Hinduism by country

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Percentage of Hindus by country, according to the Pew Research Center.

Hinduism has approximately 1.2 billion adherents worldwide (15% of world's population). Nepal (81.3%) and India (79.8%) are countries with Hindus being the majority of their respective populations. Along with Christianity (31.5%) and Islam (23.2%), Hinduism is one of the three major religions of the world by percentage of population. Hinduism is the third largest religion in the world after Christianity and Islam.[1]

Presently, India and Nepal are the two Hindu majority countries. Most Hindus are found in Asian countries. The countries with more than 5,000 Hindu residents and citizens include (in decreasing order) – India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia (especially in Bali, which is 84% Hindu), Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, United States, Myanmar, Thailand, United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, Mauritius, and the Caribbean (West Indies).

There are significant numbers of Hindu enclaves around the world, with many in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Hinduism is also practised by the non-Indic people like Balinese of Bali island (Indonesia), Tengger and Osing of Java (Indonesia) and Balamon Chams of Vietnam, Ghanaian Hindus in Ghana, Chinese Malaysians and Orang Asli of Malaysia.

Background[edit]

Hinduism is a heterogeneous religion and consists of many schools of thought. Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralised religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s); Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, monotheistic, pantheistic, monistic, agnostic, humanist or atheistic.[2] Estimates of Hinduism by country reflects this diversity of thought and way of life.

Demographic estimates[edit]

Demographic estimates of Hindu population by country has been published by the Pew Research Center in 2012,[3] as well as US State Department's International Religious Freedom Report 2006.[4]

By total number, India has the most Hindus. With percentage, Nepal has the largest percentage of Hindu population in the world followed by India and Mauritius.[5] There are an estimated 60 to 70 million Hindus who lived outside India in 2010.[3] Only two countries in the world, in 2010, had a majority of its population as Hindus – Nepal and India.[citation needed] In Mauritius, Hindus comprise a slight majority of the population at 51.9% in 2017. Fiji, Bhutan, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Sri Lanka have very large and influential Hindu minorities.

By country[edit]

Sources used for the table below include the US State Department,[4] the CIA World Factbook[6] adherents.com,[7] Pew Research Center.[8][9] and as identified.[In many cases the figures don't agree, i.e. the total population multiplied by the percentage doesn't give the Hindu population.]

