Hinduism by country

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Hinduism has over 1.1 billion adherents worldwide (15–16% of world's population) with the majority living in India, Nepal and Mauritius. Along with Christianity (31.5%), Islam (23.2%) and Buddhism (7.1%), Hinduism is one of the four major religions of the world by percentage of population.[1]

India, Nepal, and Mauritius are three Hindu majority countries. Most Hindus are found in Asian countries. The countries with more than 500,000 Hindu residents and citizens include (in decreasing order) – India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia (especially in Bali- 84% Hindu), Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, United States, Myanmar, United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, Mauritius, the Caribbean (West Indies).

Hinduism is also practised by the non-Indic[disambiguation needed] people like Balinese of Bali island (Indonesia), Tengger of Java (Indonesia) and Balamon Cham of Vietnam.

Background[edit]

Hinduism is a heterogeneous religion and consists of many schools of thought. Hinduism has no traditional ecclesiastical order, no centralised religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s); Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, monotheistic, pantheistic, monistic, agnostic, humanist or atheistic.[2] Estimates of Hinduism by country reflects this diversity of thought and way of life.

Demographic estimates[edit]

Demographic estimates of Hindu population by country has been published by the Pew Research Center in 2012,[3][4] as well as US State Department's International Religious Freedom Report 2006.[5]

By total number, India has the most Hindus. By percentage, Nepal has the largest majority of Hindu population in the world followed by India and Mauritius.[6] There are an estimated 60 to 70 million Hindus who lived outside India in 2010.[4] Only three countries in the world, in 2010, had a majority of its population as Hindus – Nepal, India, and Mauritius.[3] Guyana, Fiji, Trinidad and Tobago, Suriname have very large and influential Hindu minorities.

By country[edit]

Sources used for the table below include the US State Department,[5] the CIA World Factbook[7] adherents.com,[8] Pew Research Center.[9][10] and as identified.

