Hindu philosophy

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Hindu philosophy refers to a group of philosophies that emerged in ancient India. The mainstream Hindu philosophy includes six systems (ṣaḍdarśana) – Sāṅkhya, Yoga, Nyāya, Vaiśeṣika, Mīmāṃsā and Vedānta.[1] These are also called the āstika (orthodox) philosophical traditions and are those that accept the Vedas as authoritative, important source of knowledge.[2][note 1] Ancient and medieval India was also the source of philosophies that share philosophical concepts but rejected the Vedas, and these have been called nāstika (heterodox or non-orthodox) Indian philosophies.[1][2] Nāstika Indian philosophies include Buddhism, Jainism, Cārvāka, Ājīvika, and others.[4]

Scholars have debated the relationship and differences within āstika philosophies and with nāstika philosophies, starting with the writings of Indologists and Orientalists of the 18th and 19th centuries, which were themselves derived from limited availability of Indian literature and medieval doxographies.[1] The various sibling traditions included in Hindu philosophies are diverse, and they are united by shared history and concepts, same textual resources, similar ontological and soteriological focus, and cosmology.[5][6] While Buddhism and Jainism are considered distinct philosophies and religions, some heterodox traditions such as Cārvāka are often considered as distinct schools within Hindu philosophy.[7][8][9]

Hindu philosophy also includes several sub-schools of theistic philosophies that integrate ideas from two or more of the six orthodox philosophies, such as the realism of the Nyāya, the naturalism of the Vaiśeṣika, the dualism of the Sāṅkhya, the monism and knowledge of Self as essential to liberation of Advaita, the self-discipline of yoga and the asceticism and elements of theistic ideas.[10][11][12] Examples of such schools include Pāśupata Śaiva, Śaiva siddhānta, Pratyabhijña, Raseśvara and Vaiṣṇava.[10][11] Some sub-schools share Tantric ideas with those found in some Buddhist traditions.[13] The ideas of these sub-schools are found in the Puranas and Āgamas.[14][15][16]

Each school of Hindu philosophy has extensive epistemological literature called pramāṇaśāstras,[17][18] as well as theories on metaphysics, axiology and other topics.[19]

Classifications[edit]

Since medieaval times Indian philosophy is divided by Brahmins into āstika and nāstika schools of thought.[20] In the history of Hinduism, the six orthodox schools were in existence by sometime between the start of the Common Era and the Gupta Empire, or about the fourth century.[21] Some scholars have questioned whether the orthodox and heterodox schools classification is sufficient or accurate, given the diversity and evolution of views within each major school of Hindu philosophy, with some sub-schools combining heterodox and orthodox views.[22]

Āstika[edit]

There are six āstika (orthodox) schools of thought.[note 2] Each is called a darśana, and each darśana accepts the Vedas as authoritative and the premise that ātman (soul, eternal self) exists.[2][23] The āstika schools are:

  1. Samkhya, an atheistic and strongly dualist theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter.
  2. Yoga, a school emphasising meditation, contemplation and liberation.
  3. Nyāya or logic, explores sources of knowledge. Nyāya Sūtras.
  4. Vaiśeṣika, an empiricist school of atomism
  5. Mīmāṃsā, an anti-ascetic and anti-mysticist school of orthopraxy
  6. Vedānta, the last segment of knowledge in the Vedas, or jñānakāṇḍa. Vedānta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism in the post-medieval period.

Nāstika[edit]

Schools that do not accept the authority of the Vedas are nāstika philosophies, of which four nāstika (heterodox) schools are prominent:[4]

  1. Cārvāka, a materialism school that accepted free will exists[24][25]
  2. Ājīvika, a materialism school that denied free will exists[26][27]
  3. Buddhism, a philosophy that denies existence of ātman (soul, self)[28] and is based on the teachings and enlightenment of Gautama Buddha
  4. Jainism, a philosophy that accepts the existence of the ātman (soul, self), and is based on the teachings and enlightenment of twenty-four teachers known as tirthankaras, with Rishabha as the first and Mahavira as the twenty-fourth[29]

Other schools[edit]

Besides the major orthodox and non-orthodox schools, there have existed syncretic sub-schools that have combined ideas and introduced new ones of their own. The medieval scholar Madhva Acharya includes the following, along with Buddhism[30] and Jainism,[31] as sub-schools of Hindu philosophy:

