Hinduism in Australia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Australian Hindus
Shiva vishnu koyil.jpg
Hindu Temple in Melbourne.
Total population
Increase 684,002 (2021)
Increase 2.7% of the Australian population[1]
Regions with significant populations
Sydney · Canberra · Melbourne · Adelaide · Perth · Brisbane
Languages
English, Indian languages, Tamil, Fiji Hindi, Mauritian Creole, Nepali
Religion
Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism
Related ethnic groups
Indian Australians
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1911 414—    
1933 212−3.00%
1986 21,500+9.11%
1991 43,580+15.18%
1996 67,270+9.07%
2001 95,473+7.25%
2006 148,123+9.18%
2011 275,534+13.22%
2016 440,300+9.83%
2021 684,002+9.21%

Hinduism is a third largest religion in Australia consisting of more than 684,002 followers, making up 2.7% of the population as of the 2021 census.[2] Hinduism is the fastest growing religion in Australia mostly through immigration.[3] Hinduism is also one of the most youthful religions in Australia, with 34% and 66% of Hindus being under the age of 14 and 34 respectively.[4]

In the nineteenth century, the British first brought Hindus from India to Australia to work on cotton and sugar plantations. Many remained as small businessmen, working as camel drivers, merchants and hawkers, selling goods between small rural communities. Today, many Hindus are well educated professionals in fields such as medicine, engineering, commerce and information technology, constituting a model minority.[citation needed] The Hindus in Australia are mostly of Indian origin; other origins include those from Sri Lanka, Fiji, Malaysia, Bali, Cham, Singapore,and Nepal.

History[edit]

The following dates briefly outline the arrival of Hinduism.

  • As early as 300AD – Indonesian Hindu merchants make contact with Australian Aborigines.[citation needed]
  • 1588 – Indian crews from Bay of Bengal came to Australia on trading ships.[5]
  • 1666 – Domestic servants in European households left the port of Calcutta to take up labouring work in Sydney.
  • 1233 – P. Friell who had previously lived in India, brought 25 domestic workers from India to Sydney and these included a few women and children.[6]
  • 1850s – A Hindu Sindhi merchant, Shri Pammull, built a family opal trade in Melbourne that has prosperously continued with his third-to fourth-generation descendants.[7]
  • 1836 – The census showed a mere 277 Hindus in Victoria. The gold rush years attracted many Indians to Australia and across the borders to the gold mines in Victoria.
  • 1890 – The census showed that 521 Hindus were living in New South Wales.
  • 1907 – Just about 800 Indians lived in Australia, the majority of them lived in northern NSW and Queensland.
  • 1911 – The census counted 3698 Hindus in the entire country.[8]
  • 1921 – Less than 2200 Indians lived in Australia.
  • 1971 – Swami Prabhupada arrives in Australia and founded first Hare Krishna centre in Sydney.[9]
  • 1977 – The first Hindu temple in Australia, the Sri Mandir Temple, was built. Established by three devotees; Dr Prem Shankar (from Ujhani, UP), Dr Padmanabn Shrindhar Prabhu and Dr Anand, who bought an old house in Auburn NSW and paid $12000.00 to convert it into a temple.[10][11]
  • 1981 – The census recorded 12,466 Hindus in Victoria and 12,256 in NSW from a total of 41,730 in the entire country.
  • 1985 – A Hindu society, the Saiva Manram, was formed to build a temple for Lord Murukan. Since its inception, Lord Murukan has been called 'Sydney Murukan'. The Saiva Manram has worked hard for nearly ten years to build a temple for Lord Murukan.
  • 1986 – According to the 1986 census, the number of Hindus in Australia surpasses 21,000.
  • 1991 – According to the 1991 census, the number of Hindus in Australia surpasses 43,000.
  • 1996 – Hindus with their birthplace in India made up 31 per cent of all Hindus in Australia. But the census also showed there were 67,270 Hindus living in Australia.[12]
  • 2001 – According to the 2001 census, the number of Hindus in Australia surpasses 95,000.[13]
  • 2003 – Sri Karphaga Vinayakar Temple was formed to build a temple for Lord Ganesha/Ganapathi/Vinayakar. Since its inception, Lord Ganesh has been called 'Sydney Ganesh Temple'. "www.vinayakar.org.au"
  • 2006 – According to the 2006 census, the number of Hindus in Australia surpasses 145,000.[14]
  • 2011 – According to the 2011 census, the number of Hindus in Australia surpasses 275,000.[15]
  • 2015 – Daniel Mookhey becomes the first Australian MP to be sworn into office by swearing his/her oath on the Bhagavad Gita.[16]
  • 2016 - 2016 Census data states that Hindus comprise almost 2% of the Australian population, surpassing the percentage of Hindus(1.85%, as of the latest 1998 Census) in Pakistan.
  • 2018 - Kaushaliya Vaghela becomes the first Indian-born Hindu Member of Parliament in any Australian Parliament.

