|Inilonggo, Binisayâ nga Hiligaynon, Bisayang Ilonggo|
|Region||Western Visayas, western Negros Island Region, SOCCSKSARGEN, southwestern portion of Masbate, some parts of Palawan and Romblon, and a few parts of Northern Mindanao|
|9.3 million (2010)
4th most spoken native language in the Philippines.
|Latin (Hiligaynon alphabet)
Historically Badlit (c. 13th–19th centuries)
Official language in
|Regional language in the Philippines|
|Regulated by||Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino|
Areas where Hiligaynon is spoken in the Philippines
The Hiligaynon language, also colloquially referred often by most of its speakers simply as Ilonggo, is an Austronesian regional language spoken in the Philippines by about 9.1 million people, mainly in Western Visayas, western Negros Island Region and SOCCSKSARGEN, most of whom belong to the Visayan ethnic group, mainly the Hiligaynons. It is the second-most widely spoken of the Visayan languages and is closely related to other Philippine languages.
Hiligaynon is mainly concentrated in the provinces of Iloilo, Negros Occidental, Guimaras, and Capiz, as well as in South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and big portions of North Cotabato in Mindanao, but it is also spoken in the other neighboring provinces, such as Antique and Aklan in Panay, Negros Oriental, Masbate, Palawan, Romblon, and some parts of Northern Mindanao. It is also spoken as a second language by Kinaray-a speakers in Antique, Aklanon/Malaynon speakers in Aklan, Capiznon speakers in Capiz, and Cebuano speakers in Negros Oriental. There are approximately 9,300,000 people in and out of the Philippines who are native speakers of Hiligaynon and an additional 5,000,000 capable of speaking it with a substantial degree of proficiency.
It is a member of the Visayan language family. The language is also often referred to as Ilonggo (Spanish: Ilongo) in Iloilo and Negros Occidental. Many speakers outside Iloilo argue, however, that this is an incorrect usage of the word "Ilonggo". In precise usage, "Ilonggo" should be used only in relation to the ethnolinguistic group of native inhabitants of Iloilo and the culture associated with native Hiligaynon speakers in the place including their dialect. The disagreement over the usage of "Ilonggo" to refer to the language extends to Philippine language specialists and native laypeople. It also has the one of the largest native language-speaking population of the Philippines despite not being taught and studied formally in schools and universities until 2012. Hiligaynon is given the ISO 639-2 three-letter code hil, but has no ISO 639-1 two-letter code.
- 1 History
- 2 Classification
- 3 Writing system
- 4 Grammar
- 5 Sounds
- 6 Loan words
- 7 Examples
- 8 Children's books
- 9 See also
- 10 Noted Hiligaynon writers
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Historical evidence from observations of early Spanish explorers in the Archipelago shows that the nomenclature used to refer to this language had its origin among the people of the coasts or people of the Ilawod ("los [naturales] de la playa"), whom Loarca called Yligueynes  (or the more popular term Hiligaynon, also referred to by the Karay-a people as "Siná"). In contrast, the "Kinaray-a" has been used by what the Spanish colonizers called Arayas, which is most probably a Spanish misconception (as they often misinterpreted what they heard from the natives) of the Hiligaynon words Iraya or taga-Iraya, or the current and more popular version Karay-a (highlanders - people of Iraya/highlands).
Similar to many languages in the Philippines, very little research on dialectology has been done on Hiligaynon. Some of the widely recognized varieties of the language are Standard or Urban Hiligaynon (Iloilo provincial and Iloilo City variant), simply called "Ilonggo", Bacolodnon Hiligaynon (Metro Bacolod variant), Negrense Hiligaynon (provincial Negros Occidental variant), Guimaras Hiligaynon, and Mindanao Hiligaynon. Some native speakers also consider Kinaray-a (also known as Hiniraya or Antiqueño) and Capiznon as dialects of Hiligaynon; however, these have been classified by linguists as separate (Western Visayan) languages.