The above sub-schools introduced their own ideas while adopting concepts from orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy such as realism of the Nyāya, naturalism of Vaiśeṣika, monism and knowledge of Self (Atman) as essential to liberation of Advaita, sel- discipline of Yoga, asceticism and elements of theistic ideas.[10] Some sub-schools share Tantric ideas with those found in some Buddhist traditions.[13]

Characteristics[edit]

School Samkhya Yoga Nyāya Vaiśeṣika Mīmāṃsā Advaita[N 1] Vishishtadvaita[N 1] Dvaita[N 1] Achintya Bheda Abheda Pashupata Shaiva Siddhanta Kashmir Shaivism Raseśvara Pāṇini Darśana
Classification rationalism,[40][41] dualism, atheism dualism, spiritual practice realism,[42] logic, analytic philosophy naturalism,[43] atomism exegesis, philology, ritualism monism, non-dualism qualified monism, panentheism dualism, theology simultaneous monism and dualism theism, spiritual practice theistic dualism theistic monism, idealism alchemy linguistics, philosophy of language
Philosophers Kapila, Iśvarakṛṣṇa, Vācaspati Miśra, Guṇaratna more.. Patañjali, Yajnavalkya, Vyasa[N 2] Aksapada Gautama, Vātsyāyana, Udayana, Jayanta Bhatta more.. Kanada, Praśastapāda, Śridhara's Nyāyakandalī more.. Jaimini, Kumārila Bhaṭṭa, Prabhākara more.. Gaudapada, Adi Shankara, Madhusudana Saraswati, Vidyaranya more.. Yamunacharya, Ramanuja more.. Madhvacharya, Jayatirtha, Vyasatirtha, Raghavendra Swami Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Six Goswamis of Vrindavana, Visvanatha Chakravarti, Krishnadasa Kaviraja, Baladeva Vidyabhushana, Rupa Goswami, more.. Haradattacharya, Lakulish Haradattacharya, Lakulish Sadyojyoti, Meykandar, Aghorasiva Vasugupta, Abhinavagupta, Jayaratha,Govinda Bhagavat, Sarvajña Rāmeśvara Pāṇini, Bhartṛhari, Kātyāyana
Texts Samkhyapravachana Sutra, Samkhyakarika, Sāṁkhya tattvakaumudī more.. Yoga Sutras, Yoga Yajnavalkya, Samkhya pravacana bhasya Nyāya Sūtras, Nyāya Bhāṣya, Nyāya Vārttika more.. Vaiśeṣika Sūtra, Padārtha dharma saṁgraha, Daśapadārtha śāstra more.. Purva Mimamsa Sutras, Mimamsasutra bhāshyam more.. Brahma Sutras, Prasthanatrayi, Avadhuta Gita, Ashtavakra Gita, Pañcadaśī more.. Siddhitrayam, Sri Bhasya, Vedartha Sangraha AnuVyakhana, Brahma Sutra Bahshya, Sarva Shāstrārtha Sangraha, Tattva prakashika, Nyaya Sudha, Nyayamruta, Tarka Tandava, DwaitaDyumani Bhagavata Purana, Bhagavad Gita, Sat Sandarbhas, Govinda Bhashya, Chaitanya Charitamrita, Gaṇakārikā, Pañchārtha bhāshyadipikā, Rāśikara bhāshya Shaiva Āgama, Śrimat Kiraņ, Rauravatantra, Mrigendra Shiva Sutras of Vasugupta, Tantraloka Rasārṇava, Rasahṛidaya, Raseśvara siddhānta Vākyapadīya, Mahabhashya, Vārttikakāra
Concepts Originated Purusha, Prakṛti, Guṇa, Satkāryavāda Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dhāraṇā, Dhyana, Samadhi Pratyakṣa, Anumāna, Upamāna, Anyathakyati vada, Niḥśreyasa more.. Padārtha, Dravya, Sāmānya, Viśeṣa, Samavāya, Paramāṇu Apauruṣeyātva, Arthāpatti, Anuapalabdhi, Satahprāmāṇya vāda Jivanmukta, Mahāvākyas, Sādhana Chatuṣṭaya, three orders of reality, Vivartavada Hita, Antarvyāpi, Bahuvyāpi more.. Prapacha, Mukti-yogyas, Nitya-samsarins, Tamo-yogyas Sambandha, Abhidheya, Prayojana (Relationship, Process, Ultimate Goal) Pashupati, eight pentads Charya, Mantramārga, Rodha Śakti Citi, Mala, Upaya, Anuttara, Aham, Svatantrya Pārada, three modes of mercury Sphoṭa, Ashtadhyayi
  1. ^ a b c Advaita, Vishishtadvaita and Dvaita have evolved from an older Vedanta school and all of them accept Upanishads and Brahma Sutras as standard texts.
  2. ^ Vyasa wrote a commentary on the Yoga Sutras called Samkhyapravacanabhasya.(Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 344.)

