Himara

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Himara
Himarë
Χειμάρρα
The region of Himara seen from the Ceraunian Mountains
The region of Himara seen from the Ceraunian Mountains
Official logo of Himara
Himara is located in Albania
Himara
Himara
Coordinates: 40°7′N 19°44′E / 40.117°N 19.733°E / 40.117; 19.733Coordinates: 40°7′N 19°44′E / 40.117°N 19.733°E / 40.117; 19.733
Country Albania
CountyVlorë
Government
 • MayorJorgo Goro[1] (PS)
Area
 • Municipality571.94 km2 (220.83 sq mi)
Population
 (2011)
 • Municipality
7,818
 • Municipality density14/km2 (35/sq mi)
 • Municipal unit
2,822
DemonymHimariot(es)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal Code
9425
Area Code(0)393
Websitehimara.gov.al

Himara (indefinite Albanian form: Himarë; Greek: Χειμάρρα, Himarra or Χιμάρα, Himara) is a municipality and region in Vlorë County, southern Albania. The municipality has a total area of 571.94 km2 (220.83 sq mi) and consists of the administrative units of Himarë, Horë-Vranisht and Lukovë.[2][3] It lies between the Ceraunian Mountains and the Albanian Ionian Sea Coast and is part of the Albanian Riviera. The traditionally perceived borders of the Himarë region gradually shrank during the Ottoman period, being reduced to the town of Himarë and the villages of the coastline (Bregdet in Albanian),[4] generally including only Palase, Dhermi, Pilur, Kudhes, Vuno, Ilias and Qeparo.[5]

The municipal unit of Himara is predominantly populated by an ethnic Greek community.[6][7][8][9] The local population is bilingual in Greek and Albanian.[10] In particular the town of Himara and the villages of Dermi and Palasa, which together account for the bulk of the region's population, are mainly populated by a Greek population. The villages of Iljas, Lukovë, Kudhës, Pilur and Vuno are inhabited by an Albanian population, while Qeparo is inhabited by both Albanians and Greeks.[11]  In the 2011 census, in the former municipality of Horë-Vranisht 83% declared themselves as Albanians and the rest didn't provide a reply.[12] In the former Lukovë municipality the population is mostly Albanian with a Greek minority.[13]

Geography[edit]

The Himara region is a strip approximately 20 km long by 5 km wide, covering a total of 132.13 km2,[14] and bounded by the 2000-metre-high Llogara mountains to the northeast (known in antiquity and in the local Greek dialect as the Ceraunian mountains (Greek: Κεραύνια Όρη, Keravnia ori, "Thunder Mountains") and the Ionian Sea to the southwest. There are long white sandy beaches and the few hills close to the sea are terraced and planted with olive and citrus trees.[15] The villages of Himarë are perched up high on the spurs of the Ceraunian range in positions which offered natural defences against the nearby Lab Albanians during the Ottoman era.[7] The traditionally perceived borders of the Himarë region gradually shrank during the Ottoman period, being reduced only to the town of Himarë and the villages on the coastline (Bregdet in Albanian).[4]

History[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

In antiquity the region of Himara was part of the territory of the Chaonians.

In antiquity the region was inhabited by the Greek tribe of the Chaonians.[16] The Chaonians were one of the three principal Greek-speaking tribes of Epirus, along with the Thesprotians and the Molossians.[17][18] The town of Himarë is believed to have been founded as Chimaira[19] (Χίμαιρα)[20] by the Chaonians as a trading outpost on the Chaonian shore. However, another theory suggests that it comes from Greek χείμαρρος (cheimarros), meaning "torrent".[21] An oracular lamella from the Οracle of Dodona, dated to the first half of the 4th century BCE and written in the Doric Greek dialect, has the inscription "περὶ τᾶς οἰκήσιος τᾶς ἐγ Χεμαρίων πότερον αὐτεῖ οἰκέωντι;",[22] which translates as "regarding the settlement by the inhabitants of Himara, [they submit the question] should (or can) they settle here?".[23]

In classical antiquity, Himarë was part of the Kingdom of Epirus under the rule of the Molossian Aeacid dynasty, which included King Pyrrhus of Epirus. When the region was conquered by the Roman Republic in the 2nd century BCE, its settlements were badly damaged and some were destroyed by the Roman General Aemilius Paulus.[citation needed]

Middle Ages[edit]

Ruins of the Himara Fortress, locally known as 'Kastro' meaning castle

Himara and the rest of the southern Balkans passed into the hands of the Byzantine Empire[24] following the fall of Rome, but like the rest of the region it became the frequent target of various attackers including the Goths, Avars, Slavs, Bulgars, Saracens and Normans. Himara is mentioned in Procopius of Caesarea's Buildings (544)[25] as Chimaeriae, being part of Old Epirus and that a new fortress was built in its location. In 614, the Slavic tribe of the Baiounetai invaded the area and controlled a region from Himarë to Margariti called "Vagenetia".[25]

It's unclear when Albanians and Himara Greeks arrived in the Himara region and when contacts between the two groups began.[26] Nevertheless, contacts between them probably started in the 13th and 14th centuries.[27] The use of the name "Chaonia" in reference to the region apparently died out during the 12th century, the last time it is recorded (in a Byzantine tax collection document).[citation needed] In 1278, Nicephorus of Epirus surrendered to the Angevins the ports of Himarë, Sopot and Butrint. As a result, Charles of Anjou controlled the Ionian coast from Himarë to Butrint.[28] It was later ruled by Serbian Empire between 1342 and 1372. In 1372 Himarë, together with Vlora, Kanina and Berat region was given as a dowry to Balša II due to his marriage with the daughter of John Komnenos Asen. After the death of Balša II, his widow and his daughter (who married Mrkša Žarković) managed to keep the possession of the region up to 1417 when the Ottomans captured Vlora.[29] In 1389 Himariotes and other Albanians from Epirus and the coast participated at the Battle of Kosovo.[30]

Early Ottoman period[edit]

The flag of Himara during the Ottoman era, depicting the Archangels Michael and Gabriel[citation needed]

In 1431 Himara became a nahiye, an administrative division, of the Sanjak of Albania.[31] It became a symbol of resistance to the Ottomans but suffered from an almost continuous state of warfare. Himariotes participated in Skanderbeg's resistance against the Ottoman Empire.[32] During Skanderbeg's rebellion and the rule of Gjergj Arianiti, Himara was within the domains of the Principality of Arianiti between 1443 and 1462. In the summer of 1473 the chieftain John Vlasis, with a small unit from nearby Corfu as well as with native Himariot support, took control of the entire coastal region from Sagiada to Himara, but when the ongoing Ottoman-Venetian war ended (1479) the region was again under Ottoman control.[33] In 1481, one year after the Ottomans had landed in Otranto in southern Italy, the Himariotes joined the forces of Gjon Kastrioti II (son of Skanderbeg) in his uprising against the Ottomans.[34] The Albanian rebellion in Himara was led by Konstantin Muzaka under the aid of Krokodeilos Kladas.[35] The uprising failed, but the Himariotes rose up again in 1488, and between 1494 and 1509, destabilizing Ottoman control but failing to liberate their territory.

