Hiligaynon language

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Hiniligaynon, Inilonggo
Native toPhilippines
RegionWestern Visayas, Soccsksargen, western Negros Oriental, southwestern portion of Masbate, coastal Palawan, some parts of southern Mindoro, some parts of Romblon and a few parts of Northern Mindanao
Native speakers
7.8 million (2010)[1][needs update]
9.1 million total speakers[2]
4th most spoken native language in the Philippines[3]
    • Standard Hiligaynon (Iloilo province dialect);
    • Urban Hiligaynon (Metro Iloilo dialect);
    • Guimarasnon Hiligaynon;
    • Bacolodnon Hiligaynon (Metro Bacolod dialect);
    • Negrense Hiligaynon (Negros Occidental dialect);
    • Mindanao Hiligaynon
Latin (Hiligaynon alphabet)
Hiligaynon Braille
Historically Baybayin (c. 13th–19th centuries)
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byKomisyon sa Wikang Filipino
Language codes
ISO 639-2hil
ISO 639-3hil
Areas where Hiligaynon is spoken in the Philippines
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Hiligaynon, also often referred to as Ilonggo or Binisaya/Bisaya nga Hiniligaynon/Inilonggo, is an Austronesian regional language spoken in the Philippines by about 9.1 million people, predominantly in Western Visayas and Soccsksargen, most of whom belong to the Hiligaynon people.[4] It is the second-most widely spoken language in the Visayas and belongs to the Bisayan languages, and it is more distantly related to other Philippine languages.

It also has one of the largest native language-speaking populations of the Philippines, despite it not being taught and studied formally in schools and universities until 2012.[5] Hiligaynon is given the ISO 639-2 three-letter code hil, but has no ISO 639-1 two-letter code.

Hiligaynon is mainly concentrated in the regions of Western Visayas (Iloilo, Capiz, Guimaras, and Negros Occidental), as well as in South Cotabato (including General Santos), Sultan Kudarat, and North Cotabato in Soccsksargen. It is spoken in other neighboring provinces, such as Antique and Aklan in Western Visayas, Negros Oriental in Central Visayas, Masbate in Bicol Region, and southern parts of Mindoro, Romblon and Palawan in Mimaropa.

It is spoken as a second language by Kinaray-a speakers in Antique, Aklanon/Malaynon speakers in Aklan, Capiznon speakers in Capiz, Cebuano speakers in Negros Oriental,[6] and spoken and understood by native speakers of Maguindanaon, Cebuano, Ilocano, Blaan, Tboli and other settler and indigenous languages in Soccsksargen in Mindanao.[7] There are approximately 9,300,000 people in and out of the Philippines who are native speakers of Hiligaynon and an additional 5,000,000 capable of speaking it with a substantial degree of proficiency.[8]


The Water cycle diagram in Hiligaynon.

Aside from Hiligaynon, the language is also referred to as Ilonggo, also spelled Ilongo, as it originated in Iloilo. Many speakers outside Iloilo argue, that this is an incorrect usage of the word Ilonggo. In precise usage, these people opine that Ilonggo should be used only in relation to the ethnolinguistic group of native inhabitants of Iloilo and the culture associated with native Hiligaynon speakers in that place, including their language. The disagreement over the usage of Ilonggo to refer to the language extends to Philippine language specialists and native laypeople.[9]

Historically, the term Visayan had originally been applied to the people of Panay. In terms of language, Visayan is more used today to refer to what is known as Cebuano. As pointed out by H. Otley Beyer and other anthropologists, the term Visayan was first applied only to the people of Panay and to their settlements eastward in the island of Negros, especially its western portion, and northward in the smaller islands, which now compose the province of Romblon.[10]

At the early part of Spanish Colonization in the Philippines, the Spaniards used the term Visayan only for these areas. While the people of Cebu, Bohol and Leyte were for a long time known only as Pintados. The name Visayan was later extended to these other islands because, as several of the early writers state, their languages are closely allied to the Visayan dialect of Panay.[11]


Historical evidence from observations of early Spanish explorers in the Archipelago shows that the nomenclature used to refer to this language had its origin among the people of the coasts or people of the Ilawod ("los [naturales] de la playa") in Iloilo, Panay, whom Spanish explorer Miguel de Loarca called Yligueynes[12] (or the more popular term Hiligaynon, also referred to by the Karay-a people as Siná).