Overview[edit]

Epistemology[edit]

Main article: Pramana

Epistemology is called pramāṇa.[44] It is a key, much debated field of study in Hinduism since ancient times. Pramāṇa is a Hindu theory of knowledge and discusses means by which human beings gain accurate knowledge.[44] The focus of pramāṇa is how correct knowledge can be acquired, how one knows, how one doesn't, and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired.[17]

Ancient and medieval Hindu texts identify six pramāṇas as correct means of accurate knowledge and truths: pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), arthāpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances), anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts)[45] Each of these are further categorized in terms of conditionality, completeness, confidence and possibility of error, by each school . The various schools vary on how many of these six are valid paths of knowledge.[18] For example, the Cārvāka nāstika philosophy holds that only one (perception) is an epistemically reliable means of knowledge,[46] the Samkhya school holds three are (perception, inference and testimony),[46] while the Mīmāṃsā and Advaita schools hold all six are epistemically useful and reliable means to knowledge.[46][47]

Samkhya[edit]

Main article: Samkhya

Samkhya is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical systems in Hinduism,[48] with origins in the 1st millennium BCE.[49] It is a rationalist school of Indian philosophy,[40] and had a strong influence on other schools of Indian philosophies.[50] Sāmkhya is an enumerationist philosophy whose epistemology accepted three of six Pramanas as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge. These included Pratyakṣa (perception), Anumāṇa (inference) and Sabda (Āptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).[51][46]

Samkhya school espouses dualism between consciousness and matter.[52] It regards the universe as consisting of two realities; Puruṣa (consciousness) and prakriti (matter). Jiva (a living being) is that state in which puruṣa is bonded to prakriti in some form.[53] This fusion, state the Samkhya scholars, led to the emergence of buddhi (awareness, intellect) and ahankara (individualized ego consciousness, “I-maker”). The universe is described by this school as one created by Purusa-Prakriti entities infused with various permutations and combinations of variously enumerated elements, senses, feelings, activity and mind.[53]

Samkhya philosophy includes a theory of gunas (qualities, innate tendencies, psyche).[54] Guna, it states, are of three types: Sattva being good, compassionate, illuminating, positive, and constructive; Rajas guna is one of activity, chaotic, passion, impulsive, potentially good or bad; and Tamas being the quality of darkness, ignorance, destructive, lethargic, negative. Everything, all life forms and human beings, state Samkhya scholars, have these three gunas, but in different proportions.[55] The interplay of these gunas defines the character of someone or something, of nature and determines the progress of life.[56][57] Samkhya theorises a pluralism of souls (Jeevatmas) who possess consciousness, but denies the existence of Ishvara (God).[58] Classical Samkhya is considered an atheist / non-theistic Hindu philosophy.[59][60][61]

Samkhya karika, one of the key texts of this school of Hindu philosophy, opens by stating its goal to be "three[62] kinds of human suffering" and means to prevent it.[63] The text then presents a distillation of its theories on epistemology, metaphysics, axiology and soteriology. For example, it states,

From the triad of suffering, arises this inquiry into the means of preventing it.
That is useless - if you say so, I say: No, because suffering is not absolute and final. – Verse 1

The Guṇas (qualities) respectively consist in pleasure, pain and dullness, are adapted to manifestation, activity and restraint; mutually domineer, rest on each other, produce each other, consort together, and are reciprocally present. – Verse 12
Goodness is considered to be alleviating and enlightening; foulness, urgent and persisting; darkness, heavy and enveloping. Like a lamp, they cooperate for a purpose by union of contraries. – Verse 13