According to H. Otley Beyer and other anthropologists, the term Visayan was first applied only to the people of Panay and to their settlements eastward in the island of Negros (especially its western portion), and northward in the smaller islands, which now compose the province of Romblon. In fact, at the early part of Spanish colonialization of the Philippines, the Spaniards used the term Visayan only for these areas. While the people of Cebu, Bohol and Leyte were for a long time known only as Pintados. The name Visayan was later extended to these other islands because, as several of the early writers state, their languages are closely allied to the Visayan dialect of Panay.
Until the second half of the 20th century, Hiligaynon was widely written based on Spanish orthography consisting of 32 letters called ABECEDARIO:
The core alphabet consists of 20 letters used for expressing consonants and vowels in Hiligaynon, each of which comes in an upper case and lower case variety.
|The 1st to 10th letters|
|Symbol||A a||B b||K k||D d||E e||G g||H h||I i||L l||M m|
|The 11th to 20th letters|
|Symbol||N n||Ng ng||O o||P p||R r||S s||T t||U u||W w||Y y|
The apostrophe(') and hyphen(-) also appear in Hiligaynon writing, and might be considered letters.
The hyphen, in particular, is used medially in some words to indicate the glottal stop san-o ‘when’ gab-e ‘evening; night’. It is also used to indicate the point in a word where reduplication is present: adlaw-adlaw ‘daily, every day’, from adlaw ‘day, sun’. However, the use of this means of marking reduplication is not always consistent: pispis ‘bird’.
In addition, some English letters may be used in borrowed words.
Hiligaynon has three types of case markers: absolutive, ergative, and oblique. These types in turn are divided into personal, that have to do with names of people, and impersonal, that deal with everything else, and further into singular and plural types, though the plural impersonal case markers are just the singular impersonal case markers + mga (a contracted spelling for /maŋa/), a particle used to denote plurality in Hiligaynon.
|singular impersonal||ang||sang, sing*||sa
|plural impersonal||ang mga||sang mga, sing mga*||sa mga|
(*)The articles sing and sing mga means the following noun is indefinite, while sang tells of a definite noun, like the use of a in English as opposed to the, however, it is not as common in modern speech, being replaced by sang. It appears in conservative translations of the Bible into Hiligaynon and in traditional or formal speech
(**)The plural personal case markers are not used very often and not even by all speakers. Again, this is an example of a case marker that has fallen largely into disuse, but is still occasionally used when speaking a more traditional form of Hiligaynon, using less Spanish loan words.
|Ang lalaki nagkaon sang tinapay.||≈||Ang tinapay ginkaon sang lalaki.|
|"The man ate the bread"||"The bread was eaten by the man" (literal)|
|1st person singular||ako, ko||nakon, ko||akon||sa akon|
|2nd person singular||ikaw, ka||nimo, mo||imo||sa imo|
|3rd person singular||siya||niya||iya||sa iya|
|1st person plural inclusive||kita||naton, ta||aton||sa aton|
|1st person plural exclusive||kami||namon||amon||sa amon|
|2nd person plural||kamo||ninyo||inyo||sa inyo|
|3rd person plural||sila||nila||ila||sa ila|
|Nearest to speaker (this, here) *||iní||siní||dirí||(y)ári|
|Near to addressee or closely removed from speaker and addressee (that, there)||inâ||sinâ||dirâ||(y)ára'|
|Remote (yon, yonder)||ató||sadtó||didtó||(y)á(d)to|
In addition to this, there are two verbal deictics, karí, meaning come to speaker, and kadto, meaning to go yonder.
Hiligaynon lacks the marker of sentence inversion "ay" of Tagalog/Filipino or "hay" of Akeanon. Instead sentences in SV form (Filipino: Di karaniwang anyo) are written without any marker or copula.
"Si Maria ay maganda" (Tagalog)
"Si Maria matahum/ Si Maria guapa" (Hiligaynon) = "Maria is beautiful."