Hinduism by country
Region Country Percentage Total population Hindu total Census year
South Asia Afghanistan Afghanistan 0.4%[10][11] 31,889,923 120,000 (est) 2017
Western Europe Andorra Andorra 0.4%[12] 60,000 300 - 400 >2012
Caribbean Anguilla Anguilla 0.43%[13] 13,452 50 - 60 -NA-
Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 0.4%[14] 81,799 379 -NA-
South America Argentina Argentina 0.01%[15] 40,301,927 4,000+ -NA-
Oceania Australia Australia 1.9%[16] 23,401,400 440,300 2016
Central Europe Austria Austria 0.1% [17] 8,900,000 11,000
Middle East Bahrain Bahrain <1%–9.8%[18][note 1] 708,573 7,000 – 144,286[note 1]
South Asia Bangladesh Bangladesh 8.54%[21] 167,000,000 14,300,000 2011
Caribbean Barbados Barbados 0.46%[22] 226,193 1055
Western Europe Belgium Belgium 0.06%[23] 10,392,226 6,235
Central America and Caribbean Belize Belize 0.2%[24] 294,385 612
South Asia Bhutan Bhutan 22.6%[25]-25%[26][27] 742,737 185,700
Southern Africa Botswana Botswana 0.3%[28] 1372675 3,353
South America Brazil Brazil 0.0029%[29]-0.01% 192,755,799 5,675-9500
Southeast Asia Brunei Brunei 0.035%[30] 374,577 131
West Africa Burkina Faso Burkina Faso 0.001%[citation needed] 14,326,203 150
Central Africa Burundi Burundi 0.1%[31][32] 8,390,505 8,391
Southeast Asia Cambodia Cambodia 0.3%[33][34] 13,995,904 41,988
North America Canada Canada 1.45%[35][36] 33,390,141 497,965 2011
Central Europe Czech Republic Czech Republic 0.023%[37] 10,436,560 2,404
South America Colombia Colombia 0.02%[38] 44,379,598 8,876
East Africa Comoros Comoros 0.1%(approx)
[citation needed]
711,417 711
Central Africa Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo (Kinshasa) 0.18%[9] 65,751,512 30,000[9]
Balkans Croatia Croatia 0.01% (approx)[39] 4,493,312 449
North America Cuba Cuba 0.21%[40] 11,394,043 23,927
West Africa Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire 0.1%[41][42] 18,013,409 18,013
Western Europe Denmark Denmark 0.1%[43][44] 5,468,120 5,468
East Africa Djibouti Djibouti 0.02%[45] 496,374 99
Caribbean Dominica Dominica 0.2%[46] 72,386 145
East Africa Eritrea Eritrea 0.1% (approx)[47] 4,906,585 4,907
Eastern Europe Estonia Estonia 0.027% [48] 1,094,564 295
Oceania Fiji Fiji 27.9%[49][50] 935,974 261,136
Western Europe Finland Finland 0.1%[51] 5,238,460 5,000
Western Europe France France 0.1%[52][53] 63,718,187 63,718
Eastern Europe Georgia (country) Georgia 0.01% (approx)[54] 4,646,003 465
Western Europe Germany Germany 0.12%[55] 81,800,000 100,000
West Africa Ghana Ghana 0.05% (approx)[56] 22,931,299 11,466
Western Europe Gibraltar Gibraltar 2.0% [57] 32,194 628
Caribbean Grenada Grenada 0.7%[58] 89,971 630
Caribbean Guadeloupe Guadeloupe 0.5%[59] 460,000 2,300
South America and Caribbean Guyana Guyana 24.83%[60] 769,095 190,966
Central Europe Hungary Hungary 0.02% 9,956,108 1,767[61]
South Asia India India 79.8% [62][63][64] 1,320,000,000 1,053,000,000 (2011 Census)
Southeast Asia Indonesia Indonesia 1.69%[65][66][67] 259,000,000 4,400,000-10,000,000
[citation needed][note 2]
Middle East Iran Iran <0.1[9] 65,397,521 20,000[9]
Western Europe Republic of Ireland Ireland 0.30%[71] 4,761,865 14,300 2016
Middle East Israel Israel 0.1% (approx)[72] 6,426,679 6,427
Western Europe Italy Italy 0.2% (approx)[73] 60,418,000 108,950
Caribbean Jamaica Jamaica 0.07%[74] 2,780,132 1,836
East Asia Japan Japan <0.1[9] 127,433,494 30,000[9]
East Africa Kenya Kenya 0.1%[9] 37,000,000 60,000[9]
East Asia South Korea Korea, South 0.015% (approx) 49,044,790 12,452
Middle East Kuwait Kuwait 12%[75] 2,505,559 300,667[note 3]
Eastern Europe Latvia Latvia 0.012%[77] 1,481,823 179
Middle East Lebanon Lebanon 0.1% (approx)[78] 4,925,502 4,926
Eastern Europe Lithuania Lithuania 0.01% [79] 2,561,000 344
Southern Africa Lesotho Lesotho 0.1% (approx)[80][81] 2,125,262 2,125
West Africa Liberia Liberia 0.1% (approx)[82] 3,195,931 3,196