There is a general cause, which is diffuse. It operates by means of the three qualities, by mixture, by modification; for different objects are diversified by influence of the several qualities respectively. – Verse 16
Since the assemblage of perceivable objects is for use (by man); Since the converse of that which has the three qualities with other properties must exist (in man); Since there must be superintendence (within man); Since there must be some entity that enjoys (within man); Since there is a tendency to abstraction (in man), therefore soul is. – Verse 17

—Samkhya karika, [63][64]

The soteriology in Samkhya aims at the realization of Puruṣa as distinct from Prakriti, this knowledge of the Self is held to end transmigration and lead to absolute freedom (kaivalya).[65]

Yoga[edit]

Main article: Yoga (philosophy)

In Indian philosophy, Yoga is among other things, the name of one of the six āstika philosophical schools.[66] The Yoga philosophical system is closely allied with the dualism premises of Samkhya school.[67][68] The Yoga school accepts the Samkhya psychology and metaphysics, but is considered theistic because it accepts the concept of "personal god", unlike Samkhya.[69][70][71] The epistemology of the Yoga school, like the Sāmkhya school, relies on three of six prāmaṇas as the means of gaining reliable knowledge:[46] pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference) and śabda (āptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).[47][46]

The universe is conceptualized as a duality in Yoga school: puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter); however, the Yoga school discusses this concept more generically as "seer, experiencer" and "seen, experienced" than the Samkhya school.[72]

A key text of the Yoga school is the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. Patanjali may have been, as Max Müller explains, "the author or representative of the Yoga-philosophy without being necessarily the author of the Sutras."[73] Hindu philosophy recognizes many types of Yoga, such as rāja yoga, jnana yoga,[74] karma yoga, bhakti yoga, tantra yoga, mantra yoga, laya yoga, and hatha yoga.[75]

The Yoga school builds on the Samkhya school theory that jñāna (knowledge) is a sufficient means to moksha. It suggests that systematic techniques/practice (personal experimentation) combined with Samkhya's approach to knowledge is the path to moksha.[67] Yoga shares several central ideas with Advaita Vedanta, with the difference that Yoga is a form of experimental mysticism while Advaita Vedanta is a form of monistic personalism.[76][77][78] Like Advaita Vedanta, the Yoga school of Hindu philosophy states that liberation/freedom in this life is achievable, and this occurs when an individual fully understands and realizes the equivalence of Atman (soul, self) and Brahman.[79][80]

Vaiśeṣika[edit]

Main article: Vaisheshika

The Vaiśeṣika philosophy is a naturalist school;[43] it is a form of atomism in natural philosophy.[81] It postulated that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to paramāṇu (atoms), and one's experiences are derived from the interplay of substance (a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements), quality, activity, commonness, particularity and inherence.[82] Knowledge and liberation was achievable by complete understanding of the world of experience, according to Vaiśeṣika school .[82] The Vaiśeṣika darśana is credited to Kaṇāda Kaśyapa from the second half of the first millennium BCE.[82][83] The foundational text, the Vaiśeṣika Sūtra, opens as follows,

Dharma is that from which results the accomplishment of Exaltation and of the Supreme Good. The authoritativeness of the Veda arises from its being an exposition of dharma. The Supreme Good results from knowledge, produced from a particular dharma, of the essence of the Predicables, Substance, Attribute, Action, Genus, Species and Combination, by means of their resemblances and differences.

—Vaiśeṣika Sūtra 1.1.1-1.1.4, [84]

The Vaiśeṣika school is related to the Nyāya school but features differences in its epistemology, metaphysics and ontology.[85] The epistemology of the Vaiśeṣika school, like Buddhism, accepted only two reliable means to knowledge - perception and inference.[86][87] The Vaiśeṣika school and Buddhism both consider their respective scriptures as indisputable and valid means to knowledge, the difference being that the scriptures held to be a valid and reliable source by Vaiśeṣikas were the Vedas.[86][88]