Hinduism by country
Region Country Percentage Total population Hindu total
South Asia Afghanistan 0.4%[11][12] 31,889,923 4,000
Western Europe Andorra 0.4%[13] 85,000 342
Caribbean Anguilla 0.43%[14] 13,452 58
Caribbean Antigua and Barbuda 0.4%[15] 81,799 379
South America Argentina 0.01%[16] 40,301,927 4,030
Oceania Australia 1.9%[17] 23,401,400 440,300
Central Europe Austria 0.1% (approx)[18] 8,199,783 8,200
Middle East Bahrain <1%–9.8%[19][note 1] 708,573 7,000 – 144,286[note 1]
South Asia Bangladesh 8.54%[22] 167,000,000 14,300,000
Western Europe Belgium 0.06%[23] 10,392,226 6,235
Central America Belize 2.3%[24] 294,385 6,771
South Asia Bhutan 25%[25][26] 742,737 185,700
Southern Africa Botswana 0.17%[27] 1,815,508 3,086
South America Brazil 0.0029%[28] 192,755,799 5,675
Southeast Asia Brunei 0.035%[29] 374,577 131
West Africa Burkina Faso 0.001%[citation needed] 14,326,203 150
Central Africa Burundi 0.1%[30][31] 8,390,505 8,391
Southeast Asia Cambodia 0.3%[32][33] 13,995,904 41,988
North America Canada 1.45%[34][35] 33,390,141 497,965
South America Colombia 0.02%[36] 44,379,598 8,876
East Africa Comoros 0.1%(approx)[citation needed] 711,417 711
Central Africa Congo (Kinshasa) 0.18%[37] 65,751,512 118,353
Balkans Croatia 0.01% (approx)[38] 4,493,312 449
North America Cuba 0.21%[39] 11,394,043 23,927
West Africa Côte d'Ivoire 0.1%[40][41] 18,013,409 18,013
Western Europe Denmark 0.1%[42][43] 5,468,120 5,468
East Africa Djibouti 0.02%[44] 496,374 99
Caribbean Dominica 0.2%[45] 72,386 145
East Africa Eritrea 0.1% (approx)[46] 4,906,585 4,907
Eastern Europe Estonia 0.01% [47] 1,294,445 142
Oceania Fiji 27.7%[48] – 33%[49][50] 918,675 275,603 – 303,163
Western Europe Finland 0.1%[51] 5,238,460 5,000
Western Europe France 0.1%[52][53] 63,718,187 63,718
Eastern Europe Georgia 0.01% (approx)[54] 4,646,003 465
Western Europe Germany 0.12%[55] 81,800,000 100,000
West Africa Ghana 0.05% (approx)[56] 22,931,299 11,466
Caribbean Grenada 0.7%[57] 89,971 630
South America and Caribbean Guyana 24.83%[58] 769,095 190,966
Central Europe Hungary 0.02% 9,956,108 1,767[59]
South Asia India 79.8% (2011 Census)[60][61][62] 1,320,000,000 1,040,000,000
Southeast Asia Indonesia 1.69%[63][64][65] 259,000,000 4,400,000-10,000,000[66][note 2]
Middle East Iran <0.1[10] 65,397,521 20,000[10]
Western Europe Ireland 0.30%[70] 4,761,865 14,300
Middle East Israel 0.1% (approx)[71] 6,426,679 6,427
Western Europe Italy 0.2% (approx)[72] 60,418,000 108,950
Caribbean Jamaica 0.07%[73] 2,780,132 1,836
East Asia Japan <0.1[10] 127,433,494 30,000[10]
East Africa Kenya 0.1%[10] 37,000,000 60,000[10]
East Asia Korea, South 0.015% (approx) 49,044,790 12,452
Middle East Kuwait 12%[74] 2,505,559 300,667[note 3]
Eastern Europe Latvia 0.006%[76] 2,259,810 136
Middle East Lebanon 0.1% (approx)[77] 4,925,502 4,926
Southern Africa Lesotho 0.1% (approx)[78][79] 2,125,262 2,125
West Africa Liberia 0.1% (approx)[80] 3,195,931 3,196
North Africa Libya 0.1%[81][82] 6,036,914 6,037
Western Europe Luxembourg 0.07% (approx)[83] 480,222 336
Southern Africa Madagascar 0.1%[84][85] 19,448,815 19,449
Southern Africa Malawi 0.02%[86] – 0.2%[87] 13,603,181 2,721 – 2,726
Southeast Asia Malaysia 6.3%[88][89] 30,949,962 1,949,850
South Asia Maldives 0.01%[90] 369,031 37
Southern Africa Mauritius 48.5%[91][92] 1,250,882 600,423 – 625,441
Eastern Europe Moldova 0.01% (approx)[93] 3,200,000 433
Southern Africa Mozambique 0.05%[94] – 0.2%[95] 20,905,585 10,453 – 41,811
Southeast Asia Myanmar 1.5%[96] 47,963,012 893,000
South Asia Nepal 81.3%[97][98] 28,901,790 23,500,000
Western Europe Netherlands 0.58%[99] – 1.20%[100] 16,570,613 96,110 – 200,000
Oceania New Zealand 2.1%[101] 4,115,771 90,158
Western Europe Norway 0.5% 4,627,926 23,140
Middle East Oman 3%[102] – 5.7%[103] 3,204,897 96,147 – 182,679
South Asia Pakistan 1.85%[104] 196,000,000 3,626,000
Central America Panama 0.3%[105][106] 3,242,173 9,726
Southeast Asia Philippines <0.1% [10] 102,000,000[107] 10,000[10]
Western Europe Portugal 0.07% 10,642,836 7,396
Caribbean Puerto Rico 0.09%[108] 3,944,259 3,550
Middle East Qatar 13.8%[109] 2,471,919[110] 358,800
East Africa Réunion 6.7%[111] 827,000 55,409
Eastern Europe Russia 0.1%[112] 141,377,752 143,000
Oceania Samoa 0.02% (approx) 187,429 38
Middle East Saudi Arabia 0.6%[113] – 1.1%[114] 27,601,038 303,611[note 4]
East Africa Seychelles 2.1%[10] 90,945 1,910
West Africa Sierra Leone 0.04%[116] – 0.1%[117] 6,144,562 2,458 – 6,145
Southeast Asia Singapore 5.0%[118][119] 5,600,000 280,000
Central Europe Slovakia 0.1% (approx)[citation needed] 5,447,502 5,448
Central Europe Slovenia 0.025% (approx)[citation needed] 2,009,245 500
Southern Africa South Africa 1.1%[10] 49,991,300 550,000
South Asia Sri Lanka 12.6%[120] 21,200,000 2,671,000
South America and Caribbean Suriname 22.3%[121] – 27.4%[122] 470,784 120,623 – 128,995
Southern Africa Swaziland 0.15%[123] – 0.2%[124] 1,133,066 1,700 – 2,266
Western Europe Sweden 0.078% – 0.12%[125] 9,031,088 7,044 – 10,837
Western Europe Switzerland 0.38%[126][127] 7,554,661 28,708
East Africa Tanzania 0.9%[128][129] 39,384,223 354,458
Caribbean Trinidad and Tobago 22.5%[130][131][132] 1,056,608 237,737
Southeast Asia Thailand 0.1%[133] 65,068,149 65,000
East Africa Uganda 0.2%[134] – 0.8%[135] 30,262,610 60,525 – 242,101
Middle East United Arab Emirates 11%[136]-21.25%[137] 4,444,011 490,000[note 5]
Western Europe United Kingdom 1.7%[139][140] 60,776,238 832,000
North America United States 0.7%[141] 322,000,000 2,230,000
Central Asia Uzbekistan 0.01% (approx)[citation needed] 27,780,059 2,778
Southeast Asia Vietnam 0.059%[142] 85,262,356 50,305
Middle East Yemen 0.7%[143] 22,230,531 155,614
Southern Africa Zambia 0.14%[144][145] 11,477,447 16,068
Southern Africa Zimbabwe 1.0%[146] 12,311,143 123,111
Total 16 7,500,000,000 1,100,000,000 - 1,120,000,000