North Africa Libya Libya 0.1%[83][84] 6,036,914 6,037
Western Europe Luxembourg Luxembourg 0.07% (approx)[85] 480,222 336
Southern Africa Madagascar Madagascar 0.1%[86][87] 19,448,815 19,449
Southern Africa Malawi Malawi 0.02%[88] – 0.2%[89] 13,603,181 2,721 – 2,726
Southeast Asia Malaysia Malaysia 6.3%[90][91] 30,949,962 1,949,850
Caribbean Martinique Martinique 0.3%[92] 439202 1317
South Asia Maldives Maldives 0.01%[93] 369,031 37
Southern Africa Mauritius Mauritius 48.5%[94][95] 1,236,817 600,327 2011
Eastern Europe Moldova Moldova 0.01% (approx)[96] 3,200,000 433
Southern Africa Mozambique Mozambique 0.05%[97] – 0.2%[98] 20,905,585 10,453 – 41,811
Southeast Asia Myanmar Myanmar 0.5%[99] 50,279,900[99] 252,763[99]
South Asia Nepal Nepal 81.3%[100][101] 28,901,790 23,500,000 2011
Western Europe Netherlands Netherlands 0.58%[102] – 1.20%[103] 16,570,613 96,110 – 200,000
Oceania New Zealand New Zealand 2.1%[104] 4,115,771 90,158
Western Europe Norway Norway 0.5% 4,627,926 23,140
Middle East Oman Oman 3%[105] – 5.7%[106] 3,204,897 96,147 – 182,679
South Asia Pakistan Pakistan 1.85%[107] 196,000,000 3,626,000 2011
Central America Panama Panama 0.3%[108][109] 3,242,173 9,726
Southeast Asia Philippines Philippines <0.1% [9] 102,000,000[110] 10,000[9]
Western Europe Portugal Portugal 0.07% 10,642,836 7,396
Central Europe Poland Poland 0.008%[111] 30,575,000 2421
Caribbean Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 0.09%[112] 3,944,259 3,550
Middle East Qatar Qatar 13.8%[113] 2,471,919[114] 358,800
East Africa Réunion Réunion 6.7%[115] 827,000 55,409
Eastern Europe Russia Russia 0.1%[116] 141,377,752 143,000
Oceania Samoa Samoa 0.02% (approx) 187,429 38
Middle East Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 0.6%[117] – 1.1%[118] 27,601,038 303,611[note 4]
East Africa Seychelles Seychelles 2.1%[9]-2.4%[120] 90,945 1,910
West Africa Sierra Leone Sierra Leone 0.04%[121] – 0.1%[122] 6,144,562 2,458 – 6,145
Southeast Asia Singapore Singapore 5.0%[123][124] 5,600,000 280,000 2011
Central Europe Slovakia Slovakia 0.1% (approx)
[citation needed]
5,447,502 5,448
Central Europe Slovenia Slovenia 0.025% (approx)
[citation needed]
2,009,245 500
Southern Africa South Africa South Africa 0.9%[125]-1.1%[9] 49,991,300 505,000
South Asia Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 12.6%[126] 21,200,000 2,671,000 2011
South America and Caribbean Suriname Suriname 22.3%[127] – 27.4%[128] 470,784 120,623 – 128,995
Southern Africa Eswatini Swaziland 0.15%[129] – 0.2%[130] 1,133,066 1,700 – 2,266
Western Europe Sweden Sweden 0.078% – 0.12%[131] 9,031,088 7,044 – 10,837
Western Europe Switzerland Switzerland 0.38%[132][133]-0.6%[134] 7,554,661 28,708-50,000[135][136]
East Africa Tanzania Tanzania 0.11%[137] 39,384,223 50,000[137]
Caribbean Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 18.2%[138][139][140] 1,056,608 240,100 2011
Southeast Asia Thailand Thailand 0.1%[141] 65,068,149 65,000
Oceania Tonga Tonga 0.1%[142] 103,043 100
Eastern Europe Ukraine Ukraine 0.1%[143] 42,386,400 42,386
East Africa Uganda Uganda 0.2%[144] 30,262,610 43,557
Middle East United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 5%[145] 9,682,000 490,000[note 5]
Western Europe United Kingdom United Kingdom 1.7%[147][148] 60,776,238 1,020,000 2017
North America United States United States 0.7%[149] 322,000,000 2,300,000 2015
Caribbean United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands 1.9%[150] 28,054 528
Central Asia Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 0.01% (approx)
[citation needed]
27,780,059 2,778
Southeast Asia Vietnam Vietnam 0.07% 85,262,356 70,000
Middle East Yemen Yemen 0.7%[151] 22,230,531 155,614
Southern Africa Zambia Zambia 0.14%[152][153] 11,477,447 16,068
Southern Africa Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 0.02% 12,311,143 3,000
Total 16 7,500,000,000 1,100,000,000 - 1,120,000,000