The term Hiligaynon came from the root word ilig ('to go downstream'), referring to a flowing river in Iloilo. In contrast, the Kinaray-a has been used by what the Spanish colonizers called Arayas, which may be a Spanish misconception of the Hiligaynon words Iraya or taga-Iraya, or the current and more popular version Karay-a ('highlanders' – people of Iraya/highlands).[13]


Similar to many languages in the Philippines, very little research on dialectology has been done on Hiligaynon. Standard Hiligaynon, simply called Ilonggo, is the dialect that is used in the province of Iloilo, primarily in the northern and eastern portions of the province. It has a more traditional and extensive vocabulary, whereas the Urban Hiligaynon dialect spoken in Metro Iloilo has a more simplified or modern vocabulary.

For example, the term for 'to wander,' 'to walk,' or 'to stroll' in Urban Hiligaynon is lágaw, which is also widely used by most of the Hiligaynon speakers, whereas in Standard Hiligaynon, dayán is more commonly used, which has rarely or never been used by other dialects of the language. Another example, amó iní, ('this is it') in Standard Hiligaynon can be simplified in Urban Hiligaynon and become 'mó'ní.

Some of the other widely recognized dialects of the language, aside from Standard Hiligaynon and Urban Hiligaynon, are Bacolodnon Hiligaynon (Metro Bacolod dialect), Negrense Hiligaynon (provincial Negros Occidental dialect that is composed of three sub-variants: Northern, Central and Southern Negrense Hiligaynon), Guimaras Hiligaynon, and Mindanao Hiligaynon (which incorporated some Cebuano and other languages due to the mass influx of migrants from Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor and Cebuano-speaking parts of Mindanao reside in the Soccsksargen area). [14]

Some native speakers also consider Kinaray-a (also known as Hiniraya or Antiqueño) and Capiznon dialects of Hiligaynon. However, linguists have classified Kinaray-a as a Western Bisayan language, while Capiznon is a Central Bisayan language closely related to Hiligaynon.[15][16]



Main consonant phonemes
Labial Dental/
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p b t d k ɡ ʔ
Fricative s h
Flap ɾ
Approximant w l j

Consonants [d] and [ɾ] were once allophones but cannot interchange as in other Philippine languages: patawaron ('to forgive') [from patawad, 'forgiveness'] but not patawadon, and tagadiín ('from where') [from diín, 'where'] but not tagariín.


There are four main vowels: /a/, /i ~ ɛ/, /o ~ ʊ/, and /u/. [i] and [ɛ] (both spelled i) are allophones, with [i] in the beginning and middle and sometimes final syllables and [ɛ] in final syllables. The vowels [ʊ] and [o] are also allophones, with [ʊ] always being used when it is the beginning of a syllable, and [o] always used when it ends a syllable.

Writing system[edit]

Hiligaynon is written using the Latin script. Until the second half of the 20th century, Hiligaynon was widely written largely following Spanish orthographic conventions. Nowadays there is no officially recognized standard orthography for the language and different writers may follow different conventions. It is common for the newer generation, however, to write the language based on the current orthographic rules of Filipino.

A noticeable feature of the Spanish-influenced orthography absent in those writing following Filipino's orthography is the use of "c" and "qu" in representing /k/ (now replaced with "k" in all instances) and the absence of the letter "w" ("u" was formerly used in certain instances).

The core alphabet consists of 20 letters used for expressing consonants and vowels in Hiligaynon, each of which comes in an uppercase and lowercase variety.


The 1st to 10th letters
Symbol A a B b K k D d E e G g H h I i L l M m
Name a ba ka da e ga ha i la ma
Pronunciation [a/ə] [aw] [aj] [b] [k] [d] [ɛ/e] [ɡ] [h] [ɪ/i] [ɪo] [l] [m]
in context a aw/ao ay b k d e g h i iw/io l m
The 11th to 20th letters
Symbol N n Ng ng O o P p R r S s T t U u W w Y y
Name na nga o pa ra sa ta u wa ya
Pronunciation [n] [ŋ] [ɔ/o] [oj] [p] [r] [s] [ʃʲ] [t] [ʊ/u] [w] [w] [j]
in context n ng o oy p r s sy t u ua w y

Additional symbols[edit]

The apostrophe ⟨'⟩ and hyphen ⟨-⟩ also appear in Hiligaynon writing, and might be considered separate letters.