In 1532, the Himara region, which still included all of Labëria, was considered under "Albanian lordship", and could field 20000 warriors against the Ottomans.[36] The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent personally mounted an expedition in 1537 that destroyed or captured many surrounding villages but did not manage to subdue the area. The Ottomans found it necessary to compromise with the inhabitants by giving them a series of privileges: local self-government, the right to bear arms, exemption from taxes, the right to sail under their own flag into any Ottoman port and to provide military service in time of war.[37] However, despite the privileges, the Himariotes revolted during the following conflicts: Ottoman–Venetian War (1537–40), Ottoman–Venetian War (1570–73), Morean War (1684–99), Ottoman–Venetian War (1714–18) and the Russo-Turkish wars of the 18th century. On the other hand, Ottoman reprisals depopulated the area and led to forced Islamizations which finally limited the area's Christian population by the 18th century to the town of Himarë and six villages.[38] Additionally the Himariotes were often attacked by the Labs, a nearby Albanian tribe, on the grounds of race and religion.[39] In 1567, Himariots are counted among Albanians that could be rallied against the Ottoman, as they, together with other Albanians, had caused great damage to the Ottomans since 1537.[40]

In one occasion, in 1577, the villages of the bishopric of Himarë appealed to the Pope for arms and supplies promising to fight the Ottomans. They also promised to transfer their religious allegiance to Rome, provided that they would retain their Eastern Orthodox liturgical customs;[41] the letter concludes with "From Himarra, i.e. Epiros of the Arvanids [Albanians], on July 12th 1577".[42][43] The term "Albanian" was used by the Himariotes, both as an identifier of local Himariotes, and as an identifier of "otherness" (as for example in letters from 1532 and 1578), which has led some to suggest that it indicated that Himariotes consisted of both Albanians and non-Albanians.[44] In various letters to European rulers the Himariotes claimed that they were once ruled by leaders such as Alexander the Great, Pyrrhus of Epirus and Skanderbeg, personalities with which the Himariotes formed identitarian historical memory; as they later did with the figure of Spyros Spyromilios. The most cited figure with which the Himariotes proud themselves through their past is Skanderbeg.[32] The Himara region was one example where Christian Albanians during the Ottoman period could carry arms and have a rather independent life.[45] In the second half of the 16th century, Himara was one of the cities of southern Albania that maintained the pre-Ottoman Christian character. It did not have a single Muslim family.[46] By the end of the century, an Italian author states that the Himariotes are peoples of Albania who speak Albanian and adhere to the Greek Orthodox rite.[47]

The Ottomans managed to register the population for taxation purposes in 1583. Kristo Frashëri describes the list as having predominantly Albanian anthroponymy. The town of Himara had 130 households and 7 orphans, where the most common names and surnames were Dhima/Dhimo, Gjon, Kont/Kond, Gjin, Gjoka; the village of Dhermi had 50 households and 3 orphans, where most common anthroponyms were Gjin, Dhima/Dhimo, Kond, Todor; the village of Palase had 95 households, where the most common anthroponyms were Dhima/Dhimo, Jorgo, Pali, Andrea, Nika/Niko.[48] Oliver J. Schmitt notes that in the 16th century Ottoman registers the anthroponyms of Himara includes not only Albanian, Greek, Orthodox but also Slavic baptismal names.[49]

In 1632 Albanian-language schools were founded in Himara.[50][51]

During the Ottoman period, the people of Himarë established close links to the Italian city states, especially Naples and the powerful Republic of Venice, which controlled Corfu and the other Ionian Islands, and later with Austro-Hungary. In 1743, Albanian families from Piqeras, Lukovë, Klikursi, Shën Vasil and Nivica-Bubar migrated to Italy and founded the village Villa Badessa in Abruzzo, where the Arbëreshë dialect is still spoken.[52][53] After the death of Skanderbeg, successive waves of Albanians from regions such as Himara moved to Italy, and often settled in depopulated places; they are known as Arbëreshë.[54][55]

The first school in the region opened in 1627, where lessons were held in the Greek language. The following years (until 1633) Greek-language schools opened also in the villages of Dhërmi and Palasa.[56] During the Ottoman period, judicial authority in Himarë and the surrounding villages was exercised by community courts also known as "councils of elders", that consisted exclusively of laymen. Their decisions was subject to the sanction of the local Orthodox bishop who belonged to the metropolis of Ioannina.[57]

In 1661, both the Muslims and the Christians of the region had joined in rebellion against the Ottomans.[58] In 1720, the villages of Himara, Palasa, Ilias, Vuno, Pilur and Qeparo refused to submit to the Pasha of Delvina.[59] In 1759–1760, local leaders sent three letters to the government of the Russian Empire, stating that the population of Himarë was Orthodox Christian, Albanian-speaking (with the educated speaking Greek and the nobility Italian) and willing to join an anti-Ottoman uprising, provided the Russians would support a liberation movement of the Greece.[60][61] The Himariots did revolt in 1767, laying siege to Delvinë and Vlorë, but were eventually defeated by Ottoman reinforcements from nearby regions. This defeat resulted in large numbers fleeing to Apulia and Corfu, where many were recruited as Albanian contingents for the Russian fleet.[62]

The Italian missionary Giuseppe Schiro, who visited the region, wrote during the same period (1722) that the settlements of Himarë (town), Dhërmi, and Palasë were ethnically Greek, while the rest ethnically Albanian.[63] They all wrote in the Greek dialect of the region in their "in-group" communication, mixed with Albanian, Turkish, Italian and some Arabic words. They used Greek in their correspondence with the Pope and other representatives of western countries, as well as with the Russian Empire. When they communicated in Italian, they used a translator, but signed in Greek, with Greek conferments of their names. Their preference of writing in Greek was conscious and not imposed by any conditions or a secretariat.[64] At that time (1730-1750) after extensive Islamization the term "Albanians" in local literature referred to the inhabitants of nearby Kurvelesh province, or as an identifier of the Islamized Himariotes located in the same province, who were portrayed as adversaries of Himara.[65]

Late Ottoman period[edit]

Sunset on the coast of Himara depicted by Edward Lear, 24 October 1848.[66]
Ethnographic map based on the work of P. Aravandinos of the Epirus region from 1878

The Orthodox-Albanian communities of the Himariots and Souliotes were often in conflict with Ali Pasha of Yanina.[67] In 1797, Ali Pasha, the Muslim Albanian ruler of the de facto independent Pashalik of Yanina, led a raid on the town of Himarë because they supported his enemy, the Souliotes, and more than 6,000 civilians were slaughtered.[68] Two years later, Ali Pasha tried to create good relations with the Himariotes after declaring their enclave part of his emerging semi-independent state, by financing various public works and churches. A church he built near Himarë, opposite of the Porto Palermo (Panormos) Castle is the largest and most magnificent in the region and still stands today as a major tourist attraction. Ali Pasha's rule over Himarë lasted about 20 years until it was abruptly terminated by his murder at the hands of the Ottoman agents. Himarë subsequently reverted to its status quo ante of an enclave surrounded by Ottoman territory. To emphasize the region's special status, the terms that the Himariotes had reached with Suleiman the Magnificent were inscribed on bronze tablets at the request of their leaders, who wanted to record the agreement on a durable medium. These tablets are preserved to this day in the Topkapi palace museum in Istanbul.

When the Greek War of Independence (1821–1830) broke out, the people of Himarë rose in revolt.[69] The local uprising failed, but many Himariotes, veterans of the Russian and French Army, joined the revolutionary forces in today southern Greece, where they played a significant role in the struggle.[70] In 1854, during the Crimean War, a major local rebellion broke out, with Himarë being one of the first towns that joined it. Although the newly founded Greek state tried tacitly to support it, the rebellion was suppressed by Ottoman forces after a few months.[71][72] The Himariotes were continuously held suspicious of supporting the expansionist plans of Greece in the region, especially during the era of the Albanian national awakening.[73]

The leader of Albanian independence, Eqrem Vlora, wrote at the turn of the 19th century that among Himariotes there were only 3,000 who had always been Greek-speaking. According to him, they were of a single Greek line of descent, regardless how old it was.[74]

In 1913, the French journalist Rene Puaux was impressed by the strong Greek feeling of the Himariotes.[75]

Modern[edit]

Spyros Spyromilios in the entrance of the castle (locally called Kastro) of Himara

During the First Balkan War, on 18 November 1912, the town revolted under the Greek Gendarmerie officer and Himara native Spyros Spyromilios and expelled the Ottoman forces[76][77] in order to join Greece. In March 1914, the "Protocol of Corfu" was signed, which established the Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus, of which Himarë formed a part, though the Autonomous Republic itself formally remained part of the newly formed Albanian state. However, in the Panepirotic assembly in Delvinë, that aimed at the ratifications of the terms of the Protocol by the Northern Epirote representatives, the delegates of Himarë abstained, insisting that only union with Greece would be a viable solution.[78]

During the First World War, Himarë was under Greek administration (October 1914-September 1916) and then occupied by Italy. The Italians used Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war to build a road running through Himarë, which greatly reduced the region's isolation. Spiro Jorgo Koleka, a native of Vuno and a local leader of the Albanian national movement, opposed the annexation by foreign powers of Himara area and the wider region around Vlora.[79] To that effect Koleka was an organiser of the Vlora War, where other local Himariots participated.[79] In 1921 the region came under the control of the Albanian state. The Himara question in 1921, regarding the rights of "Himariotes" and their villages Dhërmi, Vuno, Himara, Piluri, Kudhës and Qeparo, was supervised by Albanian government representative Spiro Jorgo Koleka.[80] The government concluded that Albanian was obligatory in school, as the official language, while Greek was free to be taught as a second language, as desired by the people.[80] The locals rose in revolt, in 1924, protesting against a series of measures aiming at Albanisation, and demanding the same privileges they enjoyed prior to incorporation to Albania.[81] Other uprisings followed in 1927 and 1932, both suppressed by the government of king Zog of Albania.[82]

Later, Himarë was again occupied by the Italians as part of the Italian invasion in Albania. During the Greco-Italian War, the 3rd Infantry Division of the Greek Army entered Himarë, on 22 December 1940, after victorious fighting against the Fascist Italian forces deployed in the region. The town briefly re-joined Greece until the German invasion in 1941.

