|Part of a series on|
|Part of a series on|
Hinduism is a religion and a way of life of the Hindu people of India, their diaspora, and other regions which have experienced Hindu influence since the ancient and medieval times. Islam is a monotheistic religion in which the deity is Allah (Arabic: الله "the God": see God in Islam), the last prophet being Muhammad, whom Muslims believe delivered the Islamic scripture, the Qur'an. Hinduism mostly shares common terms with the dhārmic religions that it birthed, including Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. Islam shares common terms with the Abrahamic religions which pre-date it - those religions claiming descent from Abraham–being, from oldest to youngest, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Baha'i Faith.
The Qur'an and the Hadiths are the primary Islamic scriptures. The scriptures of Hinduism are the Shrutis (the four Vedas, which comprise the original Vedic Hymns, or Samhitas, and three tiers of commentaries upon the Samhitas, namely the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads); these are considered authentic, authoritative divine revelation. Furthermore, Hinduism is also based on the Smritis, including the Rāmāyana, the Bhagavad Gītā, and the Purānas, which are also considered to be sacred.
Hinduism and Islam share some ritual practices such as fasting and pilgrimage, but differ in their views on apostasy, blasphemy, circumcision, consanguineous marriages, idol making, henotheism, social stratification, vegetarianism, and Ahimsa (non-violence) as a virtue. Their historical interaction since the 7th century has witnessed periods of cooperation and syncretism, as well as periods of religious violence. As a minority religion in India, Islam assimilated to local Hindu traditions and the Hindu roots of converts over a period of 13 centuries. The boundaries between Islam and Hinduism remained flexible until British colonial rule.
Comparison between Islam and Hinduism
The neutrality of this article is disputed. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Theology and concept of God
Islam is a system of thought that believes in varied traditions, hence the various Islamic Sects. Tawḥīd. Muslims are required to affirm daily, as one of the five pillars of Islam, in Shahada, that is "There is no other god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Hinduism is a system of thought that believes in varied traditions. In the Upanishads, one popular interpretation is the Advaita Vedanta tradition. It is absolute monism. A person finds the truth when realizing his/her true nature or the pure soul or self (atman). When the person is devoid of ignorance the person realizes that their inner self (atman) is the Brahman (the ultimate reality). Till the person realizes this truth, the person is usually of ignorance and therefore thinks everything around them is real and indulges in it, when it's actually not and is an illusion (maya). The Brahman which is absolute and pure and the atman which is absolute and pure also are the same in this school of thought. When the person singularly focus on 'I' and indulges in self-enquiry, study of texts, ethical perfection and jnana and the self, they realize the Brahman and don't depend on the material.
Scriptures and messengers
The scriptures of Islam are the Qurān and the Hadiths, which are varied and has many versions.The last and final massenger Muhammad is mentioned in world's major religions.It mention by name in vedas and bible.It mention in bhavishya purana parva 3 khand 3 adhyay 3 shloka 5 to 8 ,bhavishya purana parva 3 khand 3 adhyay 3 shloka 25 to 27 , atharvaveda khand 20,suktha 127 manthra 1 to 3,it also mentioned in kalki purana. Muslims believe that Jesus Christ was also the massenger from the God. Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last messenger, and Quran was the last revelation from God to the last prophet. The hadiths contain the Sunnah, or the reports of Muhammad's life, sayings, actions and examples he set. The Quran and the Hadiths are considered in Islam as the source of Islamic law, or Sharia.
Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralized religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book. Spiritual knowledge of Hinduism is contained in texts called Shruti ("what is heard") and Smriti ("what is remembered"). These texts discuss diverse theology, rituals, rites of passage, philosophy, and other topics. Major scriptures in Hinduism include the Vedas, Upanishads (both Śruti), the Epics, Puranas, Dharmasutras and Agamas (all smriti).
According to Islam, one after death either enters Paradise (Jannah) or Hell (Jahannam), depending on their deeds. However unlike Muslims, Hindus believe in cycle of reincarnation. However, the concept of higher and lower realms of existence can be found in Hinduism, though the realms are temporary places
Both are obliged to fight the Demons (Shaitan/Asura), who are in constantly war against human and the Divine. Asuras are part of Hindu mythology along with Devas, Yakshas and Rakshasas. Asuras feature in one of many cosmological theories in Hinduism. Asuras are sometimes considered nature spirits. They battle constantly with the devas.