The hyphen, in particular, is used medially to indicate the glottal stop san-o 'when' gab-e 'evening; night'. It is also used in reduplicated words: adlaw-adlaw 'daily, every day', from adlaw 'day, sun'. This marking is not used in reduplicated words whose base is not also used independently, as in pispis 'bird'.

Hyphens are also used in words with successive sounds of /g/ and /ŋ/, to separate the letters with the digraph NG. Like in the word gin-gaan 'was given'; without the hyphen, it would be read as gingaan /gi.ŋaʔan/ as opposed to /gin.gaʔan/.

In addition, some English letters[which?] may be used in borrowed words.



Hiligaynon has three types of case markers: absolutive, ergative, and oblique. These types in turn are divided into personal, that have to do with names of people, and impersonal, that deal with everything else, and further into singular and plural types, though the plural impersonal case markers are just the singular impersonal case markers + mga (a contracted spelling for /maŋa/), a particle used to denote plurality in Hiligaynon.[17]

  Absolutive Ergative Oblique
singular impersonal ang sang, sing* sa
plural impersonal ang mga sang mga, sing mga* sa mga
singular personal si ni kay
plural personal** sanday nanday kanday

(*)The articles sing and sing mga means the following noun is indefinite, while sang tells of a definite noun, like the use of a in English as opposed to the; however, it is not as common in modern speech, being replaced by sang. It appears in conservative translations of the Bible into Hiligaynon and in traditional or formal speech.
(**)The plural personal case markers are not used very often and not even by all speakers. Again, this is an example of a case marker that has fallen largely into disuse, but is still occasionally used when speaking a more traditional form of Hiligaynon, using fewer Spanish loan words.[clarification needed]

The case markers do not determine which noun is the subject and which is the object; rather, the affix of the verb determines this, though the ang-marked noun is always the topic.

Ang lalaki nagkaon sang tinapay. Ang tinapay ginkaon sang lalaki.
'The man ate the bread' 'The bread was eaten by the man' (literal)

Personal pronouns[edit]

  Absolutive Ergative
1st person singular ako, ko nakon, ko akon sa akon
2nd person singular ikaw, ka nimo, mo imo sa imo
3rd person singular siya niya iya sa iya
1st person plural inclusive kita naton, ta aton sa aton
1st person plural exclusive kami namon amon sa amon
2nd person plural kamo ninyo inyo sa inyo
3rd person plural sila nila ila sa ila

Demonstrative pronouns[edit]

  Absolutive Ergative/Oblique Locative Existential
Nearest to speaker ('this, here') iní siní dirí (y)ári
Near to addressee or closely removed from speaker and addressee ('that, there') inâ sinâ dirâ (y)arà
Remote ('yon, yonder') ató sadtó didtó (y)á(d)to

In addition to this, there are two verbal deictics, karí, meaning 'to come to the speaker', and kadto, meaning 'to go yonder'.


Hiligaynon lacks the marker of sentence inversion ay of Tagalog/Filipino or hay of Akeanon. Instead sentences in SV form (Filipino: Di karaniwang anyo) are written without any marker or copula.


Si Sara ay maganda (Tagalog)

Si Sara matahum / Gwapa si Sara (Hiligaynon) = 'Sara is beautiful.'

'Sara is beautiful' (English)

There is no direct translation for the English copula to be in Hiligaynon. However, the prefixes mangin- and nangin- may be used to mean will be and became, respectively.

Example: Manamì mangín manggaránon.
'It is nice to become rich.'

The Spanish copula estar ('to be') has also become a part of the Hiligaynon lexicon. Its meaning and pronunciation have changed compared to its Spanish meaning, however. In Hiligaynon it is pronounced as istar and means 'to live (in)/location' (Compare with the Hiligaynon word puyô).

Example: Nagaistar ako sa tabuk suba.
'I live in tabuk suba'. Tabuk suba translates to 'other side of the river' and is also a barangay in Jaro, Iloilo.