In 2015 the government merged Himara with the municipalities Horë-Vranisht and Lukovë. The seat of the municipality is the town Himarë.[3]

Demographics[edit]

The village of Piqeras and the Albanian Riviera

Himara is composed of three former municipalities which now serve as administrative divisions of the post-2011 municipality: Himarë, Vranisht and Lukovë. In the 2011 census, the three - then independent municipalities - had a total combined population of ~7,800.[12] Lukovë had 2,916 permanent inhabitants, Himarë 2,822 and Vranisht 2,080. [83] Comparatively, the 2015 Albanian Civil Registry offices, which list all Albanian citizens including those who live abroad, put the population of the municipality at 27,049 people.[84] The Himara municipality has the second lowest population density in Albania after Dropull. The majority of the population has left to live in Greece or large cities in Albania.[85]

Himarë[edit]

The population of the former Himarë municipality was 2,822 in the 2011 census. 60.38% were registered as Albanians, 24.56% as Greeks and 14.00% preferred not to declare any ethnicity at all.[12] 70.5% of the population declared themselves Christian Orthodox, 16.6% as Muslims, 2.7% as Catholics and ~10% declared no religious affiliation.[86] The census results were disputed and affected by a boycott by part of the Greek minority,[87][88][89][90] Mangalakova (2004) describes the ethnic composition of the territory of the former municipality of Himara as predominantly Greek.[91]

The town of Himarë and the settlements of Dhërmi and Palasë, which account for the bulk of the region's population, are inhabited by Greeks, while Pilur, Kudhës, Vuno and Ilias are populated by an Orthodox Albanian population.[11] The village of Qeparo is inhabited by both Greeks (upper neighbourhood) and an Orthodox Albanian population (lower neighbourhood).[11]

In the early 19th century according to Greek scholar and secretary to Ali Pasha Athanasios Psalidas, three villages of the area were considered Greek, while he also stated that there were also some Orthodox Albanian villages in the region.[92] In general, the allegiances of the locals were in a narrow sense to their respective clans (the "phatriae") and areas, and in a broader sense to their Orthodox religion and cultural heritage. The later factors indicate closer links with their Greek co-religionists than to the Muslim Albanian communities.[93]

Vranisht[edit]

Vranisht had a total resident population of 2,080 in the 2011 census.[12] 83% declared themselves as Albanians and the rest didn't provide a reply.[12] More than 75% of the population declared no religion, while 22.6% are Muslims.[86] Vranisht is largely part of the region of Kurvelesh.

Lukovë[edit]

Lukovë had a total resident population of 2,916 in the 2011 census. 55.8% declared themselves as Albanians, 7.3% as Greeks and the rest didn't provide a reply.[12] ~37% are Muslims, 30.9% are Christian Orthodox, 3.40% are Catholics, 0.6% Bektashi and the rest of the population declared no religious affiliation.[86] In a demographic investigation by Leonidas Kallivretakis in the late 20th century, the population of Lukovë commune and all its villages, 54% were Albanian Christians, 40% were Albanian Muslims and 6% were Greek Christians.[13]

Religion[edit]

Bell tower of the Orthodox Church
Part of the Dhermi village with two Orthodox church buildings visible

The inhabitants of Himara are predominantly Orthodox Christians.[94] In 1577, 38 chieftains of the Himara region appealed to Pope Gregory XIII for arms and supplies against the Ottomans. They promised to switch allegiance from the Orthodox to the Roman Catholic Church, and recognize Philip II of Spain as their sovereign. They asked to retain their Orthodox liturgical customs 'since the majority of the population is Greek and does not understand the Frankish language'.[95] From 1577 to 1765 the population accepted the Pope as the religious head of the community and identified with the Roman Catholic Church.[95] The success of the Roman Catholic missionaries among the Eastern-rite Albanians in Himarë led to the region becoming a refuge for Orthodox prelates that had converted.[95] Himariotes thus largely adhered to Christian faith, although individual conversions to Islam were recorded from the early 16th century. One of them, Ajaz Pasha, became Grand Vizier and was sent by the Ottoman Sultan to put down the 1537 revolt of Himariotes. Even so, crypto-Christianity appeared, particularly in the villages of Fterre, Corraj, and Vuno. Moreover, Basilian missions were sent by Rome since 1682,[96] founding a number of Greek schools.[56]

In August 2015 Albanian police demolished the renovated Orthodox church of Saint Athanasius in Dhermi, as local authorities weeks earlier declared it an "illegal construction".[97] The Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania declared it a vandalistic act of desecration and a violation of church property and it also triggered diplomatic protests from Greece.[97] This is the second demolition of the church, the first having taken place during the era of the People's Republic of Albania, but at the time the church was rebuilt by the local Orthodox Church after the restoration of Democracy in the country (1991).[97][98] The Albanian government has promised to rebuild the church after archaeological excavations have taken place.[97][99] The demolition of the religious monument also triggered strong reactions from the European Commission.[100]

Language[edit]

View of the village of Palasë. Its inhabitants speak mainly the Himariote Greek dialect.

Himariote dialect of Greek[edit]

The vast majority of people in Himarë, who call themselves "Horiani" (Greek: Χωριανοί), meaning locals in the local Greek dialect,[101] are bilingual in both Albanian and Greek. In the town of Himarë as well as in nearby villages of Dhërmi and Palasa mainly speak a unique local Greek dialect that preserves many archaic features no longer found in standard Modern Greek. This dialect has small variations in the way it is spoken in every town, especially in the accent.[102] Elements of Slavic influence are limited compared to the neighboring Albanian idioms, as well as the other variants of the Greek language spoken in southeast Albania and Nartë region.[103] Greek schools were operating until the 1920s. During the struggle for the re-establishment of Greek education in the area (1934-1936) even the Albanian-speaking villages asked for the reopening of Greek schools, however their demand was rejected by the Albanian government.[104] In the spring of 2006, a private Greek-language school opened in the town of Himarë,[102] at the precise location where the Orthodox missionary Cosmas the Aetolian founded the Acroceraunian School in 1770.[15]

Among those who identify as Greeks in Himara there is near equal proficiency with Albanian. This may be explained by mixed marriages with Albanian elements on the part of the ancestors of the Himara Greeks, and as the result of the Hellenization of the local Albanian population via policies encouraged by the Greek Orthodox Church up until the time of Albania's founding, accentuated by the differences in cultural norms among Christians and Muslims.[105] Albanian is the state language, while Greek is the language of high culture, religion, and the state language of an economically powerful neighbor where many Himariotes now earn their living.[106] The Greek language went through a difficult period between 1946 and 1990, when the Greek population of Himara could not study in its native language, religion was prohibited, and relations with Greece were severed.[107]

Himare subdialect of Lab Albanian[edit]

The village of Vuno. Its population speak the Lab dialect of Tosk Albanian.