Similarities can still be found at the concept of the Divine and the world. Both belief in the existence of an entirety supreme power, either called Brahman or Allah. Brahman is a metaphysical concept which is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe, while Allah is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions. Assimilated in local lore, the Islamic concept of God became comparable to the notion of the ultimate reality expressing itself through different names as the creator, the maintainer and the destroyer. The Sufi concept of Waḥdat al-Wujūd is close to the world view asserted in the Advaita Vedanta. Some Islamic scholars belief that the worlds created by God will perish and created anew resembling the Hindu notion of an endless procress of generation and decay.
Pilgrimage is found in both religions, Hajj to Mecca in Islam, while Kumbh Mela and Tirtha Yatra in Hinduism. Muslims performs 7 rounds around Kaaba during Hajj which is called Tawaf. Hindus also perform one or more rounds around the center (Garbhagriya) of a temple (one to twenty-one), which is called as Parikrama (known in Sanskrit as pradakśiṇā). Both of them are commonly called circumambulation.
By some members of the Ahmadiya Muslim Community, Islamic Prophet Muhammad is believed to be the Hindu Avatar Kalki; some of the Muslim scholars and a few of the Hindu scholars also argued that kalki is mentioned indicating Muhammad in some Hindu scriptures. However, most of the Hindu scholars widely discarded it as a false theory, claiming that Kalki is supposed to arrive at the end of Kali Yuga, not in the beginning, but since the Yugas are repeated, this can be.
Both religions state that there should be no compulsion in religion even though Islamic scholars may call for punishment for leaving Islam.
Blasphemy against God and against Muhammad is a religious crime in Islam. The Quran in verse [Quran 5:33–34] and many Hadiths of Islam discuss blasphemy and its punishment. A variety of actions, speeches or behavior can constitute blasphemy in Islam. Some examples include insulting or cursing Allah or Muhammad, mockery or disagreeable behavior towards beliefs and customs common in Islam, finding faults or expressing doubts about Allah, improper dress, drawing offensive cartoons, tearing or burning holy literature of Islam, creating or using music or painting or video or novels to mock or criticize Muhammad are some examples of blasphemous acts. Punishment can range from imprisonment, flogging to execution.
Open discussion and criticism of spiritual thoughts, ideas and deities is allowed in Hinduism. The concept of "divine blasphemy" or "heresy" does not exist in Hinduism, and ancient Hindu texts make no provisions for blasphemy.
Caste and creed
Hindu texts such as the Manusmriti segregate people through social stratification and class . Islamic texts do not segregate Muslims by caste, however in India Muslims also have their own caste system including untouchables. Islamic texts such as the Hadīth, however mention the prophecy of the Muslim Ummah being separated into 73 sects. This stratification is from the book of the Prophet - the Hadīth. Thus, in prophetic tradition it is believed that despite the inherent division there is always a majority which retains the correct belief and practice of Islam, a group singled out from the others and on the path to attain salvation - Ahl al-Sunnah wa٬ُl-Jamāٝah 
While Hinduism texts do not list thousands of castes, in practice, the Hindu caste system has been described variously as four Varnas or as thousands of endogamous hereditary groups called jātis. Similar to the Hindu caste structure of four Varnas, in practice, Muslims in South Asia developed a caste system that divided the South Asian Muslim society into three: the foreign-descended Ashraf Muslims, the local Ajlaf converts, and the converted Arzal untouchables at the lowest rung. The term "Arzal" stands for "degraded" and the Arzal castes are further subdivided, like Hindu jatis, into Bhanar, Halalkhor, Hijra, Kasbi, Lalbegi, Maugta, Mehtar etc. Scholars state that caste-like social stratification is also found in Islam outside South Asia.
Khitan (circumcision) of males is required in Islam. The Qur'an itself does not mention circumcision explicitly in any verse, but it is mentioned in the Hadiths of Islam. Muslim commentators consistently interpret Islamic scriptures as making male circumcision obligatory.
Circumcision is not a religious requirement in Hinduism.
Consanguineous marriage are those where the bride and groom share a grandparent or near ancestor. Islam prohibit marriage due to consanguinity with ancestors, descendants, siblings, siblings of ancestors and descendants of siblings. However marriage with cousins and farther consanguineous relatives is allowed. Hinduism forbids consanguineous marriage, and strongly recommends seven degrees of biological separation between bride and groom. Arranged endogamous consanguineous marriage are very common in Islam, particularly first cousin marriages, followed by second cousin marriages. About 25 to 40% of all marriages in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and UAE are first cousin marriages; while overall consanguineous arranged marriages exceed 65 to 80% in various regions of the Islamic Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia.