By region[edit]

These percentages were calculated by using the above numbers. The first percentage, 4th column, is the percentage of population that is Hindu in a region (Hindus in the region * 100/total population of the region). The last column shows the Hindu percentage compared to the total Hindu population of the world (Hindus in the region * 100/total Hindu population of the world).

(Note: Egypt, Sudan, and other Arab Maghreb countries are counted as part of North Africa, not Middle East).

Hinduism in Africa
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Central Africa 93,121,055 0 0% 0%
East Africa 193,741,900 667,694 0.345% 0.071%
North Africa 202,151,323 5,765 0.003% 0.001%
Southern Africa 137,092,019 1,269,844 0.926% 0.135%
West Africa 268,997,245 70,402 0.026% 0.007%
Total 885,103,542 2,013,705 0.225% 0.213%
Hinduism in Asia
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Central Asia 92,019,166 149,644 0.163% 0.016%
East Asia 1,527,960,261 130,631 0.009% 0.014%
West Asia 274,775,527 3,187,673 1.5% 0.084%
South Asia 1,437,326,682 1,068,728,901 70.05% 98.475%
Southeast Asia 571,337,070 6,386,614 1.118% 0.677%
Total 3,903,418,706 1,074,728,901 26.01% 99.266%
Hinduism in Europe
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Balkans 65,407,609 449 0.001% 0.001%
Central Europe 74,510,241 163 0% 0%
Eastern Europe 212,821,296 717,101 0.337% 0.076%
Western Europe 375,832,557 1,313,640 0.348% 0.138%
Total 728,571,703 2,030,904 0.278% 0.214%
Hinduism in The Americas
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Caribbean 24,898,266 279,515 1.123% 0.030%
Central America 41,135,205 5,833 0.014% 0.006%
North America 446,088,748 2,131,127 0.478% 0.191%
South America 371,075,531 389,869 0.105% 0.041%
Total 883,197,750 2,806,344 0.281% 0.263%
Hinduism in Oceania
Region Total Population Hindus % of Hindus % of Hindu total
Oceania 38,552,683 791,615 2.053% 0.071%
Total 38,552,683 791,615 2.053% 0.071%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers are included or not. The official census of the Bahrain government states that 99% of its citizens are Muslims, and the remaining 1% includes Jews, Christians, Hindus, and Bahais.[20] According to a 2017 publication by Abdullahi An-Na'im, the Muslims in Bahrain constitute 99.3% of the total population.[21]
  2. ^ The lower number is based on Pew Research estimate and is primarily concentrated in the island of Bali, Indonesia and nearby provinces of Indonesia. The higher number is based on a 2010 estimate by the Ministry of Religious Affairs of the Government of Indonesia.[67] The largest Hindu organization in Indonesia Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia states that the Indonesian census greatly underestimates Hindu population, because predominantly Muslim nation of Indonesia does not recognize all forms of Hinduism, and only recognizes monotheistic Hinduism under its constitution.[68][69]
  3. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers – with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion – are included or not. The official Kuwaiti government census data does not count Hindus as residents or citizens of Kuwait.[75]
  4. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers – with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion – are included or not. The Saudi Arabian government mandates that all Saudi citizens must be Muslims, and it prohibits public practice of Hinduism and other non-Muslim religions.[115]
  5. ^ The estimates vary depending on whether temporary workers – with no residency nor right to openly practice their religion – are included or not. 80% of the UAE population is non-citizen temporary workers, and estimated 25% of these workers may be Hindu. Only Sunni Muslims can be naturalized new citizens in UAE. According to the US State Department, the federal constitution of the UAE designates Islam as the official religion, and Islam is also the official religion of all seven of the individual emirates in the federal union. The Government does not recognize all non-Muslim religions and only a limited number of Christian groups are granted legal recognition in UAE. Non-Muslim and non-Christian religions such as Hinduism are not recognized legally in any of the emirates.[138]

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Web-sources[edit]

External links[edit]