"Maria is beautiful" (English)
There is no direct translation for the English copula "to be" in Hiligaynon. However, the prefixes mangin- and nangin- may be used to mean will be and became, respectively.
Manamì mangín manggaránon.
"It is nice to become rich."
The Spanish copula "estar" (to be) has also become a part of the Hiligaynon lexicon. Its meaning and pronunciation have become corrupted. In Hiligaynon it is pronounced as "istar" and means "to live (in)/location"(Compare with the Hiligaynon word "puyô").
Nagaistar ako sa tabuc suba
"I live in tabuc suba" "tabuc suba" translates to "other side of the river" and is also a barangay in Jaro, Iloilo.
To indicate the existence of an object, the word may is used.
May idô (a)ko
"I have a dog"
When an adjective modifies a noun, the linker nga links the two.
Itom nga ido
Sometimes, if the linker is preceded by a word that ends in a vowel, glottal stop or the letter N, it becomes acceptable to contract it into -ng, as in Filipino. This is often used to make the words sound more poetic or to reduce the number of syllables. Sometimes the meaning may change as in maayo nga aga and maayong aga. The first meaning: (the) good morning; while the other is the greeting for 'good morning'.
The linker ka is used if a number modifies a noun.
Anum ka ido
The interrogative words of Hiligaynon are as follows: diin, san-o, sin-o, nga-a, kamusta, ano, and pila
Diin means where.
Diin ka na subong?
"Where are you now?"
A derivation of diin, tagadiin, is used to inquire the birthplace or hometown of the listener.
"Where are you from?"
San-o means when
"When is that?"
Sin-o means who
Sin-o imo abyan?
"Who is your friend?"
Nga-a means why
Nga-a indi ka magkadto?
"Why won't you go?"
Kamusta means how, as in "How are you?"
Kamusta ang tindahan?
"How is the store?"
Ano means what
Ano ang imo ginabasa?
"What are you reading?"
A derivative of ano, paano, means how, as in "How do I do that?"
Paano ko makapulî?
"How can I get home?"
A derivative of paano is paanoano an archaic phrase which can be compared with kamusta
"How art thou?"
Pila means how much/how many
Pila ang maupod sa imo?
"How many are with you?"
A derivative of pila, ikapila, asks the numerical order of the person, as in, "What place were you born in your family?"(first-born, second-born, etc.) This word is notoriously difficult to translate into English, as English has no equivalent.
Ikapila ka sa inyo pamilya?
"What place were you born into your family?"
A derivative of pila, tagpila, asks the monetary value of something, as in, "How much is this beef?"
Tagpila ini nga karne sang baka?
"How much is this beef?"
As it is essential for sentence structure and meaning, focus is a key concept in Hiligaynon and other Philippine languages. In English, in order to emphasize a part of a sentence, variation in intonation is usually employed – the voice is stronger or louder on the part emphasized. For example:
- The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister.
- The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister.
- The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister.
- The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister.
Furthermore, active and passive grammatical constructions can be used in English to place focus on the actor or object as the subject:
- The man stole the rice. vs. The rice was stolen by the man.
In contrast, sentence focus in Philippine languages is built into the construction by grammatical elements. Focus is marked by verbal affixes and a special particle prior to the noun in focus. Consider the following Hiligaynon translations of the above sentences:
- Nagakawat ang lalaki sang bugas sa tinda para sa iya utod.
- Ginakawat sang lalaki ang bugas sa tinda para sa iya utod.
- Ginakawatan sang lalaki sang bugas ang tinda para sa iya utod.
- Ginakawatan sang lalaki sang bugas sa tinda para sa iya utod.
- (lalaki = man; kawat = to steal; bugas = rice; tinda = market; sibling = utod; kamot = hand)
Hiligaynon, like other Philippine languages, employs reduplication, the repetition of a root or stem of a word or part of a word for grammatical or semantic purposes. Reduplication in Hiligaynon tends to be limited to roots instead of affixes, as the only inflectional or derivational morpheme that seems to reduplicate is -pa-. Root reduplication suggests 'non-perfectiveness' or 'non-telicity'. Used with nouns, reduplication of roots indicate particulars which are not fully actualized members of their class. Note the following examples.