To indicate the existence of an object, the word may is used.








May idô (a)ko


I have a dog.

Hiligaynon linkers[edit]

When an adjective modifies a noun, the linker nga links the two.


Ido nga itom
'black dog'

Sometimes, if the linker is preceded by a word that ends in a vowel, glottal stop or the letter N, it becomes acceptable to contract it into -ng, as in Filipino. This is often used to make the words sound more poetic or to reduce the number of syllables. Sometimes the meaning may change as in maayo nga aga, '(the) good morning', and maayong aga, the greeting for 'good morning'.

The linker ka is used if a number modifies a noun.


Anum ka ido
'six dogs'

Interrogative pronouns[edit]

The interrogative pronouns of Hiligaynon are as follows: diin, san-o, sin-o, nga-a, kamusta, ano, and pila

Diin means 'where'.
Example: Diin ka na subong?
'Where are you now?'

A derivation of diin, tagadiin, is used to inquire the birthplace or hometown of the listener.
Example: Tagadiin ka?
'Where are you from?'

San-o means 'when'
Example: San-o inâ?
'When is that?'

Sin-o means 'who'
Example: Sin-o imo abyan?
'Who is your friend?'

Nga-a means 'why'
Example: Nga-a indi ka magkadto?
'Why won't you go?'

Kamusta means 'how', as in "How are you?"
Example: Kamusta ang tindahan?
'How is the store?'

Ano means 'what'
Example: Ano ang imo ginabasa?
'What are you reading?'

A derivative of ano, paano, means 'how', as in "How do I do that?"
Example: Paano ko makapulî?
'How can I get home?'

A derivative of paano is paanoano, an archaic phrase which can be compared with kamusta.
Example: Paanoano ikaw?
'How art thou?'

Pila means 'how much/how many'
Example: Pila ang gaupod sa imo?
'How many are with you?'

A derivative of pila, ikapila, asks the numerical order of the person, as in, "What place were you born in your family?"(first-born, second-born, etc.) This word is notoriously difficult to translate into English, as English has no equivalent.
Example: Ikapila ka sa inyo pamilya?
'What place were you born into your family?'

A derivative of pila, tagpila, asks the monetary value of something, as in, "How much is this beef?"
Example: Tagpila ini nga karne sang baka?
'How much is this beef?'



As it is essential for sentence structure and meaning, focus is a key concept in Hiligaynon and other Philippine languages. In English, in order to emphasize a part of a sentence, variation in intonation is usually employed – the voice is stronger or louder on the part emphasized. For example:

  1. The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister.
  2. The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister.
  3. The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister.
  4. The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister.

Furthermore, active and passive grammatical constructions can be used in English to place focus on the actor or object as the subject:

The man stole the rice. vs. The rice was stolen by the man.

In contrast, sentence focus in Philippine languages is built into the construction by grammatical elements. Focus is marked by verbal affixes and a special particle prior to the noun in focus. Consider the following Hiligaynon translations of the above sentences:

  1. Nagakawat ang lalaki sang bugas sa tinda para sa iya utod.
  2. Ginakawat sang lalaki ang bugas sa tinda para sa iya utod.
  3. Ginakawatan sang lalaki sang bugas ang tinda para sa iya utod.
  4. Ginakawatan sang lalaki sang bugas sa tinda para sa iya utod.
(lalaki 'man'; kawat 'to steal'; bugas 'rice'; tinda 'market'; utod 'sibling'; kamot 'hand')[18]

Summary table[edit]

Trigger, Mode and Aspect Affixes for Hiligaynon[19]
Neutral Purposive Durative Causative Distributive Cooperative Dubitative
Agent Goal Unreal -on pag—on paga—on pa—on pang—on pakig—on iga—on
Real gin- gin- gina- ginpa- ginpang- ginpakig- ø
Referent Unreal -an pag—an paga—an pa—an pang—an pakig—an iga—an
Real gin—an gin—an gina—an ginpa—an ginpang—an ginpakig—an ø
Accessory Unreal i- ipag- ipaga- ipa- ipang- ipakig- iga-
Real gin- gin- gina- ginpa- ginpang- ginpakig- ø
Actor Unreal -um- mag- maga- ø mang- makig- ø
Real -um- nag- naga- ø nang- nakig- ø
Patient Actor Unreal maka- makapag- makapaga- makapa- makapang- mapapakig- ø
Real naka- nakapag- nakapaga- nakapa- nakapang- napapakig- ø
Goal Unreal ma- mapag- mapaga- mapa- mapang- mapakig- ø
Real na- napag- napaga- napa- napang- napakig- ø