By region[edit]

These percentages were calculated by using the above numbers. The first percentage, 4th column, is the percentage of population that is Hindu in a region (Hindus in the region * 100/total population of the region). The last column shows the Hindu percentage compared to the total Hindu population of the world (Hindus in the region * 100/total Hindu population of the world).

(Note: Egypt, Sudan, and other Arab Maghreb countries are counted as part of North Africa, not Middle East).

Hinduism in Africa
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Central Africa 193,121,055 0[citation needed] 0% 0%
East Africa 193,741,900 667,694 0.345% 0.071%
North Africa 202,151,323 5,765 0.003% 0.001%
Southern Africa 137,092,019 1,269,844 0.926% 0.135%
West Africa 268,997,245 70,402 0.026% 0.007%
Total 885,103,542 2,013,705 0.225% 0.213%
Hinduism in Asia
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Central Asia 92,019,166 149,644 0.163% 0.016%
East Asia 1,527,960,261 130,631 0.009% 0.014%
West Asia 274,775,527 3,187,673 1.5% 0.084%
South Asia 1,437,326,682 1,068,728,901 70.05% 98.475%
Southeast Asia 571,337,070 6,386,614 1.118% 0.677%
Total 3,903,418,706 1,074,728,901 26.01% 99.266%
Hinduism in Europe
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Balkans 65,407,609 449 0.001% 0.001%
Central Europe 74,510,241 163 0% 0%
Eastern Europe 212,821,296 717,101 0.337% 0.076%
Western Europe 375,832,557 1,313,640 0.348% 0.138%
Total 728,571,703 2,030,904 0.278% 0.214%
Hinduism in The Americas
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Caribbean 24,898,266 279,515 1.123% 0.030%
Central America 41,135,205 5,833 0.014% 0.006%
North America 446,088,748 2,131,127 0.478% 0.191%
South America 371,075,531 389,869 0.105% 0.041%
Total 883,197,750 2,806,344 0.281% 0.263%
Hinduism in Oceania
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Oceania 38,552,683 791,615 2.053% 0.071%
Total 38,552,683 791,615 2.053% 0.071%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers are included or not. The official census of the Bahrain government states that 99% of its citizens are Muslims, and the remaining 1% includes Jews, Christians, Hindus, and Bahais.[19] According to a 2017 publication by Abdullahi An-Na'im, the Muslims in Bahrain constitute 99.3% of the total population.[20]
  2. ^ The lower number is based on Pew Research estimate and is primarily concentrated in the island of Bali, Indonesia and nearby provinces of Indonesia. The higher number is based on a 2010 estimate by the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Government of Indonesia.[68] The largest Hindu organization in Indonesia Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia states that the Indonesian census greatly underestimates Hindu population, because predominantly Muslim nation of Indonesia does not recognize all forms of Hinduism, and only recognizes monotheistic Hinduism under its constitution.[69][70]
  3. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers – with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion – are included or not. The official Kuwaiti government census data does not count Hindus as residents or citizens of Kuwait.[76]
  4. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers – with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion – are included or not. The Saudi Arabian government mandates that all Saudi citizens must be Muslims, and it prohibits public practice of Hinduism and other non-Muslim religions.[119]
  5. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers – with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion – are included or not. 80% of the UAE population is non-citizen temporary workers, and estimated 25% of these workers may be Hindu. Only Sunni Muslims can be naturalized new citizens in UAE. According to the US State Department, the federal constitution of the UAE designates Islam as the official religion, and Islam is also the official religion of all seven of the individual emirates in the federal union. The Government does not recognize all non-Muslim religions and only a limited number of Christian groups are granted legal recognition in UAE. Non-Muslim and non-Christian religions such as Hinduism are not recognized legally in any of the emirates.[146]

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Web-sources[edit]

External links[edit]