(1) balay-bálay house-house toy-house, playhouse
(2) maestra-maestra teacher-teacher make-believe teacher
Reduplication of verbal roots suggests a process lacking a focus or decisive goal. The following examples describe events which have no apparent end, in the sense of lacking purpose or completion. A lack of seriousness may also be implied. Similarly, reduplication can suggest a background process in the midst of a foreground activity, as shown in (5).
(3) Nag-a- hìbî-híbî ang bátâ. NAG-IMP- cry-cry FOC child The child has been crying and crying.
(4) Nag-a- tinlò-tinlò akó sang lamésa NAG-IMP- clean-clean 1SG.FOC UNFOC table I'm just cleaning off the table (casually).
(5) Nag-a- kàon-káon gid silá sang nag-abót ang íla bisíta. NAG-IMP- eat-eat just 3PL.FOC UNFOC MAG-arrive FOC 3PL.UNFOC visitor They were just eating when their visitor arrived.
When used with adjectival roots, non-telicity may suggest a gradualness of the quality, such as the comparison in (6). In comparative constructions the final syllables of each occurrence of the reduplicated root are accented. If the stress of the second occurrence is shifted to the first syllable, then the reduplicated root suggests a superlative degree, as in (7). Note that superlatives can also be created through prefixation of pinaka- to the root, as in pinaka-dakô. While non-telicity can suggest augmentation, as shown in (7), it can also indicate diminishment as in shown in (9), in contrast with (8) (note the stress contrast). In (8b), maàyoáyo, accented in the superlative pattern, suggests a trajectory of improvement that has not been fully achieved. In (9b), maàyoayó suggests a trajectory of decline when accented in the comparative pattern. The reduplicated áyo implies sub-optimal situations in both cases; full goodness/wellness is not achieved.
(6) Iní nga kwárto ma-dulùm-dulúm sang sa sinâ this.FOC LINK room MA-dark-dark UNFOC OBL that.UNFOC This room is darker than that one.
(7) (a) dakô-dakô big-big bigger (b) dakô-dákô (gid) big-big (really) biggest
(8) (a) Ma-áyo ang reló. MA-good FOC watch The watch is good/functional. (b) Ma-àyo-áyo na ang reló. MA-good-good now FOC watch The watch is semi-fixed.
(9) (a) Ma-áyo akó. MA-good 1SG.FOC I'm well. (b) Ma-àyo-ayó na akó. MA-good-good now 1SG.FOC I'm so so.
Hiligaynon has sixteen consonants: /p t k b d ɡ m n ŋ s h w l ɾ j/. There are three main vowels: /a/, /ɛ ~ i/, and /o ~ ʊ/. [i] and [ɛ] (both spelled i) are allophones, with [i] in the beginning and middle and sometimes final syllables and [ɛ] in final syllables. The vowels [ʊ] and [o] are also allophones, with [ʊ] always being used when it is the beginning of a syllable, and [o] always used when it ends a syllable. Consonants [d] and [ɾ] were once allophones but cannot interchange as in other Philippine languages: patawaron (to forgive) [from patawad, forgiveness] but not patawadon, and tagadiín (from where) [from diín, where] but not tagariín.
Hiligaynon has a large number of words that derive from Spanish words including nouns (e.g., santo from santo, saint), adjectives (e.g., berde from verde, green), prepositions (e.g., antes from antes, before), and conjunctions (e.g., pero from pero, but). Moreover, Spanish provides the Ilonggo base for items introduced by Spain, e.g., barko (barco, ship), sapatos (zapatos, shoes), kutsilyo (cuchillo, knife), kutsara (cuchara, spoon), tenedor (fork), plato (plate), kamiseta (camiseta, shirt), and kambiyo (cambio, change, as in money).