Hiligaynon, like other Philippine languages, employs reduplication, the repetition of a root or stem of a word or part of a word for grammatical or semantic purposes. Reduplication in Hiligaynon tends to be limited to roots instead of affixes, as the only inflectional or derivational morpheme that seems to reduplicate is -pa-. Root reduplication suggests 'non-perfectiveness' or 'non-telicity'. Used with nouns, reduplication of roots indicate particulars which are not fully actualized members of their class.[20] Note the following examples.






toy-house, playhouse






make-believe teacher

Reduplication of verbal roots suggests a process lacking a focus or decisive goal. The following examples describe events which have no apparent end, in the sense of lacking purpose or completion. A lack of seriousness may also be implied. Similarly, reduplication can suggest a background process in the midst of a foreground activity, as shown in (5).[21]










Nag-a- hìbî-híbî ang bátâ.

NAG-IMP- cry-cry FOC child

The child has been crying and crying.












Nag-a- tinlò-tinlò akó sang lamésa

NAG-IMP- clean-clean 1SG.FOC UNFOC table

I'm just cleaning off the table (casually).




















Nag-a- kàon-káon gid silá sang nag-abót ang íla bisíta.

NAG-IMP- eat-eat just 3PL.FOC UNFOC NAG-arrive FOC 3PL.UNFOC visitor

They were just eating when their visitor arrived.

When used with adjectival roots, non-telicity may suggest a gradualness of the quality, such as the comparison in (6). In comparative constructions the final syllables of each occurrence of the reduplicated root are accented. If the stress of the second occurrence is shifted to the first syllable, then the reduplicated root suggests a superlative degree, as in (7). Superlatives can also be created through prefixation of pinaka- to the root, as in pinaka-dakô.[22]

While non-telicity can suggest augmentation, as shown in (7), it can also indicate diminishment as in shown in (9), in contrast with (8) (note the stress contrast). In (8b), maàyoáyo, accented in the superlative pattern, suggests a trajectory of improvement that has not been fully achieved. In (9b), maàyoayó suggests a trajectory of decline when accented in the comparative pattern. The reduplicated áyo implies sub-optimal situations in both cases; full goodness/wellness is not achieved.[23]
















Iní nga kwárto ma-dulùm-dulúm sang sa sinâ

this.FOC LINK room MA-dark-dark UNFOC OBL that.UNFOC

This room is darker than that one.


Derived from Spanish[edit]

Hiligaynon has a large number of words derived from Spanish including nouns (e.g., santo from santo, 'saint'), adjectives (e.g., berde from verde, 'green'), prepositions (e.g., antes from antes, 'before'), and conjunctions (e.g., pero from pero, 'but').

Nouns denoting material items and abstract concepts invented or introduced during the early modern era include barko (barco, 'ship'), sapatos (zapatos, 'shoes'), kutsilyo (cuchillo, 'knife'), kutsara (cuchara, 'spoon'), tenedor ('fork'), plato ('plate'), kamiseta (camiseta, 'shirt'), and kambiyo (cambio, 'change', as in money). Spanish verbs are incorporated into Hiligaynon in their infinitive forms: edukar, kantar, mandar, pasar. The same holds true for other languages such as Cebuano. In contrast, incorporations of Spanish verbs into Tagalog for the most part resemble, though are not necessarily derived from, the vos forms in the imperative: eduká, kantá, mandá, pasá. Notable exceptions include andar, pasyal (from pasear) and sugal (from jugar).



Just like other Philippine languages that are influenced by Spanish, Hiligaynon uses 2 systems of numbers, one from its Austronesian roots and one derived from Spanish.