Islamic scriptures, in its history and unlike Hinduism, compelled the payment of a special tax called Jizya from dhimmi, the non-Muslims who live in a Muslim state. Jizya was a tool of social stratification and treasury's revenue from non-Muslims. Jizya was a reminder of subordination of a non-Muslim under Muslims, and created a financial and political incentive to convert to Islam.
There is no such concept of "Jizya" in Hindu texts.
The neutrality of this article is disputed. (February 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Quran and the Hadiths permit the institution of slavery of non-Muslims in Islam, using the words abd (slave) and the phrase ma malakat aymanukum ("that which your right hand owns").Under Islamic law, Muslim men can have sexual relations with female captives or concubines and slaves with her consent. Slaves, in Islamic belief, were master's property and the slaves did not have a right to own property, right to free movement, right to marry without their owner's permission, or right to consent. Islam, in some cases, encouraged a slave's manumission, but only after a non-Muslim slave were forcefully converted to Islam. Non-Muslim slave women who were raped and had children for their Muslim masters became legally free upon her master's death, and her children were presumed to be Muslims as their father. Aurangzeb, the Mughal Emperor, hired Muslim scholars to study the Quran and the Hadiths and write down the Islamic law for India in late 17th century. The resulting document was called Fatawa-e-Alamgiri, and it dedicated many chapters on the rights of Muslim men to own and buy non-Muslim slaves for work and sex.[failed verification]
The Indians do not even use aliens as slaves, much less a countryman of their own.— The Indika of Arrian
However, some Hindu texts use the term dasa. Some scholars translate this as slave, while other scholars have translated it as servant and religious devotee. Arthashastra text of Hinduism dedicates a chapter to dasa where a financially bankrupt individual may apply and become a servant of another. Arthashastra grants a dasa legal rights, and declares abusing, hurting and raping a dasa as a crime.
Islam has restrictions on food, such as how the meat is prepared. Halal meat is prepared by ritual slaughter that involves cutting the jugular veins of the animal with a sharp knife. This leads to death via bleeding. Meat from animals that die of natural causes or accident is not allowed. Beef is a sought after meat among Muslims, but they strictly avoid pork and alcohol.
Hinduism, with its emphasis on non-violence against all creatures, tends to be vegetarian, and lacto-vegetarian meals are common. However, food habits are left as a choice for Hindus and alcohol consumption is accepted. There are varied opinions regarding the permissibility of eating meat in Hinduism, depending upon the interpretation of the Hindu scriptures. Vegetarianism is a choice for most Hindus, although some sects emphasize vegetarianism. Some Hindus consider violence against animals, that is used to produce any meat, so unacceptable that they avoid eating with non-vegetarians. Most observant Hindus strictly avoid cow-based beef, but some may eat water buffalo-based beef or pork as an alternative.
The manner in which an animal is slaughtered in Islamic rituals is considered cruel and barbaric by Hindus, as Hindus consume Jhatka meat. Jhatka is meat from an animal that has been killed instantly, such as by a single strike of a sword or axe to sever the head, as opposed to ritualistically slow slaughter (kutha) in the halal method (dhabihah). Jhatka is the method of meat production demanded by most Hindus who eat meat, as this provides a quick and painless death to the animal. Both methods use sharp knives. In the Jhatka method, a swift uninterrupted cut severs the trachea, esophagus, carotid arteries, jugular veins, vagus nerves and the spine. In the Halal method, the slaughter is done with a swift deep incision with a sharp knife on the throat, cutting the jugular veins and carotid arteries of both sides but leaving the spinal cord and nervous tissue intact, followed by a period where the blood of the animal is drained out. A prayer to God is not required in the Jhatka method with each animal commercially slaughtered, but a prayer to God (Allah) is required at the start or if there is any interruption during Halal meat production.
Politics and historical interaction
H.G. Rawlinson, in his book: Ancient and Medieval History of India claims the first Arab Muslims settled on the Indian coast in the last part of the 7th century. It was however the subsequent expansion of the Turkish and Persian led Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent over the next millennium that significantly expanded the interaction of Islam with Hinduism.
Translation of scriptures
There have been instances of syncretic cooperation on music on Islamic and Hindu theme. The national poet of Bangladesh Kazi Nazrul Islam, for example, wrote a lot of Islamic devotional songs for the mainstream of Bengali folk music. He also explored Hindu devotional music by composing Shama Sangeet, bhajans and kirtans, often merging Islamic and Hindu values. Nazrul's poetry and songs explored the philosophy of Islam and Hinduism.