On the other hand, the surrounding towns of Ilias, Vuno, Qeparo, Kudhës and Pilur mainly speak the Lab Albanian dialect, a subdialect of Tosk Albanian.[108] A conservative phonological trait of Lab is the lack of palatalization, making residents speak "shkjip", not "shqip" (as in Arbëresh). The purported discovery of nasal vowels in the Himara region and the neighboring Kurvelesh region, a characteristic of Old Albanian that was lost in most Tosk but preserved in Gheg challenged the traditional view that the split between Gheg and Tosk was in part caused by the loss of nasalization in Tosk;[109] Elements of Slavic influence in the lexicon are also evident in the local Albanian idiom.[103]

Politics[edit]

Jorgo Goro backed by an electoral alliance led by the Socialist Party of Albania is the mayor of Himara since 2011 when he defeated Vasil Bollano (PBDNJ). Bollano had won the 2007 local elections. He won 49.16% of the total vote, Dhimitri Llazari backed by a PD-led coalition 27.62%, Aleks Tato (PS-led coalition) 20.15% and Kosta Andruco 3.07%.[110] At that time, the possibility of victory by the Greek minority Unity for Human Rights Party in the municipal elections in the past triggered nationalist rhetoric, both at the local and even national level, and heightened tensions in the town.[111] During his tenure, Bollano and his aides were accused of handing building permits on their property by locals of Himara. Since then he has been charged with abuse of power and falsification of administrative documents related to illegal building permits in the coastal area. He has called his legal issues "politically motivated". His political narrative at the time have been described as " inflammatory nationalist rhetoric to galvanize his power base".[112] In the 2011 elections, a PS-backed coalition fielded Jorgo against him. Goro won 41.97% of the total vote, Bollano 39.25%, Savo Prifti (backed by the right-wing Democratic Party of Albania) 14.93%, Dhimitri Llazari (backed by MEGA, another Greek community party) 3.84%. The PS-backed alliance won 7 councillor seats, PBDNJ in coalition with MEGA won 6 seats and the DP-led alliance 4 seats.[113] In the 2015, the elections were held under the new administrative division which includes Himara, Vranisht and Lukovë. Goro won with 55.6% (14 councillors) of the total vote, Dhionios Alfred Beleri (PBDNJ) 27.34% (4 councillors), Vladimir Kumi (independent candidate) 10.08%, Lefteri Prifti (backed by PD) 6.98% (3 councillors).[114] In 2019, PD backed by PBDNJ and other smaller parties abstained from the elections. Goro was re-elected without opposition and PS 63.79% of the total vote for councillor seats, while former mayor Bollano who ran as an independent candidate for a seat in the municipal council got 64 votes in total and wasn't elected.[115]

In the 2013 governmental elections, the region of Himara voted 48.3% for the Socialist Party and 25.5% for the Unity of Human Rights party.[116]

Minority issues[edit]

While the situation of the Greek minority in Albania has improved since the fall of communism, ethnic tensions in Himara remain.[117][118] During the 1994 trial of the Omonoia members, an organization that represents the Greek minority in Albania, three local Greeks were arrested and beaten by the Albanian police after they were found in possession of leaflets calling for the release of the arrested Omonoia leaders.[119] In 2008, a number of protests took place with the locals demanding land ownership and autonomy for the region.[120] The house of former mayor of Himara's, Vasil Bollano, has been the target of a bomb attack twice, in 2004 and again in May 2010.[121] In 2009 the ethnic Greek mayor of Himara ordered the removal of several road signs because they were not written in Greek, but only in Albanian and English. A local court convicted him for the destruction of government property but his conviction was overturned.[122]

On 12 August 2010, ethnic tensions soared after the ethnic Greek shopkeeper Aristotelis Goumas was killed when his motorcycle was hit by a car driven by three Albanian youths with whom Goumas allegedly had an altercation when they demanded that he must not speak Greek to them in his store.[117][118] Outraged locals blocked the main highway between Vlore and Saranda and demanded reform and increased local Himariote representation in the local police force.[118] The incident was condemned by both the Greek and Albanian governments, and three suspects were charged for the incident.[118]

The census of 2011 included ethnicity for the first time, a long-standing demand of the Greek minority in Albania and of international organizations.[117] However, Greek minority representatives found unacceptable article 20 of the Census law, according to which there is a $1,000 fine for declaring an ethnicity other than what was written down on someone's birth certificate.[123] As a result, the census was boycotted by parts of the Greek community.[87]

In 2005, after years of unanswered demands, Prime Minister Berisha authorized the opening of a Greek-language school in Himara partially funded by the Greek government.[117]

On 26 August 2015, Albanian government demolished the church of St. Athanasios at Dhërmi. The Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs condemned this action.[124] In October 2017 the Albanian authorities proceeded with the demolition of properties belonging to Greek minority members. Due to this development the local inhabitants publicly protested while a large number of Albanian policemen were dispatched to Himara.[125]

In March 2019 the Albanian authorities withdrew a former decision for the seizure of properties belonging to members of the local Greek minority. According to diplomatic sources, this decision came as a result of stern warning by Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras. Moreover, Omonoia appealed to Greece to defend the legal rights of the local Greek population and to avoid seizure of their properties.[126]

Attractions[edit]

Albanian Riviera at Himara

The area has a great potential for tourism, with the major characteristics of the municipal town being its seaside promenade, the tavernas and the traditionally preserved old town built on a hill.[127] The town of Himarë consists of the old town, Kastro, situated on and around the old castle and the coastal region of Spilea, which is the touristic and economic center of the region. Other parts of the town are Potami, Livadhi, Zhamari, Michaili and Stefaneli. North of the town of Himarë lie the villages of Vuno, Ilias, Dhërmi, with its coastal region Jaliskari, and Palasë. Dhermi contains a number of recently built beach resorts. On the mountains lie Pilur and Kudhës, while Qeparo lies to the south of the town of Himarë.[15]

The region has several Orthodox churches and monasteries, built with traditional Byzantine architecture, like the Monastery of the Cross, Athaliotissa, Saint Theodore, Virgin Mary in Dhërmi and Saint Demetrius. Moreover, a number of churches are located inside the castle of Himarë, which was initially built in classical antiquity, like the Church of Virgin Mary Kasopitra, Episkopi, which is built on the site of an ancient temple dedicated to Apollo, as well as the Aghioi Pantes church, in the entrance of the castle. Additional monuments in the castle include the mansion of the Spyromilios family and the Greek school.[15]

Sports[edit]

The city of Himarë's soccer club KF Himara. The club currently plays in the Albanian Second Division. It's home stadium is Petro Ruci Stadium in Orikum, Albania which is owned by KF Oriku and has a capacity of 2,000 people.