Number Hiligaynon-Native Hiligaynon-Spanish
1 isá uno
2 duhá dos
3 tátlo tres
4 ápat kuwatro
5 limá singku
6 ánum sais
7 pitó syete
8 waló otso
9 siyám nwebe/nuybi
10 pulò/napulò dyis
100 gatós siyen/syento
1,000 líbo mil
10,000 laksâ/isáng libo dyis mil
1,000,000 hámbad/ramák milyon
First tig-una/panguná primera
Second ikaduhá segunda
Third ikatlo/ikatátlo tersera
Fourth ikap-at/ikaápat
Fifth ikalimá
Sixth ikán-um/ikaánum
Seventh ikapitó
Eighth ikawaló
Ninth ikasiyám
Tenth ikapulò

Days of the week[edit]

The names of the days of the week are derived from their Spanish equivalents.

Day Native Names Meaning Castilian Derived
Sunday Tigburukad root word: bukad, 'open'; 'Starting Day' Domingo
Monday Dumasaon root word: dason 'next'; 'Next Day' Lunes
Tuesday Dukot-dukot literal meaning 'Busy Day'; 'Busiest Day' Martes
Wednesday Baylo-baylo root word: baylo, 'exchange'; 'Barter' or 'Market Day' Miyerkoles
Thursday Danghos literal meaning: 'rush'; 'Rushing of the Work Day' Huwebes
Friday Hingot-hingot literal meaning: 'Completing of the Work Day' Biyernes
Saturday Ligid-ligid root word: ligid, 'lay-down to rest'; 'Rest Day' Sábado

Months of the year[edit]

Month Native Name Castilian Derived
January Ulalong Enero
February Dagang Kahoy Pebrero
March Dagang Bulan Marso
April Kiling Abril
May Himabuyan Mayo
June Kabay Hunyo
July Hidapdapan Hulyo
August Lubad-lubad Agosto
September Kangurulsol Setiyembre
October Bagyo-bagyo Oktubre
November Panglot Diyutay Nobiyembre
December Panglot Dako Disiyembre

Quick phrases[edit]

English Hiligaynon
Yes. Húo.
No. Indî.
Thank you. Salamat.
Thank you very much! Salamat gid. / Madamò gid nga salamat!
I'm sorry. Patawaron mo ako. / Pasayloha 'ko. / Pasensyahon mo ako. / Pasensya na.
Help me! Buligi (a)ko! / Tabangi (a)ko!
Delicious! Namit!
Take care (Also used to signify goodbye) Halong.
Are you angry/scared? Akig/hadlok ka?
Do you feel happy/sad? Nalipay/Nasubo-an ka?
I don't know/I didn't know Ambot / Wala ko kabalo / Wala ko nabal-an
I don't care Wa-ay ko labot!
That's wonderful/marvelous! Námì-námì ba! / Nami ah!
I like this/that! Nanámìan ko sini/sina!
I love you. Palangga ta ka. / Ginahigugma ko ikaw.


English Hiligaynon
Hello! Kumusta/Maayong adlaw (lit.'good day')
Good morning. Maayong aga.
Good noon. Maayong ugto/Maayong udto
Good afternoon. Maayong hapon.
Good evening. Maayong gab-i.
How are you? Kamusta ka?/Kamusta ikaw?/Musta na? (informal)
I'm fine. Maayo man.
I am fine, how about you? Maayo man, ikaw ya?
How old are you? Pila na ang edad (ni)mo? / Ano ang edad mo? / Pila ka tuig ka na?
I am 24 years old. Beinte kwatro anyos na (a)ko./ Duha ka pulo kag apat ka tuig na (a)ko.
My name is... Ang ngalan ko...
I am Erman. Ako si Erman. / Si Erman ako.
What is your name? Ano imo ngalan? / Ano ngalan (ni)mo?
Until next time. Asta sa liwat.