Historical records of religious violence are extensive for medieval India, in the form of corpus written by numerous Muslim historians. Will Durant states that Hindus were historically persecuted during Islamic rule of the Indian subcontinent.
During the British period, religious affiliation became an issue ... Religious communities tended to become political constituencies. This was particularly true of the Muslim League created in 1905, which catered exclusively for the interests of the Muslims ... Purely Hindu organizations also appeared such as the Hindu Sabha (later Mahasabha) founded in 1915. In the meantime Hindu-Muslim riots became more frequent; but they were not a novelty, they are attested since the Delhi sultanate and were already a regular feature of the Mughal Empire .... When in 1947 he [Muhammad Ali Jinnah] became the first Governor General of Pakistan and the new border was demarcated, gigantic riots broke out between Hindus and Muslims.
There have been periodic instances of violence against Muslims in India from before its partition from Pakistan in 1947, frequently in the form of mob attacks on Muslims by Hindus that form a pattern of sporadic sectarian violence between the Hindu and Muslim communities. Over 10,000 people have been killed in Hindu-Muslim communal violence since 1950 in 6,933 instances of communal violence between 1954 and 1982.
The roots of violence against Muslims lie in India's history, stemming from lingering resentment toward the Islamic domination of India during the Middle Ages, policies established by the country's British colonizers, the violent partition of India into a Muslim Pakistan, and a Hindu Majority, but secular India with a large but minority Muslim population.[undue weight? ] Some scholars have described incidents of anti-Muslim violence as politically motivated and organized anti-Muslim violence are politically motivated and a part of the electoral strategy of mainstream political parties they called them pogroms or acts of genocide, or a form of state terrorism with "organized political massacres" rather than mere "riots". Others argue that, although their community faces discrimination and violence, some Muslims have been highly successful, that the violence is not as widespread as it appears, but is restricted to certain urban areas because of local socio-political conditions, and there are many cities where Muslims and Hindus live peacefully together with almost no incidences of sectarian violence.
Hindu-Islamic relations in India
Though it is widely believed that violence between Hindus and Muslims began with British interference, this is not true. Problems between Hindus and Muslims in India can be traced back to the 14th century, when regular fights broke out between them in small Indian cities such as Mangalore. This hate between Hindus and Muslims was further fueled by the British, using their strategy of "divide and rule".
In 1947, Pakistan was created as a separate entity for Muslims, making the Muslim population in India a minority compared to Hindus and further deepening the divide between them. Since then, there have been many riots between Hindus and Muslims. One of the most destructive riots was the 2002 Gujarat Riots which was spread over three days and led to the death of more than 1000 people. This occurred as a result of the burning of a train carrying Hindu pilgrims, which was followed by Hindu retaliation against Muslims. Another prominent controversy between Hindus and Muslims is the Ayodhya Ram Mandir - Babri Masjid case. The premise for this was that a Mosque was built by Mir Baqi, a commander of Babur in the birthplace of Lord Ram, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. However, Hindus believed that this Mosque was built after tearing down a Temple that used to be in its place and the Hindus thus raised legal objections to the presence of the Mosque. Fortunately, both Hindus and Muslims have agreed to maintain peace and preserve communal harmony in Ayodhya, in light of the Supreme Court delivering its verdict regarding this case on 9 November, 2019. Thus, though Hindu-Muslim relations are complicated and are fueled by hate, there are also many places where they peacefully coexist in India. 
India helped Bangladesh gain independence from Pakistan in 1971 AD. Various agencies, such as BBC, Associated Press and Reuters have reported periodic violence against Hindus by some Muslims in Bangladesh, and attempts by the Bangladeshi government to punish such violence. For example, in early 2013, Hindu families were attacked and killed, as well as dozens of temples burnt/destroyed after the International Crimes Tribunal sentenced Delwar Hossain Sayeedi of the Jamaat-e-Islami to death for the war crimes committed during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War.
- Allahu Akbar
- Anti-Muslim violence in India
- Brahma Samaj
- Cheraman Perumal myths
- Divisions of the world in Islam
- Hinduism and other religions
- History of Hindu–Christian Encounters, AD 304 to 1996
- Islam and other religions
- Persecution of Hindus by Muslims
- Sufism in India
- For Islam: Qurʾan, Chapter 29, Verse 17. For Hinduism: Yajurveda, Chapter 32, Verse 3; Yajurveda, Chapter 40, Verse 8; Yajurveda, Chapter 40, Verse 9.
- Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2007). A Survey of Hinduism (3. ed.). Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. pp. 46–49. ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4.