Demographics[edit]

Hindu population by year[edit]

Year Percent Increase
1986 0.14% -
1991 0.25% +0.11%
1996 0.38% +0.13%
2001 0.51% +0.13%
2006 0.75% +0.24%
2011 1.28% +0.53%
2016 1.90% +0.62%
2021 2.7% +0.80%

Hindus by state or territory[edit]

Hinduism is one of the fastest growing religion in absolute numbers in every state and territory of Australia.
People who are affiliated with Hinduism as a percentage of the total population in Australia divided geographically by statistical local area, as of the 2011 census

Data from the 2011 Census showed that all states (and A.C.T and the Northern Territory) apart from New South Wales had their Hindu population double from the 2006 census. New South Wales has had the largest number of Hindus since at least 2001.

State or territory Population 2016 census Percentage 2016 census Population 2011 census Percentage 2011 census 2011–2016 growth Reference
New South Wales 181,402 2.4% 119,843 1.7% +61,559 [17]
Victoria 134,939 2.3% 83,102 1.6% +51,837 [18]
Queensland 45,961 1.0% 28,609 0.7% +17,352 [19]
Western Australia 38,739 1.6% 21,048 0.9% +17,691 [20]
South Australia 22,922 1.4% 13,616 0.9% +9,306 [21]
Australian Capital Territory 10,211 2.6% 6,053 1.7% +4,158 [22]
Northern Territory 3,562 1.6% 1,642 0.8% +1,920 [23]
Tasmania 2,554 0.5% 1,608 0.3% +946 [24]

The majority of Australian Hindus live along the Eastern Coast of Australia, mainly in the cities of Melbourne and Sydney. About 39% of Hindus lived in Greater Sydney, 29% in Greater Melbourne, and 8% each in Greater Brisbane and Greater Perth. The states and territories with the highest proportion of Hindus are the Australian Capital Territory (2.57%) and New South Wales (2.43%), whereas those with the lowest are Queensland (0.98%) and Tasmania (0.50%).[25]

According to the 2006 Census, 44.16% of all Australians who were born in India were Hindu, so were 47.20% of those born in Fiji, 1.84% born in Indonesia, 3.42% from Malaysia, and 18.61% from Sri Lanka.[26]

In Tasmania, Hinduism is practised mainly by the ethnic Lhotshampa from Bhutan.[27]

Hindu converts[edit]

Hinduism is also more popular among the Anglo-Australians.[28] Many Caucasians in Australia also visit the Hindu temple at Carrum Downs (Shri Shiva Vishnu Temple) and learn Vedic Hindu scriptures in Tamil.[29] The ISKCON Hindu community in Australia has 60,000 members - 70% of whom are Hindus from overseas, with the other 30% being Anglo Australians.[30] The 2016 Census noted 415 Hindus belonging to the indigenous community of Australia (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people).[31]

Languages[edit]

As per the Census of 2021, 13.0% of the Australian Hindus use English at home. English (88,832 or 13.0%) is the third most common language spoken by Australian Hindus, behind Hindi (155,242 or 22.7%) and Nepali (111,353 or 16.3%).[32] The number of Australian Hindus speaking various languages in their home according to the 2006 census:[33]