Notable people[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kryetari i Bashkisë" (in Albanian). Bashkia Himarë. Archived from the original on 17 November 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  2. ^ "Bashkia Himarë" (in Albanian). Albanian Association of Municipalities (AAM). Archived from the original on 21 October 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Law nr. 115/2014" (PDF) (in Albanian). p. 6376. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  4. ^ a b Giakoumis 2016, pp. 219–220
  5. ^ Nathalie Clayer (6 August 2018). Aux origines du nationalisme albanais. KARTHALA Editions. ISBN 978-2-8111-2172-3. OCLC 1049949545.
  6. ^ Europa Publications (2003). Central and South-Eastern Europe 2004. Vol. 5. Psychology Press. pp. 78–. ISBN 978-1-85743-186-5.
  7. ^ a b Hammond, 1993: p. 405: "It is one of the several Greek-speaking villages in which the centre is Himare... Liaps"
  8. ^ Economist Intelligence Unit (2001). Country Report: Albania. Great Britain: Economist Intelligence Unit. p. 14. a Greek-speaking district
  9. ^ "Albania: The state of a nation". ICG Balkans Report N°111. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2010. The coastal Himara region of Southern Albania has always had a predominantly ethnic Greek population.
  10. ^ Anthropological journal on European cultures, v. 3-4, European Centre for Traditional and Regional Cultures, 1994, p. 84
  11. ^ a b c Kallivretakis, Leonidas (1995). "Η ελληνική κοινότητα της Αλβανίας υπό το πρίσμα της ιστορικής γεωγραφίας και δημογραφίας [The Greek Community of Albania in terms of historical geography and demography." In Nikolakopoulos, Ilias, Kouloubis Theodoros A. & Thanos M. Veremis (eds). Ο Ελληνισμός της Αλβανίας [The Greeks of Albania]. University of Athens. p. 51. "Ε Έλληνες, ΑΧ Αλβανοί Ορθόδοξοι Χριστιανοί, AM Αλβανοί Μουσουλμάνοι"; p.53. " XIMARA: XIMAPA: 1. FSHAT & SHEN MEHILL ΧΩΡΙΟ & ΑΓΙΟΣ ΜΙΧΑΛΗΣ 1595 E, 2. SPILE ΣΙΠΛΙΑ 3629 E + AX + AM (1000); VUNOS ΒΟΥΝΟΣ 555 ΑΧ; ILIASI ΙΛΙΑΣ 124 ΑΧ; QEPARO POSTHME ΚΗΠΑΡΟ ΚΑΤΩ 854 ΑΧ; QEPARO SIPERME ΚΗΠΑΡΟ ΑΝΩ 461 E; KUDHES ΚΟΥΔΕΣΙ 748 ΑΧ; PILUR ΠΗΛΙΟΥΡΙ 532 ΑΧ; DHERMI ΔΡΥΜΑΔΕΣ, KONDRAPE DHERMI ΚΟΝΤΡΑΠΕ ΔΡΥΜΑΔΩΝ 1550 Ε; PALASA ΠΑΛΙΑΣΣΑ 356 Ε"
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Ethnic composition of Albania 2011". pop-stat.mashke.org.
  13. ^ a b Kallivretakis, Leonidas (1995). "Η ελληνική κοινότητα της Αλβανίας υπό το πρίσμα της ιστορικής γεωγραφίας και δημογραφίας [The Greek Community of Albania in terms of historical geography and demography." In Nikolakopoulos, Ilias, Kouloubis Theodoros A. & Thanos M. Veremis (eds). Ο Ελληνισμός της Αλβανίας [The Greeks of Albania]. University of Athens. p. 51. "Ε Έλληνες, ΑΧ Αλβανοί Ορθόδοξοι Χριστιανοί, AM Αλβανοί Μουσουλμάνοι, ΤΣ Τσάμηδες, Β Βλάχοι, Μ Μικτός πληθυσμός”; p.53. "LUKOVE ΛΟYKΟBΟ 2076 ΑΧ + αμ (250) + ε (120); NIVICE ΝΙΒΓΓΣΑ 899 ΑΧ + ε (30); SHENVASIL Αϊ ΒΑΣΙΛΗ 1434 ΑΧ + αμ (220) + ε (210); PIQERAS ΠΙΚΙΕΡΑΣ (ΠΙΚΕΡΝΗ) 991 ΑΧ + αμ (100) + ε (50); SASAJ ΣΑΣΑΪ 297 AM; BORSH ΜΠΟΡΣΙ 1243 AM; FTERE ΦΤΕΡΑ 378 AM; ÇORAJ ΤΣΟΡΑΪ 282 ΑΧ (150) + AM (132); QAZIM PALI ΚΙΑΣΙΜ ΠΑΛΙ (νέο) 861 AM + ε (80) + αχ (50)"
  14. ^ Sulejman Sulçe (May 2014). Himara Transfer Station and Associated Structures – Environmental Impact Assessment (PDF) (Report). Ministry of Urban Development and Tourism (Republic of Albania). p. 34. E1141 V9. Retrieved 4 August 2021. Territory of Himarë Municipality is 13,213 ha (132 km2 is Himarë Municipality area in the band of the width 5 km) for more than 1/3 the entire band of 5 km of the region (the largest part of all administrative units in the study area).
  15. ^ a b c d Tourist Guide of Himarë. Bashkia e Himares. In the intro, written by Vasilis Bolanos, the then-mayor.
  16. ^ Hammond, NGL (1994). Philip of Macedon. London, UK: Duckworth. "Epirus was a land of milk and animal products...The social unit was a small tribe, consisting of several nomadic or semi-nomadic groups, and these tribes, of which more than seventy names are known, coalesced into large tribal coalitions, three in number: Thesprotians, Molossians and Chaonians...We know from the discovery of inscriptions that these tribes were speaking the Greek language (in a West-Greek dialect)"
  17. ^ Hecataeus of Miletus, Fr.103
  18. ^ "The Internet Classics Archive | Pyrrhus by Plutarch". classics.mit.edu.
  19. ^ Chimaira, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  20. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, p. 340
  21. ^ Cheimarros, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
  22. ^ "Lamelles Oraculaires 131 - PHI Greek Inscriptions". epigraphy.packhum.org. Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved 12 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  23. ^ Kyriazis 2016, p. 1
  24. ^ Badlands, borderlands: a history of Northern Epirus/Southern Albania by Tom Winnifrith,2002,ISBN 0715632019, p. 80
  25. ^ a b Epirus Vetus: The Archaeology of a Late Antique Province (Duckworth Archaeology) by William Bowden,2003,ISBN 0-7156-3116-0,2003, p. 14
  26. ^ Rusakov 2021, p. 2021:We have here two unknowns: we know neither the time of the arriving of Albanians into this part of the Balkans nor when the ancestors of Himara Greeks appeared in the region
  27. ^ Rusakov 2021, p. 3.
  28. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 185–186.
  29. ^ Fine 1994, pp. 383, 390.
  30. ^ Di Lellio, Anna (2006). The Case for Kosova: Passage to Independence. Anthem Press. p. 32.
  31. ^ Instituti i Historise (1967). Gjergj Kastrioti--Skënderbeu dhe lufta shqiptaro-turke e shekullit XV. Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës. p. 26.
  32. ^ a b Giakoumis 2016, p. 227
  33. ^ Sakellariou, 1997, p. 244: "In the summer of 1473 the chieftain John Vlasis and a small band of men, using Corfu as a base... while the inhabitants of Cheimara liberated many of the Greek villages."
  34. ^ Lucia Gualdo Rosa; Isabella Nuovo; Domenico Defilippis (1982). Gli umanisti e la guerra otrantina: testi dei secoli XV e XVI. EDIZIONI DEDALO. p. 97. ISBN 978-88-220-6005-1.
  35. ^ Brackob, A.K. (2020). Scanderbeg: A History of George Castriota and the Albanian Resistanceto Islamic Expansion in Fifteenth Century Europe. Histria Books. p. 168. ISBN 9781592110056.
  36. ^ Frashëri, Kristo (2005). Himara dhe Përkatësia Etnike e Himarjotëve. Toena. p. 31. Udhëtari frëng Denis Possot në veprën e vet të hartuar në vitin 1532, e ndan Shqipërinë në tre pjesë – në Shqipërinë e zotëruar nga venedikasit, në Shqipërinë e sunduar nga turqit dhe në Shqipërinë e sunduar nga vetë shqiptarët (la troisiesme est en la seigneurie des Albanoys). Duke folur për zonat “e lira” të Shqipërisë, ai njofton se burrat e kësaj pjese shkojnë në luftë kundrejt pagesës, se ata “kanë 20000 kalorës për të shkuar kundër armiqve në Turqi dhe ata banojnë në një vend e në një pjesë të Shqipërisë që tani quhet Himarë” (ilz ont bien vingut mille gens se cheval pour aller contre les ennemis de Turquie. Et se tiennent a un lieu e t partie d’Albanie que maintenant on apelle Chimere). Sikurse shihet këtu Himara është në vështrimin më të gjerë kur me emrin e saj përfshihej gjithë Labëria, fshatrat e së cilës sot bëjnë pjesë në rrethin e Vlorës, Tepelenës, Gjirokastrës, Delvinës dhe Sarandës.
  37. ^ Pappas, 1991: p. 35: "In 1537 the Ottomans mounted an expedition... the maritime privileges of Cheimarra."
  38. ^ Pappas, 1991: p. 36: "Even the special privileges which they enjoyed..."
  39. ^ Hammond, 1993: p. 405