Vaiśeṣika metaphysical premises are founded on a form of atomism, that the reality is composed of four substances (earth, water, air, fire). Each of these four are of two types:[81] atomic (paramāṇu) and composite. An atom is, according to Vaiśeṣika scholars, that which is indestructible (anitya), indivisible, and has a special kind of dimension, called “small” (aṇu). A composite, in this philosophy, is defined to be anything which is divisible into atoms. Whatever human beings perceive is composite, while atoms are invisible.[81] The Vaiśeṣikas stated that size, form, truths and everything that human beings experience as a whole is a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements, their guṇa (quality), karma (activity), sāmānya (commonness), viśeṣa (particularity) and amavāya (inherence, inseparable connectedness of everything).[82][89]

Nyāya[edit]

Main article: Nyāya

The Nyāya school is a realist āstika philosophy.[90][91] This school's most significant contributions to Indian philosophy was systematic development of the theory of logic, methodology, and its treatises on epistemology.[92][93] The foundational text of Nyāya school is the Nyāya Sūtras of the first millennium BCE. It is credited to Aksapada Gautama and variously dated to have been composed somewhere from the sixth century to the second century BCE.[94][83]

Nyāya epistemology accepts four out of six prāmaṇas as reliable means of gaining knowledge – pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy) and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).[46][95][45]

In its metaphysics, Nyāya school is closer to the Vaiśeṣika school than others.[90] It holds that human suffering results from mistakes/defects produced by activity under wrong knowledge (notions and ignorance).[96] Moksha (liberation), it states, is gained through right knowledge. This premise led Nyāya to concern itself with epistemology, that is the reliable means to gain correct knowledge and to remove wrong notions. False knowledge is not merely ignorance to Naiyayikas, it includes delusion. Correct knowledge is discovering and overcoming one's delusions, and understanding true nature of soul, self and reality.[97] The Nyāya Sūtras begin:

Perception, Inference, Comparison and Word – these are the means of right knowledge.
Perception is that knowledge which arises from the contact of a sense with its object and which is determinate, unnameable and non-erratic.
Inference is knowledge which is preceded by perception, and is of three kinds: a priori, a posteriori, and commonly seen.
Comparison is the knowledge of a thing through its similarity to another thing previously well known.
Word is the instructive assertion of a reliable person.
It [knowledge] is of two kinds: that which is seen, and that which is not seen.
Soul, body, senses, objects of senses, intellect, mind, activity, fault, transmigration, fruit, suffering and release – are the objects of right knowledge.

—Nyāya Sūtras 1.1.3-1.1.9, [98]

Mīmāṃsā[edit]

Main article: Mīmāṃsā

The Mīmāṃsā school emphasized hermeneutics and exegesis.[99][100] It is a form of philosophical realism.[101] Key texts of the Mīmāṃsā school are the Purva Mimamsa Sutras of Jaimini.[102][103] The classical Mīmāṃsā school is sometimes referred to as pūrvamīmāṃsā or Karmamīmāṃsā in reference to the first part of the Vedas.[102]

The Mīmāṃsā school has several subschools defined by epistemology. The Prābhākara subschool of Mīmāṃsā considered five epistemically reliable means to gaining knowledge: pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), arthāpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances), and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).[95][45] The Kumārila Bhaṭṭa sub-school of Mīmāṃsā added sixth to its canon of reliable epistemology - anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof).[46]

The metaphysics in Mīmāṃsā school consists of both atheistic and theistic doctrines and the school showed little interest in systematic examination of the existence of God. Rather, it held that the soul is eternal omnipresent, inherently active spiritual essence, then focussed on the epistemology and metaphysics of dharma.[102][104][105] To them, dharma meant rituals and duties, not devas (gods), because devas existed only in name.[102] The Mīmāṃsākas held that the Vedas are "eternal authorless infallible", that Vedic vidhi (injunctions) and mantras in rituals are prescriptive karya (actions), and the rituals are of primary importance and merit. They considered the Upanishads and other self-knowledge, spirituality-related texts to be of secondary importance, a philosophical view that the Vedanta school disagreed with.[99][102]