English Hiligaynon
What is this/that? Ano (i)ni/(i)nâ?
This is a sheet of paper. Isa ni ka panid sang papel. / Isa ka panid ka papel ini.
That is a book. Libro (i)nâ.
What will you do?/What are you going to do? Ano ang himu-on (ni)mo? / Ano ang buhaton (ni)mo? / Maano ka?
What are you doing? Ano ang ginahimo (ni)mo? / Gaano ka?
My female friend Ang akon babaye nga abyan/miga
My male friend Ang akon lalake nga abyan/migo
My girlfriend/boyfriend Ang akon nubya/nubyo

Space and time[edit]

English Hiligaynon
Where are you now? Diin ka (na) subong?
Where shall we go? Diin (ki)ta makadto?
Where are we going? Diin (ki)ta pakadto?
Where are you going? (Sa) diin ka makadto?
We shall go to Iloilo. Makadto (ki)ta sa Iloilo.
We're going to Bacolod. Makadto kami sa Bacolod.
I am going home. Mapa-uli na ko (sa balay). / (Ma)puli na ko.
Where do you live? Diin ka naga-istar? / Diin ka naga-puyô?
Where did you come from? (Where have you just been?) Diin ka (nag)-halin?
Have you been here long? Dugay ka na di(ri)?
(To the) left. (Sa) wala.
(To the) right. (Sa) tuo.
What time is it? Ano('ng) takna na? / Ano('ng) oras na?
It's ten o'clock. Alas diyes na.
What time is it now? Ano ang oras subong? / Ano oras na?

Ancient times of the day[edit]

Time Name Meaning
06:00 AM Butlak Adlaw Daybreak
10:00 AM Tig-ilitlog or Tig-iritlog Time for chickens to lay eggs
12:00 noon Udto Adlaw or Ugto Adlaw Noon time or midday
02:00 PM Huyog Adlaw Early afternoon
04:00 PM Tigbarahog Time for feeding the swine
06:00 PM Sirom Twilight
08:00 PM Tingpanyapon or Tig-inyapon Supper time
10:00 PM Tigbaranig Time to lay the banig or sleeping mat
11:00 PM Unang Pamalò First cockerel's crow
12:00 midnight Tungang Gab-i Midnight
02:00 AM Ikaduhang Pamalò Second cockerel's crow
04:00 AM Ikatatlong Pamalò Third cockerel's crow
05:00 AM Tigbulugtaw or Tigburugtaw Waking up time

When buying[edit]

English Hiligaynon
May/Can I buy? Pwede ko ma(g)-bakal?
How much is this/that? Tag-pilá iní/inâ?
I'll buy the... Baklon ko ang...
Is this expensive? Mahal bala (i)ni?
Is that cheap? Barato bala (i)na?

The Lord's Prayer[edit]

Amay namon, nga yara ka sa mga langit
Pagdayawon ang imo ngalan
Umabot sa amon ang imo ginharian
Matuman ang imo boot
Diri sa duta siling sang sa langit
Hatagan mo kami niyan sing kan-on namon
Sa matag-adlaw
Kag patawaron mo kami sa mga sala namon
Siling nga ginapatawad namon ang nakasala sa amon
Kag dili mo kami ipagpadaog sa mga panulay
Hinunuo luwason mo kami sa kalaot

The Ten Commandments[edit]

The Catholic version of the Ten Commandments in Hiligaynon at Molo Church, Molo, Iloilo City.

Literal translation as per photo:

  1. Believe in God and worship only him
  2. Do not use the name of God without purpose
  3. Honor the day of the Lord
  4. Honor your father and mother
  5. Do not kill
  6. Do not pretend to be married against virginity (don't commit adultery)
  7. Do not steal
  8. Do not lie
  9. Do not have desire for the wife of your fellow man
  10. Do not covet the riches of your fellow man

Universal Declaration of Human Rights[edit]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Ang Kalibutánon nga Pahayag sang mga Kinamaatárung sang Katáwhan)

