vienna Kineticism – including a dance pose with Hilde Holger by Anton Josef Trcka. Belvedere, Vienna 2011.
  • Kampe, Thomas: Between Three Worlds. Hilde Holger the choreographer (PDF), p. 20. In Charmian Brinson & Richard Dove: German-speaking Exiles in the Performing Arts in Britain after 1933. Rodopi, the Netherlands 2013. Vol. 14. Also see Marian Malet & Litz Pisk.ISBN 9042036516
  • Amort, Andrea: Hanna Berger. Spuren einer Tänzerin im Widerstand. Brandstätter, Vienna 2010.ISBN 978-3-85033-188-3
  • Maldoom, Royston and Jacalyn Carley: Tanz um dein Leben. Meine Arbeit, meine Geschichte. S. Ficher, Frankfurt 2010.ISBN 9783100473905
  • Grunwald-Spier, Agnes: The Other Schindlers. The History Press, UK 2010.ISBN 0752457063
  • Franz, Dr. Margit: German-speaking Medical Exile to British India 1933-1945, p. 71-72. In Konrad Helmut & Benedik Stefan: Mapping Contemporary History II. Exemplary fields of research in 25 years on Contemporary History Studies at Graz University. Böhlau, Wein – Koln – Weimar 2010.ISBN 3205785185
  • Amort, Andrea: Free Dance in Interwar Vienna, p. 117-142. In Deborah Holmes & Lisa Silverman: Interwar Vienna. Culture between Tradition and Modernity. Camden House, New York 2009.ISBN 9781571134202
  • Bury, Dr. Stephen: Breaking the Rules. The Printed Face of the Avant Garde 1900-1937. The British Library 2007/8. Videos by Liz Aggiss, Music by Billy Cowie.ISBN 9780712309806
  • Aggiss, Liz and Billy Cowie: Anarchic Dance. Routledge, UK & US 2006.ISBN 9780415365178
  • Riedl, Joachim: Wien, Stadt der Juden – Die Welt der Tante Jolesch (exhibition). Jewish Museum Vienna, Paul Zsolnay 2004.ISBN 3552053158
  • Botstein, Leon and Werner Hanak: Quasi una fantasia – Juden und die Musikstadt Wein (exhibition). Jewish Museum Vienna 2003.ISBN 3936000069
  • Carter, Alexandra: Rethinking Dance History, A Reader. Routledge, US & UK 2004.ISBN 9780415287470
  • Waltz, Jacqueline: Creative and expressive Dance Movement Theory for older adults using the Holger Method – Who says it’s all down hill from here?. University of Herts., 2003.
  • Unknown: Inclusive Dance. Springer 2003.
  • Herrberg, Heike and Heidi Wagner. Wiener Melange 1902, Frauen zwischen Salon und Kaffeehaus. Edition Ebersbach, Berlin 2002.ISBN 978-3-86915-093-2
  • Douer, Alisa and Ursula Seeber: Frauen in Wien. Ein Fotoband von Alisa Douer, mit Texten von Ursula Seeber. Magistrat der Stadt, Wien 2002.ISBN 3950097872
  • Benjamin, Adam: Making an Entrance. Routledge, UK 2001.ISBN 0415251435
  • Amort, Andrea and Mimi Wunderer-Gosch: Osterreich Tanzt, History and the Present. Festspielhaus, Wien, Koln, Weimar 2001.ISBN 3-205-99226-1
  • Amort, Andrea: Tanz im Exil. Austrian Theatre Museum, exhibition 2000.
  • Brandstatter, Christian: Antios – Anton Josef Trcka 1893-1940. Wein – Munchen 1999.
  • Gesellschaft, Kestener: Anton Josef Trcka, Edward Weston, Helmut Newton. Scalo, Zurich – Berlin – New York 1998.ISBN 3931141888
  • Coleman, Roger: Design Für die Zukunft. DuMont, Koln 1997.ISBN 3770141873
  • Toepfer, Karl: Empire of Ecstasy, Nudity and Movement in German Body Culture, 1910-1935. University of California Press 1997.ISBN 0-520-20663-0
  • Hammerschlag, Peter: Kringel, Schingel, Borgia. Turia und Kant, Wein 1997.
  • Perret, René: Martin Imboden. Ein vergessener Fotograf.. Bern Benteli Verlag, Switzerland 1996.ISBN 3716510408
  • Taschenbuch, Rowohlt: Jüdische Frauen im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert Lexikon zu Leben und Werk. Reinbek bei Hamburg 1993.ISBN 9783499163449
  • Dunlop MacTavish, Shona: Gertrud Bodenwieser. Zeichen and Spuren, Wien, Sydney 1992.ISBN 90-5755-035-0
  • Vernon-Warren, Bettina & Charles Warren: Gertrud Bodenwieser and Vienna’s Contribution to Ausdrucktanz. Routledge 1992.ISBN 90-5755-035-0
  • Jordan, Stephanie: Striding Out. Dance Books Ltd., London 1992.ISBN 1-85273-032-3
  • Faber, Dr. Monika: Tanz Foto, Annaherunger und Experimente 1880 – 1946. Osterrerchisches Foto Archive in Museum Modermen Kunst; Museum des 20 Jahrhonderts, Wein 1990/1.
  • Hirschbach, Danny & Rick Takvorian: Biography. Die Kraft des Tanzes, Hilde Holger – Wien, Bombay, London. Zeichen and Spuren, Bremen 1990.ISBN 3-924588-19-8
  • Mayerhöfer, Josef: TANZ 20. Jhdt. In Wien. Ausstellungskatalog des Österreichischen Theatermuseums, Wien 1979. In Jarmila Weißenböck & Andrea Amort: Ausstellung und Katalog. Artikel-Nr.: FD5-774.

External links[edit]