  40. ^ Frashëri, Kristo (2005). Himara dhe Përkatësia Etnike e Himarjotëve. Toena. p. 31. Ne nje relacion qe funksionari venedikas me origjine nga Kotorri me emrin Bukja (Bucchia) hartoi ne vitin 1567, ne te cilin flitet mbi mundesite qe ekzistonin, sipas tij, per nje debim perfundimtar te osmaneve nga Gadishulli Ballkanik, himariotet perfshihen ne popullsine shqiptare dhe jo ne viset ku banonin te perzier shqiptare dhe greke. Aty thuhet midis te tjerave: "Perkundrazi shqiptaret (albanesi), sidomos ata qe prej Bunes shtrihen deri ne Preveze, duke perfshire Himaren perballe Puljes dhe Kepit te Otrantit – sepse prej Arte e tutje ne ane te Lindjes, kudo popujt qe jane te nenshtruar prej te pafeve (turqve – K.F.), jane te perzier, nje pjese greke e nje pjese shqiptare". Ai thote gjithashtu: "Dhe qysh nga kjo kohe (nga viti 1537 – K.F.) himariotet ne fjale, si dhe shqiptaret e tjere nga keta te Adriatikut – ne kohet e lashta detare ilire ose maqedone (et da quel tempo li detti Cimariotti et li altri albanesi di questi dell’ Adriatico anticamente Illirici et Mecedones marrittimi), u kane bere shume dhunime e deme armiqve te perbashket.
  41. ^ Charles A., Frazee (2006). Catholics and Sultans: The Church and the Ottoman Empire 1453-1923. Cambridge University Press. pp. 103–104. ISBN 9780521027007.
  42. ^ Frashëri, Kristo (2005). Himara dhe Përkatësia Etnike e Himarjotëve. Toena. p. 43. "Më në fund letra mbyllet me adresën: “Prej Himare, d.m.th. prej Epirit të shqiptarëve”
  43. ^ Giakoumis 2016, p. 238: "Ἐκ Χειμάῤῥης ἤτοι Ἠπειρίας τῶν Ἀλβανιτῶν τῇ ιβ΄· ἰουλίου αφοζ΄ ... From Himarra, i.e. Epiros of the Arvanids, on July 12th 1577."
  44. ^ Giakoumis 2016, pp. 224–225
  45. ^ Roy, O.; Elbasani, A. (2015). The Revival of Islam in the Balkans: From Identity to Religiosity. Islam and Nationalism. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 48. ISBN 9781137517845.
  46. ^ Schmitt, O.J.; Rathberger, A. (2010). Religion und Kultur im albanischsprachigen Südosteuropa. Pro Oriente. Lang. p. 38. ISBN 9783631602959.
  47. ^ Frashëri, Kristo (2005). Himara dhe Përkatësia Etnike e Himarjotëve. Toena. p. 46. “Uskokët banojnë rreth 500 milje larg prej himariotëve, të cilët nga ana tjetër janë popuj të Shqipërisë dhe banojnë ndër malet që quhen Akroceraune në grykën e gjirit Adriatik përballë Kepit të Shënmërisë, kepi i fundit i Italisë. Uskokët flasin sllavisht, himariotët flasin shqip (Gli Uscochi parlano Schiauone, I Chimeriotti albanese)."
  48. ^ Frashëri, Kristo (2005). Himara dhe Përkatësia Etnike e Himarjotëve. Toena. p. 46. “Sikurse shihet kryefamiljarët e të tre fshatrave të ashtuquajtura “greqishtfolëse” (helenofone), mbajnë në përgjithësi emra dhe mbiemra të onomastikës shqiptare..."
  49. ^ Schmitt, Oliver Jens (2012). Die Albaner: Eine Geschichte zwischen Orient und Okzident (in German). C.H.Beck. p. 133. ISBN 978-3-406-63031-6. Die Vorstellung eines kompakten albanischen Gebietes, das etwa dem heutigen Albanian entsprache und von dem aus eine Auswanderung nach allen Himmelsrichtungen erfolgte, ist freilich auch ungenau. So trugen laut osmanischen Steuerregistern im 16. Jh. Maner in den sudalbanischenn orthodoxen Landschaften Dropull und Himare nicht nur Albanische, griechische sowie orthodoxe, sondern auch slawische Taufname.
  50. ^ Temo, Sotir (1985). Education in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania. "8 Nentori" Publishing House. p. 7. ... the primary schools in Korça ( 1637 ) , in Pedhanë and Blinisht in the Shkodra district ( 1639 ) where a secondary school was opened that same year , the Albanian schools in the region of Himara : Dhërmi , Vuno , Palasë ( 1632 ) .
  51. ^ Gaçe, Bardhosh (1999). Lëvizja kombëtare në Vlorë, 1878-1912 (in Albanian). Botimet Toena. p. 224. ISBN 978-99927-1-185-9. Shkollat e para u çelën në Dhërmi , Palasë , Vuno dhe Himarë . Këtu vinin nxënës nga Dukati , Tërbaçi , Kuçi , Lukova , Piqerasi e tjerë . Shkollat e para i çeli Noefit Rodinoja , që besohet se në fshatrat e Himarës arriti në vitin 1632
  52. ^ Guistiniani, Lorenzo (1805). Dizionario geografica-ragionato del Regno di Napoli. p. 195. A quei tali Albanesi fu assegnata un'estensione di terra in Abruzzo ulteriore, che appellavasi Abadessa...
  53. ^ Guida d'Italia: Albania, Touring Club Italiano, Milano, 1940, ISBN 88-365-1148-1, pg. 86
  54. ^ Candeloro, D. (1990). Italian Ethnics--their Languages, Literature, and Lives: Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the American Italian Historical Association, Chicago, Illinois, November 11-13, 1987. The American Italian Historical Association. p. 53.
  55. ^ Shkurtaj, Gjovalin (2013). Ligjërimet arbëreshe. Redona. p. 77.
  56. ^ a b Gregorič, 2008: p. 67.
  57. ^ Sakellariou, 1997, p. 255: "In Cheimara and the villages of its region (Nivitsa, Hagios Basileios, Loukovo, Keparon, Drymades, Vounos, Pikerni), the court consisted exclusively of elders (laymen), but the execution of its decisions was subject to the sanction of the local bishop (episcopal see at Bouthrotos), who was dependent on the metropolis of Ioannina"
  58. ^ Jačov, Marko (1992). Le missioni cattoliche nei Balcani durante la guerra di Candia:(1645-1669). Biblioteca apostolica vaticana. p. 185.
  59. ^ Etnografia shqiptare. Vol. 15. Akademia e Shkencave e RPSH, Instituti i Historisë, Sektori i Etnografisë. 1987. p. 199.
  60. ^ Pappas, 1991, p. 69: "In late 1759 and early 1760, three letters arrived in St. Petersburg from Cheimarra. The first described the conditions of the territory and expressed the willingness of its population to rise against the Turks if the Russians came to free Greece"
  61. ^ Giakoumis 2016, p. 243: "The people are ready for war... Their common action with the famous king Pyrrhus and the recently glorified Scanderbeg are not mentioned - stories praiding their courage... We only add that our faith is Orthodox, we are led by a Bishop; we are spiritually subjugated to the Patriarch of Constantinople. We speak the Albanian language, the same [language spoken] at the neighbouring Albania and Bosnia. Yet, in many areas all learned speak Greek; noble families also speak Italian, due to the many officers serving foreign states and the young people studying at the Padova and Napoli theological seminaries."
  62. ^ Pappas, 1991, p. 72: "Following the lead of the Montenegrins under Stephan the Little, the Cheimarriotes rose in revolt in 1767 and laid siege to the outlying towns of Delvino and Valona. Large forces from the pashaliks of Bosnia, Scutari [Shkodër], and Roumeli were able to check the movements of both the Montenegrins and the Cheimarriotes in the same year. Great numbers of Cheimarriotes became regufees on Corfu and Apulia, Italy to avoid reprisal by the Ottoman forces. It was no doubt from these exiles that the Russians recruited some of the Albanian contingents to serve as marines with their fleet.
  63. ^ Kyriazis 2016, p. 9: "Δεν τα έφερε εκείνος τα ελληνικά στη Χιμάρα, αλλά τα βρήκε εκεί, κι αυτό μας το μαρτυρά ο εξ Ιταλίας ιεραπόστολος Giuseppe Schiro (Zef Skiro) από το έτος 1722 ... O Schiro έγραφε ότι «η Cimara (Χιμάρα) …, Drimades (Δρυμάδες), Balasa (Παλάσα) [είναι] ελληνικής εθνότητας -"di natione greci"-, ενώ τα υπόλοιπα χωριά της Χιμάρας είναι αλβανικής εθνότητας -"di natione albanesi"»."
  64. ^ Giakoumis 2016, p. 226
  65. ^ Giakoumis 2016, p. 226=227
  66. ^ Elsie, Robert (ed.). "Albania in the Painting of Edward Lear (1848)". albanianart.net.
  67. ^ Schmitt, Oliver Jens (2012). Die Albaner: Eine Geschichte zwischen Orient und Okzident (in German). C.H.Beck. p. 65. ISBN 978-3-406-63031-6. ...bekämpften beide im Ringen um Land und einträgliche Steuerpachten muslimische Regionaldynastien (Kurd Ahmet Pascha von Berat, die Toptani von Kruja), Ali auch albanisch-orthodoxe Dorfgemeinschaften (Suli, Himara)..
  68. ^ Antonina Zhelyazkova.Urgent Anthropology. Vol. 2. Albanian Prospects. Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine IMIR, Sofia, 2003. p. 90
  69. ^ Pappas, 1991: p. 318: "Following the failure of an insurrection in Cheimarra in 1821"
  70. ^ Banac, Ackerman, Szporluk, Vucinich, 1981: p.46: "Cheimarriote veterans played a significant role in the Greek War of Independence (1821-1830)"
  71. ^ Sakellariou, 1997, p. 288.
  72. ^ Reid, James J. (2000). Crisis of the Ottoman Empire: prelude to collapse 1839-1878. Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 978-3-515-07687-6.