Notable Hiligaynon writers[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "2010 Census of Population and Housing, Report No. 2A - Demographic and Housing Characteristics (Non-Sample Variables)" (PDF). Retrieved 2022-05-02.
  2. ^ Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Hiligaynon". www.ethnologue.com/. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved December 27, 2022.
  3. ^ "2010 Census of Population and Housing, Report No. 2A - Demographic and Housing Characteristics (Non-Sample Variables)" (PDF). Retrieved 2022-05-02.
  4. ^ Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Hiligaynon". www.ethnologue.com/. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved July 23, 2011.
  5. ^ Ulrich Ammon; Norbert Dittmar; Klaus J. Mattheier (2006). Sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society. Vol. 3. Walter de Gruyter. p. 2018. ISBN 978-3-11-018418-1.
  6. ^ "Islas de los Pintados: The Visayan Islands". Ateneo de Manila University. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
  7. ^ Arellano, Bernardo Muerong III (October 9, 2020). "Ang Pagpangayaw sa Dutang Ginsaad: A History of Migration and Settlement of Ilonggos in Central Mindanao, 1951-1960s". Researchgate.net. Retrieved October 16, 2023.
  8. ^ Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
  9. ^ "My Working Language Pairs". www.bj-informatique.com/. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2011.
  10. ^ G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, pp. 122-123.
  11. ^ G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, pp. 122-123.
  12. ^ Cf. BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 05 of 55 (1582–1583). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", pp. 120-121.
  13. ^ Cf. Miguel de Loarca, Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas (Arevalo, June 1582) in BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 05 of 55 (1582–1583). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", pp. 128 and 130.
  14. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344566669_Ang_Pagpangayaw_sa_Dutang_Ginsaad_A_History_of_Migration_and_Settlement_of_Ilonggos_in_Central_Mindanao_1951-1960s[bare URL]
  15. ^ "Capiznon". ethnologue.com. Archived from the original on 2013-02-03.
  16. ^ "Kinaray-a". ethnologue.com. Archived from the original on 2013-02-03.
  17. ^ Wolfenden, Elmer (1971). Hiligaynon Reference Grammar. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 61–67. ISBN 0-87022-867-6.
  18. ^ Motus, Cecile (1971). Hiligaynon Lessons. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 112–4. ISBN 0-87022-546-4.
  19. ^ Wolfenden, Elmer (1971). Hiligaynon Reference Grammar. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 136–7. ISBN 0-87022-867-6.
  20. ^ Spitz, Walter L. (February 1997), Lost Causes: Morphological Causative Constructions in Two Philippine Languages (Thesis), Digital Scholarship Archive, Rice University, p. 513, hdl:1911/19215, archived from the original on 2011-10-05
  21. ^ Spitz, Walter L. (February 1997), Lost Causes: Morphological Causative Constructions in Two Philippine Languages (Thesis), Digital Scholarship Archive, Rice University, p. 514, hdl:1911/19215, archived from the original on 2011-10-05
  22. ^ Spitz, Walter L. (February 1997), Lost Causes: Morphological Causative Constructions in Two Philippine Languages (Thesis), Digital Scholarship Archive, Rice University, pp. 514–515, hdl:1911/19215, archived from the original on 2011-10-05
  23. ^ Spitz, Walter L. (February 1997), Lost Causes: Morphological Causative Constructions in Two Philippine Languages (Thesis), Digital Scholarship Archive, Rice University, pp. 514–515, hdl:1911/19215, archived from the original on 2011-10-05
  24. ^ "FLAVIO ZARAGOSA Y CANO: (1892-1965)" (PDF). National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-05.
  25. ^ "Conrado Saquian Norada". Panitikan.com.ph. 2019-09-27. Retrieved 2022-11-26.
  26. ^ Locsin-Nava, Ma Cecilia (2001). "The Life and Times of Ramon Muzones". History & Society in the Novels of Ramon Muzones. Ateneo University Press. ISBN 978-971-550-378-5.
  27. ^ "MAGDALENA G. JALANDONI: (1891-1978)" (PDF). National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-13. Retrieved 2022-11-26.
  28. ^ Salvilla, Rex. "Angel M. Magahum Sr". The News Today. Archived from the original on 2022-04-09. Retrieved 2022-11-26.
  29. ^ "Today in History". Bayanihan. 2010-05-21. Archived from the original on 2012-03-23.

Further reading[edit]

  • Wolfenden, Elmer Paul (1972). A Description of Hiligaynon Phrase and Clause Constructions (Ph.D. thesis). University of Hawaii at Manoa. hdl:10125/11716.
  • Wolfenden, Elmer (1975). A Description of Hiligaynon Syntax. Norman, Oklahoma: Summer Institute of Linguistics. – published version of Wolfenden's 1972 dissertation
  • Abuyen, Tomas Alvarez (2007). English–Tagalog–Ilongo Dictionary. Mandaluyong City: National Book Store. ISBN 978-971-08-6865-0.

External links[edit]


Learning resources

Writing system (Baybayin)

Primary texts

Secondary Literature