Mīmāṃsā gave rise to the study of philology and the philosophy of language.[106] While their deep analysis of language and linguistics influenced other schools ,[107] their views were not shared by others. Mīmāṃsākas considered the purpose and power of language was to clearly prescribe the proper, correct and right. In contrast, Vedantins extended the scope and value of language as a tool to also describe, develop and derive.[102] Mīmāṃsākas considered orderly, law-driven, procedural life as central purpose and noblest necessity of dharma and society, and divine (theistic) sustenance means to that end. The Mimamsa school was influential and foundational to the Vedanta school , with the difference that Mīmāṃsā school developed and emphasized karmakāṇḍa (that part of the śruti which relates to ceremonial acts and sacrificial rites, the early parts of the Vedas), while the Vedanta school developed and emphasized jñānakāṇḍa (that portion of the Vedas which relates to knowledge of monism, the latter parts of the Vedas).[99]

Vedānta[edit]

The Vedānta school built upon the teachings of the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras from the first millennium BCE[83][108] and is the most developed and well-known of the Hindu schools. The epistemology of the Vedantins included, depending on the sub-school, five or six methods as proper and reliable means of gaining any form of knowledge:[88] pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), arthāpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances), anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).[86][46][45] Each of these have been further categorized in terms of conditionality, completeness, confidence and possibility of error, by each sub-school of Vedanta.[88]

The emergence of Vedanta school represented a period when a more knowledge-centered understanding began to emerge. These focussed on jnana (knowledge) driven aspects of the Vedic religion and the Upanishads. This included metaphysical concepts such as ātman and Brahman, and emphasized meditation, self-discipline, self-knowledge and abstract spirituality, rather than ritualism. The Upanishads were variously interpreted by ancient and medieval era Vedanta scholars. Consequently, the Vedanta separated into many sub-schools, ranging from theistic dualism to non-theistic monism, each interpreting the texts in its own way and producing its own series of sub-commentaries.[109][110]

Advaita[edit]

Main article: Advaita Vedanta

Advaita literally means "not two, sole, unity". It is a sub-school of Vedanta, and asserts spiritual and universal non-dualism.[111][112] Its metaphysics is a form of absolute monism, that is all ultimate reality is interconnected oneness.[113][114] This is the oldest and most widely acknowledged Vedantic school. The foundational texts of this school are the Brahma Sutras and the early Upanishads from the 1st millennium BCE.[113] Its first great consolidator was the 8th century scholar Adi Shankara, who continued the line of thought of the Upanishadic teachers, and that of his teacher's teacher Gaudapada. He wrote extensive commentaries on the major Vedantic scriptures and is celebrated as one of the major Hindu philosophers from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived.[115]

According to this school of Vedanta, all reality is Brahman, and there exists nothing whatsoever which is not Brahman.[116] Its metaphysics includes the concept of māyā and ātman. Māyā connotes "that which exists, but is constantly changing and thus is spiritually unreal".[117] The empirical reality is considered as always changing and therefore "transitory, incomplete, misleading and not what it appears to be".[118][119][120] The concept of ātman is of soul, self within each person, each living being. Advaita Vedantins assert that ātman is same as Brahman, and this Brahman is within each human being and all life, all living beings are spiritually interconnected, and there is oneness in all of existence.[121][122] They hold that dualities and misunderstanding of māyā as the spiritual reality that matters is caused by ignorance, and are the cause of sorrow, suffering. Jīvanmukti (liberation during life) can be achieved through Self-knowledge, the understanding that ātman within is same as ātman in another person and all of Brahman – the eternal, unchanging, entirety of cosmic principles and true reality.[123][122]

Ciśiṣṭādvaita[edit]

Main article: Vishishtadvaita

Ramanuja(c. 1037–1137) was the foremost proponent of the philosophy of Viśiṣṭādvaita or qualified non-dualism. Viśiṣṭādvaita advocated the concept of a Supreme Being with essential qualities or attributes. Viśiṣṭādvaitins argued against the Advaitin conception of Brahman as an impersonal empty oneness. They saw Brahman as an eternal oneness, but also as the source of all creation, which was omnipresent and actively involved in existence. To them the sense of subject-object perception was illusory and a sign of ignorance. However, the individual's sense of self was not a complete illusion since it was derived from the universal beingness that is Brahman.[124] Ramanuja saw Vishnu as a personification of Brahman.