- M. Hakan Yavuz Is there a Turkish Islam? The emergence of convergence and consensus Published online: 07 Aug 2006 Pages 213-232
- "From the article on Tawhid in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxfordislamicstudies.com. 6 May 2008. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- N Mohammad sahab (1985), The doctrine of jihad: An introduction, Journal of Law and Religion, 3(2): 381–397
- Malise Ruthven (January 2004). Historical Atlas of Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-674-01385-8.
- Neal Robinson (2013), Islam: A Concise Introduction, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-87840-224-3, Chapter 7
- Gülen, Fethullah (2005). The Messenger of God Muhammad : an analysis of the Prophet's life. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-932099-83-6.
- Gibb, H. A. R. (1970). Mohammedanism : an historical survey. London New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 67–68. ISBN 0-19-500245-8.
- Julius J. Lipner (2010). Hindus : their religious beliefs and practices. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7., Quote: "one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu."
- Larson, Bob (2004). Larson's book of world religions and alternative spirituality. Tyndale House Publishers. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8423-6417-1.
- Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and present. Princeton University Press.
- Bhattacharyya, Ashim (2006). Hindu Dharma : introduction to scriptures and theology. New York Lincoln: IUniverse. pp. 8–14. ISBN 978-0-595-38455-6.
- Juergensmeyer, Mark; Roof, Wade Clark (18 October 2011). Encyclopedia of Global Religion. SAGE Publications. pp. 271–272. ISBN 9781452266565.
- Chaturvedi, B. K. (2004). Shiv Purana. Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd. p. 124. ISBN 9788171827213.
- Firoz-Ul Haque Islam Under the Microscope: A Condensed Digest for Muslims and Non-Muslims Atlantic Publishers & Dist 2006 ISBN 978-8-126-90700-7 page 35
- Don Handelman (2013), One God, Two Goddesses, Three Studies of South Indian Cosmology, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004256156, pages 23-29
- Wendy Doniger (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 978-0719018664, page 67
- Wash Edward Hale (1999), Ásura in Early Vedic Religion, Motilal Barnarsidass, ISBN 978-8120800618, pages 2-6
- Cite error: The named reference
james122was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Fowler 2002, pp. 50–53. sfn error: no target: CITEREFFowler2002 (help)
- Mohammed Yamin Impact of Islam on Orissan Culture Readworthy ISBN 978-9-350-18102-7 page 56-57
- Malika Mohammada The Foundations of the Composite Culture in India Aakar Books 2007 ISBN 978-8-189-83318-3 page 141
- Jean Holm, John Bowker Sacred Place Bloomsbury Publishing 2001 ISBN 978-1-623-56623-4 page 112
- Clinton Bennett, Charles M. Ramsey South Asian Sufis: Devotion, Deviation, and Destiny A&C Black ISBN 978-1-441-15127-8 page 23
- Baksh, Kaiyume (2007). Islam and other major world religions. Trafford. pp. 47–49. ISBN 978-1-4251-1303-2.
- World Faiths, teach yourself - Islam by Ruqaiyyah Maqsood. ISBN 0-340-60901-X page 76
- "Pradkshna". ISCKON. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- "Why we do rounds". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Vinayak Bharne and Krupali Krusche (2012). Rediscovering the Hindu temple : the sacred architecture and urbanism of India. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars. pp. 101, 79–105. ISBN 978-1-4438-4137-5.
- S.S. Subramuniyaswami (1998). Loving Ganeśa: Hinduism's endearing elephant-faced God. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 221. ISBN 978-81-208-1506-3.
- "Circum-". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "Ambulate". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- "OUR DIALOGUE * Kaliki Avtar". Islamic Voice. November 1997. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "Muhammad in Hindu scriptures". Milli Gazette. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- Juergensmeyer, Mark (2006). Oxford Handbook of Global Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 520. ISBN 978-0-19-513798-9.
- Marie-Luisa Frick; Andreas Th. Müller (2013), Islam and International Law: Engaging Self-Centrism from a Plurality of Perspectives, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, p. 95, ISBN 978-90-04-23336-2
- Kecia Ali; Oliver Leaman (2008), Islam: The Key Concepts, Routledge, pp. 10–11, ISBN 978-0-415-39638-7
- John Esposito (2003), The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, Oxford University Press, p. 22, ISBN 978-0-19-512559-7
- MK Gandhi, The Essence of Hinduism, Editor: VB Kher, Quote: "According to Gandhi, a man may not believe in God and still call himself a Hindu."
- "Quran Tafsir Ibn Kathir". www.qtafsir.com. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- Fitzpatrick, Coeli (2014). Muhammad in history, thought, and culture : an encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (Chapter: Blasphemy against the Prophet). pp. 59–67. ISBN 978-1-61069-177-2.