  73. ^ Skoulidas, Ilias (2001). The Relations Between the Greeks and the Albanians during the 19th Century: Political Aspirations and Visions (1875-1897). Didaktorika.gr (Thesis). University of Ioannina. p. 222. doi:10.12681/eadd/12856. hdl:10442/hedi/12856. Οι Χειμαριώτες θεωρούνταν διαρκώς ύποπτοι ευρύτερων ανατρεπτικών σχεδίων στην περιοχή, τα οποία θα εκπορεύονταν από την Ελλάδα.
  74. ^ Kyriazis 2016, p. 12: "Μήπως ήταν λιγότερο φιλόπατρις ο Eqrem bej Vlora όταν, αναφερόμενος στους κατοίκους της Χιμάρας, έγραφε στα Απομνημονευματά του ότι «Ανάμεσά τους είναι μόνο 3000 άτομα που μιλούσαν ανέκαθεν ελληνικά και που όλοι τους ανάγονται σε μια μοναδική ρίζα, οπωσδήποτε μακρόχρονη, ελληνικής προέλευσης»; ... "Midis tyre ka vetëm 3000 njerëz që kanë folur gjithmonë greqisht dhe që të gjithë rrjedhin nga një rrënjë e vetme, sado e largët në kohë, me prejardhje greke"."
  75. ^ Vasilēs G. Nitsiakos; Vassilis Nitsiakos (2010). On the Border: Transborder Mobility, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries Along the Albanian-Greek Frontier. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 97–. ISBN 978-3-643-10793-0.
  76. ^ Kondis, Basil (1978). Greece and Albania, 1908-1914. Institute for Balkan Studies. p. 93.
  77. ^ Badlands, borderlands: a history of Northern Epirus/Southern Albania by Tom Winnifrith,2002,ISBN 0715632019, page 129
  78. ^ Sakellariou, 1997, p. 381.
  79. ^ a b Meta, Beqir (2008). "Ballafaqimi shqiptaro-grek për Himarën (1920-1924) [Greek-Albanian confrontation in Himara (1920-1924)]." Studime Historike. 1-2: 43: "Pas mbarimit të Luftës I Botërore lëvizja atdhetare shqiptare në Himarë u rigjallërua. Një vend të veçantë luajti Spiro Gogo Koleka, i cili ndihmoi për mbledhjen e Kongresit të Lushnjës dhe zbatimin e vendimeve të tij. Ai bashkë me patriotë të tjerë ishte nënshkruesi i mjaft dokumenteve dërguar përfaqësuesve të Fuqive të Mëdha në Konferencën e Paqes, në të cilat kundërshtohej çdo përpjekje për aneksimin e Vlorës dhe Himarës. Në maj të vitit 1920 Spiro G. Koleka u caktua anëtar i qeverisë kombëtare. Ai më vonë u bë njëri nga organizatorët e Luftës së Vlorës kundër italianëve, në të cilën morën pjesë edhe himarjotë të tjerë." "[After the end of World War One, the Albanian patriotic movement in Himarë was revived. A special place Spiro Gogo Koleka played, who assisted at the gathering of the Congress of Lushnja and implementation of its decisions. He and other patriots were signatory to many documents sent to the representatives of the Great Powers during the Peace Conference, that opposed any attempt to annex Vlora and Himarë. In May 1920 Spiro G. Koleka was appointed member of the national government. He later became one of the organizers of the Vlora War against the Italians, where other Himariots participated.]"
  80. ^ a b Basil Kondis (1994). The Greek minority in Albania: a documentary record (1921-1993). Institute for Balkan Studies. ISBN 978-960-7387-02-8. THE PROTOCOL OF HIMARRA, 1921 We, Spiros Kolekas, Deputy of Valone, General Representative of the Albanian Government for the settlement of the question of the Himarra district, i.e. the villages of Drymades, Vouno, Himarra, Piliouri, Koundessi and Kyparou, which have sent their representatives, Mr G. Bolanos, M. Karas, D. Lekkas and Mr A. Simonides as their Secretary, have agreed upon the following: a) Privileges: The Albanian ...
  81. ^ Gregorič, 2008: p. 124.
  82. ^ Gregorič, 2008: p. 156.
  83. ^ "Censusi i popullsisë dhe banesave/ Population and Housing Census–Vlorë (2011)" (PDF). Tirana: Institute of Statistics (INSTAT). p. 85. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  84. ^ "Official 2011 census results per municipality".
  85. ^ "Profili i Bashkisë". Himara Municipality.
  86. ^ a b c "Religious composition of Albania 2011". pop-stat.mashke.org.
  87. ^ a b "International Religious Freedom Report for 2014: Albania" (PDF). www.state.gov/. United States, Department of State. p. 5. Retrieved 20 October 2015. Ethnic Greek minority groups had encouraged their members to boycott the census, affecting measurements of the Greek ethnic minority and membership in the Greek Orthodox Church.
  88. ^ "Final census findings lead to concerns over accuracy". Tirana Times. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  89. ^ Likmeta, Besar (6 July 2011). "Albania Moves Ahead With Disputed Census". Balkaninsight. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  90. ^ "Three Albanian journalists awarded with "World at 7 Billion Prize"". United Nations (Albania). Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014. ...the controversial CENSUS data
  91. ^ Urgent anthropology Vol. 3. Archived 2009-03-19 at the Wayback Machine Problems of Multiethnicity in the Western Balkans. International Center for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations. Sofia 2004. Page 39
  92. ^ Kallivretakis, Leonidas (1995). "Η ελληνική κοινότητα της Αλβανίας υπό το πρίσμα της ιστορικής γεωγραφίας και δημογραφίας [The Greek Community of Albania in terms of historical geography and demography." In Nikolakopoulos, Ilias, Kouloubis Theodoros A. & Thanos M. Veremis (eds). Ο Ελληνισμός της Αλβανίας [The Greeks of Albania]. University of Athens. p. 32. α) Γραικούς Χριστιανούς, που τους τοποθετεί σε ολα τα δυτικά χωριά της Δρόπολης ως την Δερβιτζάνη (εκτός από δύο), σε όλα τα ανατολικά χωριά της ίδιας κοιλάδας (εκτός από τρία), σε επτά μεγάλα και αρκετά μικρά χωριά του Δελβίνoυ και σε τρία χωριά της Χιμάρας. β) Αλβανούς Χριστιανούς, στα βόρεια και βορειοανατολικά χωριά της Δρόπολης (περιοχές Λιτζουριάς και Ρίζας), σε ορισμένα χωριά του Δέλβινου, της Χιμάρας, της Πρεμετής και της Κολόνιας καθώς και 20 περίπου χωριά της Κορυτσάς. [a) Greek Christians, placing them in all western villages from Dropull as the Dervitzani (except two), in all the eastern villages of the same valley (except three) in seven large and several small villages Delvinë and also three villages of Himarë. b) Albanian Christians in the north and northeast villages from Dropull (the areas Lunxhëri and Rrëzë), in some villages of Delvinë, Himarë, Përmet and Kolonjë with approximately 20 villages in Korçë.]
  93. ^ Banac, Ackerman, Szporluk, Vucinich, 1981: p. 45: "Since, Himara has been part of the disputed border region of Greek and Albania in this century, the question of nationality of the Cheimarriotes has prompted much discussion... Leaving conflicting linguistic evidence aside and using the modern criteria of nationality, one cannot label the Cheimarriotes as either Greeks or Albanians. In a narrow sense their allegiances were to their respective clans and areas, and in a broader sense to their religious and cultural heritage. This latter allegiance to Orthodox Christianity would seem to indicate closer ties to their Greek coreligionists than to the Muslim Albanians."
  94. ^ Frank Kressing, Karl Kaser. Albania--a country in transition: aspects of changing identities in a South-East European country. Nomos, 2002. p. 129
  95. ^ a b c Frazee, Charles A. (30 June 2006). Catholics and Sultans: The Church and the Ottoman Empire 1453-1923. Cambridge University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-521-02700-7. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
  96. ^ Murzaku, Ines Angeli (2009). Returning Home to Rome - The Basilian Monks of Grottaferrata in Albania. Analekta Kryptoferris. ISBN 978-88-89345-04-7.
  97. ^ a b c d Erebara, Gjergj (26 August 2015). "Albanian Church Demolition Angers Greece". BalkanInsight. Retrieved 26 October 2015. "Albanian police have demolished a contested church dedicated to St Athanas in the southern village of Dhermi, angering the Orthodox Church and neighbouring Greece, which supports the Church's mission. The Orthodox Church called it a vandalistic act of desecration and a violation of church property.... Police used heavy machinery to reduce to rubble the roof built in 1994 to cover the foundations of a much older church destroyed during the communist era. The renovated church was declared an "illegal construction" by the local authorities in Himara municipality two weeks ago, pitting Albanian nationalists against the Greek-supported Orthodox Church.... Speaking about the church, Prime Minister Rama said on Monday that "the old church in Dhermi will be regenerated in the name of national heritage [over] the 'parking lot' that is illegal, which they call a church.""