Spanish verbs used in Hiligaynon often remain unconjugated (have the verb endings -ar, -er or -ir) which in Filipino would almost always be conjugated in the 'vos' form, e.g., komparar, mandar, pasar, tener, disponer, mantener, and asistir.
|10||Pulò / Napulò|
|1,000,000||Hámbad / Ramák|
|First||Tig-una / Panguná|
|Third||Ikatlo / Ikatátlo|
|Fourth||Ikap-at / ikaápat|
|Sixth||Ikán-um / ikaánum|
Days of the week
The names of the days of the week are derived from their Spanish equivalents.
Months of the year
The first set of Hiligaynon names of the months are derived from Spanish.
|Thank you very much!||Salamat gid./ Madamo gid nga salamat!|
|I'm sorry.||Patawaron mo ako. / Pasaylo-a 'ko. / Pasensyahon mo ako. / Pasensya na.|
|Help me!||Buligi (a)ko! / Tabangi (a)ko!|
|Are you angry/scared?||Akig/hadlok ka?|
|Do you feel happy/sad?||Nalipay/Nasubo-an ka?|
|I don't know/I didn't know||Ambot / Wala ko kabalo / Wala ko nabal-an|
|I don't care||Waay ko labot|
|That's wonderful/marvelous!||Námì-námì ba! / Nami ah!|
|I like this/that!||Nanámìan ko sini/sina!|
|I love you.||Palangga ta ka./Ginahigugma ko ikaw.|
|Hello!||Kamusta/Maayong adlaw (lit. Good day)|
|Good morning.||Maayong aga.|
|Good noon.||Maayong ugto/Maayong udto|
|Good afternoon.||Maayong hapon.|
|Good evening.||Maayong gab-i.|
|How are you?||Kamusta ka?/Kamusta ikaw?/Musta na? (Informal)|
|I'm fine.||Maayo man.|
|I am fine, how about you?||Maayo man, ikaw ya?|
|How old are you?||Pila na ang edad (ni)mo? / Ano ang edad mo? / Pila ka tuig ka na?|
|I am 24 years old.||Beinte kwatro anyos na (a)ko./ Duha ka pulo kag apat ka tuig na (a)ko.|
|My name is...||Ang pangalan ko...|
|I am Erman.||Ako si Erman./Si Erman ako.|
|What is your name?||Ano imo ngalan?/ Ano ngalan (ni)mo?|
|Until next time.||Asta sa liwat.|
This, that, and whatnot...
|What is this/that?||Ano (i)ni/(i)nâ?|
|This is a sheet of paper.||Isa ni ka panid sang papel./Isa ka panid ka papel ini.|
|That is a book.||Libro (i)nâ.|
|What will you do?/What are you going to do?||Ano ang himu-on (ni)mo? / Ano ang buhaton (ni)mo? / Maano ka?|
|What are you doing?||Ano ang ginahimo (ni)mo? / Gaano ka?|
|My female friend||Ang akon babaye nga abyan/miga|
|My male friend||Ang akon lalake nga abyan/migo|
|My girlfriend/boyfriend||Ang akon nubya/nubyo|
Space and Time
|Where are you now?||Diin ka (na) subong?|
|Where shall we go?||Diin (ki)ta makadto?|
|Where are we going?||Diin (ki)ta pakadto?|
|Where are you going?||(Sa) diin ka makadto?|
|We shall go to Iloilo.||Makadto (ki)ta sa Iloilo.|
|We're going to Bacolod.||Makadto kami sa Bacolod.|
|I am going home.||Mapa-uli na ko (sa balay). / (Ma)puli na ko.|
|Where do you live?||Diin ka naga-istar?/Diin ka naga-puyô?|
|Where did you come from? (Where have you just been?)||Diin ka (nag)-halin?|
|Have you been here long?||Dugay ka na di(ri)?|
|(To the) left.||(Sa) wala.|
|(To the) right.||(Sa) tuo.|
|What time is it?||Ano('ng) takna na?/Ano('ng) oras na?|
|It's ten o'clock.||Alas diyes na.|
|What time is it now?||Ano ang oras subong?/Ano oras na?|
|May/Can I buy?||Pwede ko ma(g)-bakal?|
|How much is this/that?||Tag-pilá iní/inâ?|
|I'll buy the...||Baklon ko ang...|
|Is this expensive?||Mahal ba (i)ni?|
|Is that cheap?||Barato ba (i)na?|
The Lord's Prayer