Dvaita[edit]

Dvaita Vedanta (dualistic conclusions of the Vedas) was founded by Madhvacharya (c. 1238–1317 CE). It espouses dualism by theorising the existence of two separate realities. The first and the more important reality is that of Brahman (as Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti, or any henotheistic equivalent deity). Vishnu is the supreme Self, God, the absolute truth of the universe, the independent reality. The second reality is that of dependent but equally real universe that exists with its own separate essence. Everything that is composed of the second reality, such as individual soul (Jiva), matter, etc. exist with their own separate reality. The distinguishing factor of this philosophy as opposed to Advaita Vedanta (a monistic conclusion of Vedas) is that God in Dvaita school is distinct and separate, takes on a role and is seen as a real eternal entity that governs and controls the universe.[125]

Five further distinctions are made— (1) Brahman is distinct from souls; (2) Brahman is distinct from matter; (3) Souls are distinct from matter; (4) A soul is distinct from another soul, and (5) Matter is distinct from other matter. Souls are eternal and are dependent upon the will of Brahman. This theology attempts to address the problem of evil with the idea that souls are not created. Because the existence of individuals is grounded in the divine, they are depicted as reflections, images or even shadows of the divine, but never in any way identical with the divine. Salvation therefore is described as the realisation that all finite reality is essentially dependent on the Supreme.[126]

Dvaitādvaita (Bhedabheda)[edit]

Dvaitādvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a 13th-century Vaishnava Philosopher from the Andhra region. According to this philosophy there are three categories of existence: Brahman, soul, and matter. Soul and matter are different from Brahman in that they have attributes and capacities different from Brahman. Brahman exists independently, while soul and matter are dependent. Thus soul and matter have an existence that is separate yet dependent. Further, Brahman is a controller, the soul is the enjoyer, and matter the thing enjoyed. Also, the highest object of worship is Krishna and his consort Radha, attended by thousands of gopis; of the Vrindavan; and devotion consists in self-surrender.

Śuddhādvaita[edit]

Śuddhādvaita is the "purely non-dual" philosophy propounded by Vallabha Acharya (1479–1531). The founding philosopher was also the guru of the Vallabhā sampradāya ("tradition of Vallabh") or Puṣṭimārga, a Vaishnava tradition focused on the worship of Krishna.

Acintya Bheda Abheda[edit]

Main article: Achintya Bheda Abheda

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534), stated that the soul or energy of God is both distinct and non-distinct from God, whom he identified as Krishna, Govinda, and that this, although unthinkable, may be experienced through a process of loving devotion (bhakti). He followed the Dvaita concept of Madhvacharya.[127] This philosophy of "inconceivable oneness and difference".

Cārvāka[edit]

Main article: Charvaka

The Cārvāka school is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" philosophies .[128][8][129] It rejects supernaturalism, emphasizes materialism and philosophical skepticism, holding empiricism, perception and conditional inference as the proper source of knowledge[130][131] Cārvāka is an atheistic school of thought.[132] It holds that there is neither afterlife nor rebirth, all existence is mere combination of atoms and substances, feelings and mind are an epiphenomenon, and free will exists.[24]<[25]

Bṛhaspati is sometimes referred to as the founder of Cārvāka (also called Lokayata) philosophy. Much of the primary literature of Carvaka, the Barhaspatya sutras (ca. 600 BCE), however, are missing or lost.[132][133] Its theories and development has been compiled from historic secondary literature such as those found in the shastras, sutras and the Indian epic poetry as well as from the texts of Buddhism and from Jain literature.[132][134][135]

One of the widely studied principles of Cārvāka philosophy was its rejection of inference as a means to establish valid, universal knowledge, and metaphysical truths.[136] In other words, the Cārvāka epistemology states that whenever one infers a truth from a set of observations or truths, one must acknowledge doubt; inferred knowledge is conditional.[137]

Shaivism[edit]

Early history of Shaivism is difficult to determine.[138] However, the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad (400 – 200 BCE)[139] is considered to be the earliest textual exposition of a systematic philosophy of Shaivism.[140] Shaivism is represented by various philosophical schools, including non-dualist (abheda), dualist (bheda), and non-dualist-with-dualist (bhedābheda) perspectives. Vidyaranya in his works mentions three major schools of Shaiva thought— Pashupata Shaivism, Shaiva Siddhanta and Pratyabhijña (Kashmir Shaivism).[141]

Pāśupata Shaivism[edit]