- Lawton, David (1993). Blasphemy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1503-8.
- Marshall, Paul (2011). Silenced : how apostasy and blasphemy codes are choking freedom worldwide. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-981228-8.
- Chitkara, Madan (2002). Buddha's: myths & legends. APH Publ. pp. 227–228. ISBN 978-81-7648-189-2.
- Naidoo, Thillayvel (2010). Long walk to enlightenment. Pittsburgh, PA. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-1-4349-9808-8.
- Pullat, Sury (2014). Destined Encounters. Partridge Pub. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-4828-3639-4.
- Gerald D. Berreman (1972). "Race, Caste, and Other Invidious Distinctions in Social Stratification" (PDF). Race. University of California, Berkeley. 13 (4): 385–414. doi:10.1177/030639687201300401.
- Glenn, H (2014). Legal traditions of the world: sustainable diversity in law. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966983-7.
- Emon, Anver (2012). Religious pluralism and Islamic law : Dhimmis and Others in the Empire of Law. Oxford University Press. pp. 234–236. ISBN 978-0-19-966163-3.
- Saleh, Fauzan (2001). Modern trends in Islamic theological discourse in 20th century Indonesia: A Critical Survey. Leiden;Boston;Köln : Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-12305-2.
- Aggarwal, Patrap (1978). Caste and Social Stratification Among Muslims in India. Manohar.
- Ambedkar, Bhimrao. Pakistan or the Partition of India. Thackers Publishers.
- Dereserve these myths Archived 16 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine by Tanweer Fazal,Indian express
- Barth, Fredrik (1962). Leach, E. R. (ed.). Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon, and North-West Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09664-5.
- Gabriele Vombruck (June 1996), "Being worthy of protection. The dialectics of gender attributes in Yemen", Social Anthropology, 4 (2): 145–162
- Lehmann, Hermann (1954). "Distribution of the sickle cell trait". Eugenics Review. 46 (2): 101–21. PMC 2973326. PMID 21260667.
The Arabic Muslims do not intermarry with Akhdam Muslims in Yemen, shunning them as untouchables.
- Malik, Jamal (2008). Islam in South Asia: A Short History. Brill Academic. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-90-04-16859-6.
- Worth, Robert F. (27 February 2008). "Languishing at the Bottom of Yemen's Ladder". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Gruenbaum, Ellen (2001). The female circumcision controversy : an anthropological perspective. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8122-1746-9.
- Springgay, Stephanie (2012). Mothering a bodied curriculum: emplacement, desire, affect. University of Toronto Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-1-4426-1227-3.
- Joseph, S. E. (2007), Kissing Cousins, Current Anthropology, 48(5), pages 756–764
- Ghamidi, Javed Ahmad. Mizan: A Comprehensive Introduction to Islam. Lahore: Al-Mawrid.
- Bittles, A. H. (2012). Consanguinity in context. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-78186-2.
- Shaw, A. (2001), Kinship, cultural preference and immigration: consanguineous marriage among British Pakistanis, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 7(2): 315–334
- R. Hussain (1999), Community perceptions of reasons for preference for consanguineous marriages in Pakistan, Journal of Biosocial Science, 31, pages 449–461
- Consanguineous marriages Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine Brecia Young (2006), University of New Mexico, Santa Fe
- John Louis Esposito, Islam the Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 33–34
- Anver M. Emon, Religious Pluralism and Islamic Law: Dhimmis and Others in the Empire of Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-966163-3, pp. 99–109
- Majid Khadduri (2010), War and Peace in the Law of Islam, Johns Hopkins University Press; pp. 162–224; ISBN 978-1-58477-695-6
- Lewis, Bernard (2002). What went wrong?: Western impact and Middle Eastern response. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 82–83. ISBN 0-19-514420-1.
- Brunschvig, 'Abd, in Encyclopedia of Islam, Brill, 2nd Edition, Vol 1, pp. 13–40; Quran 23:6, Quran 70:30
- "BBC - Religions - Islam: Slavery in Islam". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- Ali, Kecia (2010). Marriage and slavery in early Islam. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. pp. 161–171. ISBN 978-0-674-05059-4.
- Haeri, Shahla (1989). Law of desire : temporary marriage in Shi'i Iran. Syracuse, N.Y: Syracuse University Press. pp. 24–32. ISBN 978-0-8156-2483-7.