Amay namon, nga yara ka sa mga langit
Pagdayawon ang imo ngalan
Umabot sa amon ang imo ginharian
Matuman ang imo buot
Diri sa duta siling sang sa langit
Hatagan mo kami nian sing kan-on namon
Kag patawaron mo kami sa mga sala namon
Siling nga ginapatawad namon ang nakasala sa amon
Kag dili mo kami ipagpadaug sa mga panulay
Hinunuo luwason mo kami sa kalaut
Translation of Catholic version Ten Commandments written in photo:
1.Believe in God and worship only him
2.Do not use the name of God without purpose
3.Honor the day of the Lord
4.Honor your father and mother
5.Do not kill
6.Do not pretend to be married against virginity (don't commit adultery)
7.Do not steal
8.Do not lie
9.Do not have desire for the wife of your fellow man
10.Do not covet the riches of your fellow man
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Ang Kalibutánon nga Pahayag sang mga Kinamaatárung sang Katáwhan)
|“||Ang tanán nga táwo ginbún-ag nga hílway kag may pag-alalangay sa dungóg kag kinamatárong. Silá ginhatágan sang pagpamat-ud kag balatyágon kag nagakadápat nga magbinuligáy sa kahulugan sang pag-inuturáy.||”|
|“||Every person is born free and equal with honor and rights. They are given reason and conscience and they must always trust each other for the spirit of brotherhood.||”|
Ang Bukid nga Nagpalangga sang Pispis
Ang Bukid nga Nagpalangga sang Pispis is a fully illustrated, colored children's picture book. The original story is The Mountain That Loved A Bird by Alice McLerran. Originally published in the United States with illustrations by Eric Carle, the story has been translated to Hiligaynon by Genevieve L. Asenjo and illustrated with new art by Beaulah Pedregosa Taguiwalo drawn from the landscapes of the Philippines.
The publisher is Mother Tongue Publishing Inc., a new publishing company based in Manila, Philippines formed in November 2006 by Mario and Beaulah Taguiwalo. Their mission is to publish books in as many languages as possible. They are inspired by the words of science fiction writer Ursula K. Le Guin: “Literature takes shape and life in the body, in the wombs of the mother tongue.” They also agree with neuro-scientist Elkhonon Goldberg who refers to mother tongues as “an extremely adaptive and powerful device for modeling not only what is, but also what will be, what could be, and what we want and do not want to be.”
Noted Hiligaynon writers
- Peter Solis Nery (born 1969) Prolific writer, poet, playwright, novelist, editor, "Hari sang Binalaybay", and champion of the Hiligaynon language. Born in Dumangas, Iloilo. 
- Antonio Ledesma Jayme (1854–1937) Lawyer, revolutionary, provincial governor and assemblyman. Born in Jaro, lived in Bacolod City.
- Graciano López Jaena (1856–1896) Journalist, orator, and revolutionary from Iloilo, well known for his written works, La Solidaridad and Fray Botod. Born in Jaro.
- Flavio Zaragoza y Cano (1892–1994) Lawyer, journalist and the "Prince of Visayan poets". Born in Janipaan..
- Conrado Saquian Norada (1921– ) Lawyer, intelligence officer and governor of Iloilo from 1969 to 1986. Co-founder and editor of Yuhum magazine. Born in Iloilo City. 
- Ramon Muzones (?-?) Born in Molo. 
- Magdalena Jalandoni (1891–1978) Prolific writer, novelist and feminist. Born in Jaro.