Pāśupata Shaivism (Pāśupata, "of Paśupati") is the oldest of the major Shaiva schools.[142] The philosophy of Pashupata sect was systematized by Lakulish in the 2nd century CE. Paśu in Paśupati refers to the effect (or created world), the word designates that which is dependent on something ulterior. Whereas, Pati means the cause (or principium), the word designates the Lord, who is the cause of the universe, the pati, or the ruler.[143] Pashupatas disapproved of Vaishnava theology, known for its doctrine servitude of souls to the Supreme Being, on the grounds that dependence upon anything could not be the means of cessation of pain and other desired ends. They recognised that those depending upon another and longing for independence will not be emancipated because they still depend upon something other than themselves. According to Pāśupatas, soul possesses the attributes of the Supreme Deity when it becomes liberated from the 'germ of every pain'.[144]

Pāśupatas divided the created world into the insentient and the sentient. The insentient was the unconscious and thus dependent on the sentient or conscious. The insentient was further divided into effects and causes. The effects were of ten kinds, the earth, four elements and their qualities, colour etc. The causes were of thirteen kinds, the five organs of cognition, the five organs of action, the three internal organs, intellect, the ego principle and the cognising principle. These insentient causes were held responsible for the illusive identification of Self with non-Self. Salvation in Pāśupata involved the union of the soul with God through the intellect.[145]

Shaiva Siddhanta[edit]

Considered normative Tantric Shaivism, Shaiva Siddhanta[146][147] provides the normative rites, cosmology and theological categories of Tantric Shaivism.[148] Being a dualistic philosophy, the goal of Shaiva Siddhanta is to become an ontologically distinct Shiva (through Shiva's grace).[149] This tradition later merged with the Tamil Saiva movement and expression of concepts of Shaiva Siddhanta can be seen in the bhakti poetry of the Nayanars.[150]

Kashmir Shaivism[edit]

Kashmir Shaivism arose during the eighth[151] or ninth century CE[152] in Kashmir and made significant strides, both philosophical and theological, until the end of the twelfth century CE.[153] It is categorised by various scholars as monistic[154] idealism (absolute idealism, theistic monism, realistic idealism,[155] transcendental physicalism or concrete monism[155]). It is a school of Śaivism consisting of Trika and its philosophical articulation Pratyabhijña.[156]

Even though, both Kashmir Shaivism and Advaita Vedanta are non-dual philosophies which give primacy to Universal Consciousness (Chit or Brahman),[157] in Kashmir Shavisim, as opposed to Advaita, all things are a manifestation of this Consciousness.[158] This implies that from the point of view of Kashmir Shavisim, the phenomenal world (Śakti) is real, and it exists and has its being in Consciousness (Chit).[159] Whereas, Advaita holds that Brahman is inactive (niṣkriya) and the phenomenal world is an illusion (māyā).[160] The objective of human life, according to Kashmir Shaivism, is to merge in Shiva or Universal Consciousness, or to realize one's already existing identity with Shiva, by means of wisdom, yoga and grace.[161]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ M Chadha (2015), in The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy of Religion, states that Vedas were knowledge source but interpreted differently by different schools of Hindu philosophy: "The sacred texts of the Hindus, the Vedas, are variously interpreted by the six traditional Hindu philosophical schools. Even within a single school, philosophers disagree on the import of Vedic statements. (...) Hindu intellectual traditions must be understood as standing for the collection of philosophical views that share a textual connection. There is no single, comprehensive philosophical doctrine shared by all intellectual traditions in Hinduism that distinguishes their view from other Indian religions such as Buddhism or Jainism on issues of epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics or cosmology. The Vedas are regarded as Apauruseya, but by the same token, they are not the Word of God either.[3]
  2. ^ For an overview of the six orthodox schools, with detail on the grouping of schools, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, "Contents", and pp. 453–487.

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Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli; and Moore, Charles A. A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. Princeton University Press; 1957. Princeton paperback 12th edition, 1989. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.
  • Rambachan, Anantanand. "The Advaita Worldview: God, World and Humanity." 2006.
  • Zilberman, David B., The Birth of Meaning in Hindu Thought. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland, 1988. ISBN 90-277-2497-0. Chapter 1. "Hindu Systems of Thought as Epistemic Disciplines".

External links[edit]