  98. ^ "Press Release 26.08.2015-The Orthodox church of St. Athanasius was destroyed, Dhermi (Drymades), Himara". orthodoxalbania.org. Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Albania. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  99. ^ Nikolli, Fatmira. "Albanian Jorgo Goro: Kisha e Shën Thanasit do të rindërtohet, varri i Katalanos është pjesë e projektit [George Goro: St. Athanasius' Church will be rebuilt, Katalano's grave is part of the project". BalkanWeb. Retrieved 4 November 2015. "Po, do ta kërkojmë varrin e Nilo Katalanos. Do të vazhdojë gërmimi nga arkeologët për nxjerrjen e themeleve dhe të gjitha detajeve dhe më pas do të behet projekti në bashkepunim me Monumentet e Kulturës". Kështu është shprehur dije për "Gazeta Shqiptare", kryetari i Bashkisë së Himarës, Jorgo Goro. I pyetur për kohën e shembjes, ai bën me dije se ishte lajmëruar prifti i fshatit për prishjen dhe se kishte kohë deri në 10 për të hequr sendet nga objekti… Për mua është nje reagim i nxituar, se nuk ka prishje të një objekti kulti, por një ndërtim pa leje mbi rrënojat e një kishe mbi 500-vjeçare me histori dhe rëndësi të veçantë për zonën dhe Shqipërinë, gjë që e dinë edhe pjesa më e madhe e banorëve të Dhermiut. Objektin në fjale duam ta rindërtojmë, duke i dhënë vlerat e duhura historike dhe kulturore zonës. Vlerësim të veçantë e nderim i historisë së të parëve tanë si pionierë të Rilindjes. [Yes, we will search for Nilo Katalano's grave. We will continue with excavations by archaeologists and digging until the foundations with all the details which will then become a project in collaboration with the Cultural Monuments sector. This was expressed yesterday for "Gazeta Shqiptare", by the mayor of Himarë, George Goro. Asked about the time of the demolition, he suggests that the village priest was notified a day prior regarding the demolition and had the time until 10 to remove items from the building… For me it is a rash reaction, because there is no demolition of an object of worship, but an illegal construction on the ruins of a church with 500 years of history and of particular importance to the area and Albania, something which most of the residents of Dhërmi know. The object in question, we want to rebuild by giving proper values of the historical and cultural area. Special appreciation and honor to the history of our ancestors as pioneers of the Renaissance.]"
  100. ^ "European Commission criticizes Albania for the incident with the Church of Dhermi". Independent Balkan News Agency. Retrieved 4 November 2015. The European Commission has issued a strong reaction in relation to the demolition of the orthodox church in the south of Albania and calls on Albanian authorities to respect religious freedoms for the citizens of the country, while it includes the incident in the upcoming Progress Report.
  101. ^ Gregorič, 2008: p. 43: most of the people who claim to originate from Himarë/Himara area have declared themselves as horiani (pl.), meaning locals.
  102. ^ a b Gregorič, 2008: p. 68
  103. ^ a b Kyriazis, Doris (2012). "Slavic elements in the Greek idioms of South Albania". Philologica Jassyensia. 15 (VII/I): 153, 163. Retrieved 12 September 2017. The set is pretty different if we consider the lexical material (appellatives and place names) of the inland of Chimara (Kurvelesh region) and the nearby coastal Albanian - speaking villages (Bregdet) & The Greek-speaking area that seems to be less affected by Slavic is that of Chimara although elements of Slavic influence are present in the neighboring villages,...
  104. ^ Nitsiakos, 2010, p. 98
  105. ^ Rusakov 2021, p. 12 "The “Greek” population of Himara demonstrates also near equal proficiency in Greek and Albanian (although there are now some “Greek” monolinguals among the older generation). This fact may be explained by the presence of Albanian elements among the ancestors of Himara “Greeks”, i.e. by mixed marriages (Sobolev 2017). The participation of the Albanian elements in the formation of the contemporary Himara population is confirmed by historical data and by testimonies of individual speakers. However to answer the question of the role of mixed marriages in the formation of the current linguistic (and ethnic) landscape of Himara will be possible after a more detailed study of this problem. Another source of continuous preservation of a situation with a high level of mastery in both languages might be the processes of Hellenization of the Albanian population encouraged by the Orthodox church till the time of the founding of the Albanian independent state and supported in some way by the cultural differences between the Orthodox and Muslim parts of the Albanian population."
  106. ^ Rusakov 2021, p. 11.
  107. ^ Rusakov 2021, p. 12.
  108. ^ Gregorič, 2008: p. 63.
  109. ^ Paçarizi 2008, pp. 101–102: "Second difference is the existence of nasal vocals in Gheg which is not a characteristic of Tosk even sometimes the nasality is not really stressed. This nasal-oral feature, according to Desnickaja, forms one of the elements which differentiate the Albanian dialects whereas Gjinari cites Dilo Sheper who said that there are also some nasal vocals in some places of Eastern Albania such as in Kurvelesh and Himarë but the information at that time did not confirmed that".
  110. ^ "2007 local elections - Albania". CEC.
  111. ^ https://www.hrw.org/wr2k1/europe/albania.html Nationalist rhetoric during the campaign, both at the local and national level, had heightened tension in the town over a possible victory by the local ethnic Greek Human Rights Union Party.
  112. ^ Likmeta, Besar (2011). "Albania: Controversial Ethnic Greek Mayor Seeks Re-Election". Balkan Insight.
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  115. ^ "Local elections of 2019 - Albania". Central Electoral Commission of Albania (CEC).
  116. ^ Election results for the region of Himara in 2013, 2013.
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  120. ^ Bönisch-Brednich, edited by Brigitte; Trundle, Catherine (2010). Local lives : migration and the politics of place (null ed.). Farnham, Surrey, England: Ashgate Pub. p. 26. ISBN 978-1-4094-0103-2. {{cite book}}: |first= has generic name (help)
  121. ^ "Εκρηκτικός μηχανισμός στο σπίτι του Δημάρχου Χιμάρας".
  122. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Report Submitted to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives and Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate by the Department of State in Accordance with Sections 116(d) and 502B(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as Amended. U.S. Government Printing Office. 2010. pp. 1222–1223. Retrieved 9 December 2021. the ethnic Greek mayor... but not Greek
  123. ^ "Macedonians and Greeks Join Forces against Albanian Census". balkanchronicle. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  124. ^ "Αλβανία: Κατεδάφισαν εκκλησία στη Χειμάρρα – Αθήνα: Eίναι τζιχαντιστές". skai.
  125. ^ "Government Begins Demolition of Greek Minority Properties in Himara". Exit - Explaining Albania. 31 October 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2021.
  126. ^ "Rights of ethnic Greeks in Albania in dispute, again | eKathimerini.com". www.ekathimerini.com. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  127. ^ Masters, Tom (2007). Eastern Europe. Lonely Planet. pp. 65–66. ISBN 978-1-74104-476-8.; Garwood, Duncan (2009). Mediterranean Europe. Lonely Planet. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-74104-856-8.
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  129. ^ Banac, Ackerman, Szporluk, Vucinich, 1981: p. 46
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