- Angel Magahum Sr. (1876–1931) Writer, editor and composer. Composed the classic Iloilo ang Banwa Ko, the unofficial song of Iloilo. Born in Molo.
- Valente Cristobal (1875–1945) Noted Hiligaynon playwright. Born in Polo (now Valenzuela City), Bulacan. 
- Elizabeth Batiduan Navarro Hiligaynon drama writer for radio programs of Bombo Radyo Philippines.
- Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
- Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Hiligaynon". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Hiligaynon". http://www.ethnologue.com/. Retrieved July 23, 2011. External link in
- "Islas de los Pintados: The Visayan Islands". Ateneo de Manila University. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- "My Working Language Pairs". http://www.bj-informatique.com/. Retrieved January 3, 2011. External link in
- Ulrich Ammon; Norbert Dittmar; Klaus J. Mattheier (2006). Sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society. Volume 3. Walter de Gruyter. p. 2018. ISBN 978-3-11-018418-1.
- Cf. BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 05 of 55 (1582–1583). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", pp. 120-121.
- Cf. Miguel de Loarca, Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas (Arevalo, June 1582) in BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 05 of 55 (1582–1583). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC 769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", pp. 128 and 130.
- G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, pp. 122-123.
- Gómez Rivera, Guillermo (April 10, 2001). "The evolution of the native Tagalog alphabet". Philippines: Emanila Community (emanila.com). Views & Reviews. Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
- Signey, Richard. "Philippine Journal of Linguistics". Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines. The Evolution and Disappearance of the "Ğ" in Tagalog orthography since the 1593 Doctrina Cristiana. ISSN 0048-3796. OCLC 1791000. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
- Wolfenden, Elmer (1971). Hiligaynon Reference Grammar. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 61–67. ISBN 0-87022-867-6.
- Motus, Cecile (1971). Hiligaynon Lessons. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 112–4. ISBN 0-87022-546-4.
- Wolfenden, Elmer (1971). Hiligaynon Reference Grammar. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 136–7. ISBN 0-87022-867-6.
- Spitz, Walter L. (February 1997), Lost Causes: Morphological Causative Constructions in Two Philippine Languages, Digital Scholarship Archive, Rice University, p. 513
- Spitz, Walter L. (February 1997), Lost Causes: Morphological Causative Constructions in Two Philippine Languages, Digital Scholarship Archive, Rice University, p. 514
- Spitz, Walter L. (February 1997), Lost Causes: Morphological Causative Constructions in Two Philippine Languages, Digital Scholarship Archive, Rice University, pp. 514–515
- English-Tagalog Ilongo Dictionary (2007) by Tomas Alvarez Abuyen, National Book Store. ISBN 971-08-6865-9.
|Hiligaynon language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hiligaynon phrasebook.|
- Hiligaynon Dictionary
- Hiligaynon to English Dictionary
- English to Hiligaynon Dictionary
- Bansa.org Hiligaynon Dictionary
- Kaufmann's 1934 Hiligaynon dictionary on-line
- Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya Hiligueina y Haraya de la Isla de Panay (by Alonso de Méntrida, published in 1841)
- Some information about learning Ilonggo
- Hiligaynon Lessons (by Cecile L. Motus. 1971)
- Hiligaynon Reference Grammar (by Elmer Wolfenden 1971)
Writing System (Baybayin)
- Baybayin – The Ancient Script of the Philippines
- The evolution of the native Hiligaynon alphabet
- The evolution of the native Hiligaynon alphabet: Genocide
- The importance of the Hiligaynon 32-letter alphabet
- Online E-book of Ang panilit sa pagcasal ñga si D.ª Angela Dionicia: sa mercader ñga contragusto in Hiligaynon, published in Mandurriao, Iloilo (perhaps, in the early 20th century)
- Language and Desire in Hiligaynon (by Corazón D. Villareal. 2006)
- Missionary Linguistics: selected papers from the First International Conference on Missionary Linguistics, Oslo, March 13–16th, 2003 (ed. by Otto Zwartjes and Even Hovdhaugen)