Sexual intercourse with one's own slave girl continued to be legitimate until recently in most Islamic societies. Slave ownership should not be confused with slave marriage. Slave marriage involves marriage of a slave with another person, with the permission of the slave master. Marriage is not necessary between a male slave owner and his female slaves. His ownership entitles him to a right of intercourse, hence rape is promoted in Islam.
- Levy, Reuben (1957). The social structure of Islam. Cambridge University Press. pp. 70–79, 84–114, 244–258. ISBN 978-0-521-09182-4.
- Abbott, N. (1942). "Women and the state in early Islam". Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 1(3), pp. 341–368
- Ahmad Sikainga (1996), Slaves Into Workers: Emancipation and Labor in Colonial Sudan, University of Texas Press, ISBN 978-0-292-76395-1
- Lovejoy, Paul (2000). Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0-521-78430-6.
Quote: The religious requirement that new slaves be pagans and need for continued imports to maintain slave population made Africa an important source of slaves for the Islamic world. (... ) In Islamic tradition, slavery was perceived as a means of converting non-Muslims forcefully. One task of the master was religious instruction and theoretically Muslims could not be enslaved. Conversion (of a non-Muslim to Islam) did not automatically lead to emancipation, but assimilation into Muslim society was deemed a prerequisite for emancipation.
- Jean Pierre Angenot; et al. (2008). Uncovering the History of Africans in Asia. Brill Academic. p. 60. ISBN 978-90-04-16291-4.
Islam imposed upon the Muslim master an obligation to convert non-Muslim slaves and become members of the greater Muslim society. Indeed, the daily observation of well defined Islamic religious rituals was the outward manifestation of conversion without which emancipation was impossible.
- Ali, Kecia (2010). Brooten, Bernadette J. (ed.). Slavery and Sexual Ethics in Islam, in Beyond Slavery: Overcoming Its Religious and Sexual Legacies. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 107–119. ISBN 978-0-230-10016-9.
The slave who bore her master's child became known in Arabic as an "umm walad"; she could not be sold, and she was automatically freed upon her master's death.
- Pirbhai, M (2009). Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian context. Leiden Boston: Brill. pp. 132–150. ISBN 978-90-04-17758-1.
- A digest of the Moohummudan law - Slavery Neil Ballie, Smith Elder, Oxford & London, pp. 363–389
- J.W. McCrindle (Translator), Ancient India Trubner & Co. London
- Shamasastry, Arthashastra of Chanakya, pp. 260–264
- A Sharma (September 2005), Journal American Acad Religion, 73(3): 843–870
- Kangle R.P. (1960), The Kautiliya Arthasastra - a critical edition, Part 3, University of Bombay Studies, ISBN 978-81-208-0042-7, p. 186
- B. Breloer (1934), Kautiliya Studien, Bd. III, Leipzig, pages 10–16, 30–71
- Qurʾan 2:173
- Riaz, Mian (2004). Halal food production. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-58716-029-5.
- Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9.
- Esposito, John (2011). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-19-979413-3.
- Rawlinson, H. G. (2001). Ancient and medieval history of India. Delhi: Bharatiya Kala Prakashan. ISBN 81-86050-79-5.
- Wink, André (1990). Al-Hind, the making of the Indo-Islamic world. Leiden New York: E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-09249-8.
- India: A Laboratory of Inter-religious Experiment. Siraj Maqbool Ahmed, 2008, Religion and the Arts, Volume 12, No. 1 Pages 319–328
- UAB Razia Akter Banu (1992). Islam in Bangladesh. Brill. p. 52. ISBN 90-04-09497-0.
- Kamrunnessa Azad. 2001. Dharmiya Chetonay Nazrul. Nazrul Institute, Dhaka. 1999. pp. 173–174
- Kamrunnessa Azad. 2001. Dharmiya Chetonay Nazrul. Nazrul Institute, Dhaka. 1999. pp. 19–20
- Durant, Will. The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage. p. 459.
The Mohammedan Conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precarious thing, whose delicate complex of order and liberty, culture and peace may at any time be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within. The Hindus had allowed their strength to be wasted in internal division and war; they had adopted religions like Buddhism and Jainism, which unnerved them for the tasks of life; they had failed to organize their forces for the protection of their frontiers and their capitals, their wealth and their freedom, from the hordes of Scythians, Huns, Afghans and Turks hovering about India's boundaries and waiting for national weakness to let them in. For four hundred years (600–1000 A.D.) India invited conquest; and at last it came.
- Gaborieau, Marc (June 1985). "From Al-Beruni to Jinnah: Idiom, Ritual and Ideology of the Hindu-Muslim Confrontation in South Asia". Anthropology Today. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 1 (3): 7–14. doi:10.2307/3033123. JSTOR 3033123.
- Wilkinson 2006, p. 10.
- D'Costa 2010, p. 213.
- "1964: Riots in Calcutta leave more than 100 dead". BBC News. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- Ghosh 2004, p. 312.
- Hussain 2009, p. 261.
- Berglund 2011, p. 105.
- Khalidi 2009, p. 180.
- Smith 2005, pp. 11–12.
- Metcalf 2009, p. 117.
- Holt 1977, p. 117.
- Sikand 2004, p. 126.
- Pandey 2005, p. 188.
- Ghassem-Fachandi 2012, p. 2.
- Metcalf 2013, p. 109.
- University, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World Affairs at Georgetown. "British Rule and Hindu-Muslim Riots in India: A Reassessment". berkleycenter.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
- "British raj | Imperialism, Impact, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
- "Pakistan : History | The Commonwealth". thecommonwealth.org. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
- "Timeline of the Riots in Modi's Gujarat". The New York Times. 6 April 2014. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- K, Deepalakshmi (8 November 2019). "Ramjanmabhoomi-Babri Masjid title dispute: The story so far". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
- Oct 21, PTI | Updated; 2019; Ist, 22:15. "VHP reciprocates Muslims' pro-peace gesture before Ayodhya verdict | India News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 November 2019.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "Hinduism - Hinduism and Islam". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
- Ethirajan, Anbarasan (9 March 2013). "Bangladesh minorities 'terrorised' after mob violence". BBC News.
- Ahmed, Anis (28 February 2013). "Bangladesh Islamist's death sentence sparks deadly riots". Reuters.
- "Hindus Under Attack in Bangladesh". News Bharati. 3 March 2013. Archived from the original on 17 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Bagerhat Hindu Temple Set on Fire". bdnews24.com. 2 March 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013.
- "Jamaat Men Attack Hindus in Noakhali". bdnews24.com. 28 February 2013.
- Friedrichs, Jörg (2018), Hindu–Muslim Relations: What Europe Might Learn from India, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-429-86207-6
- Jain, Meenakshi (2010), Parallel Pathways: Essays on Hindu-Muslim Relations 1707–1857, Konark Publishers, ISBN 9788122007831
- Sikand, Yoginder (2004), Muslims in India Since 1947: Islamic Perspectives on Inter-Faith Relations, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415314862
- Islam in South Asia
- Holt, Peter M. (1977), Peter Malcolm Holt; Ann K. S. Lambton; Bernard Lewis (eds.), The Cambridge History of Islam (New ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521291378
- Khalidi, Omar (2009), Shiping Hua (ed.), Islam and democratization in Asia, Cambria Press, ISBN 978-1604976328
- Metcalf, Barbara D. (2009), Barbara D. Metcalf (ed.), Islam in South Asia in Practice, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691044200
- Communal violence
- Wilkinson, Steven I. (2006), Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521536059
- Reference, Blackwell (1999). "Indian communal massacres (1946–7)". Blackwell Reference. doi:10.1111/b.9780631209379.1999.x. ISBN 9780631209379.
- Markovits, Claude. "India from 1900 to 1947". Mass Violence.Org.
- D'Costa, Bina (2010), Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415565660
- Ghosh, Partha S. (2004), Ranabir Samaddar (ed.), Peace Studies: An Introduction To the Concept, Scope, and Themes, SAGE, ISBN 978-0761996606
- Hussain, Monirul (2009), Sibaji Pratim Basu (ed.), The Fleeing People of South Asia: Selections from Refugee Watch, Anthem, p. 261, ISBN 978-8190583572
- Berglund, Henrik (2011), Galina Lindquist; Don Handelman (eds.), Religion, Politics, and Globalization: Anthropological Approaches, Berghahn, p. 105, ISBN 978-1845457716
- Smith, Glenn (2005), Asvi Warman Adam; Dewi Fortuna Anwar (eds.), Violent Internal Conflicts in Asia Pacific: Histories, Political Economies, and Policies, Yayasan Obor, ISBN 9789794615140
- Pandey, Gyanendra (2005), Routine violence: nations, fragments, histories, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0804752640
- Ghassem-Fachandi, Parvis (2012), Pogrom in Gujarat: Hindu Nationalism and Anti-Muslim Violence in India, Princeton University Press, p. 2, ISBN 978-0691151779
- Metcalf, Barbara (2013), Deana Heath; Chandana Mathur (eds.), Communalism and Globalization in South Asia and its Diaspora, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415857857