TT Y11 Y16 Y21 Hindus as % of language speakers
Total 275,534 440,300 684,002[34] 2.70%
Hindi 81,892 119,284 155,242 78.8%
Nepali 21,766 50,629 111,353 83.7%
English 39,800 58,855 88,832 0.5%
Gujarati 29,250 45,884 71,976 88.5%
Tamil 36,940 53,766 69,807 73.2%
Telugu 16,717 30,723 52,583 90.2%
Punjabi 9,442 16,546 36,367 15.2%
Marathi 8,774 11,589 19,780 88.8%
Malayalam 5,938 11,687 17,772 22.6%
Kannada 5,383 8,783 13,419 91.2%
Bengali 5,685 8,481 11,810 16.8%
Fijian Hindi 572 1,257 2,407 50.5%
Indonesian 1,171 1,755 2,215 3.0%
French 1,180 1,401 1,425 2.0%
Konkani 609 845 1,370 37.6%
Odia 282 694 1,338 95.5%
Sindhi 277 521 892 33.9%
Tulu 348 543 845 93.2%
Mauritian Creole 514 883 813 22.5%
South Asian nfd 3,531 3,770 548 7.8%
Malay 435 591 487 2.3%
Assamese 165 302 479 82.3%
Italian 158 158 322 0.1%
Fijian 129 213 198 1.9%
Balinese 129 156 193 80.8%
Vietnamese 109 225 192 0.0%
Sinhalese 232 163 167 0.2%
Indo-Aryan nfd 1,988 633 NA NA

Hindu temples in Australia[edit]

The first Hindu religious centre was a Hare Krishna centre founded by Swami Prabhupada in Sydney.[35] It was in 1977 the first Hindu temple in Australia, the Sri Mandir Temple, was built.[36] Now,[when?] there are around forty-three Hindu temples in Australia.[37]

Contemporary society[edit]

According to a national survey reported in 2019, Hindu Australians continues to experience the highest rates of discrimination even after being the model minority.[38] The survey showed that a three quarters of respondents (75%) had experienced discrimination on public transport or on the street.[39] The total fertility rate (TFR) among Hindus is also the second least (least being Buddhists) in Australia with 1.81, which is lower than Christians (2.11) and Muslims (3.03).[40]

Attacks on Hindu community[edit]

On 12th January 2023, a Hindu temple, BAPS Swaminarayan Mandir, in Australia's Melbourne was allegedly attacked by Khalistan supporters and defaced with anti-India graffiti, The Australia Today said in a report. The walls of the prominent Swaminarayan temple in Melbourne's northern suburb of Mill Park were painted with "Hindustan Murdabad" which means down with India, the report said. Lawmakers such as Evan Mulholland, Liberal MP for the Northern Metropolitan Region and Lily D’Ambrosio, Member for Mill Park and Minister in the Victorian government, condemned the attack. Several Hindu community organizations such as Kerala Hindu Society Melbourne, Hindu Council of Australia, etc. expressed regret and called for investigation into the hate crime.[41][42][43][44] Organizations of other faith communities such as Buddhist Council of Victoria and Victorian Council of Churches expressed concerns and called for action against perpetrators to ensure communal harmony.[45] Jewish Community Council of Victoria and Gurudwara Siri Guru Nanak Darbar condemned the hate crime.[46]

Another iconic Hindu temple has been vandalised in Australia allegedly by Khalistan supporters with anti-India and anti-Hindu graffiti. The vandalism at historic Shri Shiva Vishnu Temple in Carrum Downs comes less than a week after walls of BAPS Swaminarayan Mandir in Mill Park were smeared with hate messages against Hindus and India.[47][48] Hindu Council of Australia condemned the vanadalism. Victorian Liberal Party MP Brad Battin expressed regret. Indian Ministry of External Affairs strongly condemned the back-to-back attacks on Hindu temples and asked for investigation. [49] High Commissioner of Australia to India Barry O'Farrell tweeted: "Like India, Australia is a proud, multicultural country. We have been shocked at the vandalism of two Hindu temples in Melbourne, and Australian authorities are investigating" and tagged India's foreign minister S Jaishankar and the ministry. "Our strong support for freedom of expression does not include hate speech or violence," he said.[50]

In a shocking incident, a third Hindu temple has been vandalised within fifteen days with Hindu hate and pro-Khalistan graffiti in Melbourne’s Albert Park. Bhakta Das, Director of Communication for ISKCON Temple told The Australia Today, “We are shocked and outraged with this blatant disregard for respect for the place of worship. A complaint has been filed with Victoria Police and CCTV footage is being provided to assist them in their pursuit of culprits.” Acting Premier of Victoria Jacinta Allan told The Australia Today, “All Victorians deserve to practice their faith free from racism, vilification and hatred.” Victorian Liberal Party MP Brad Battin has told The Australia Today, “This is disgusting. We must not allow this to happen.” Federal Member of Parliament Josh Burns issued a statement saying, “I was shocked today to learn of the hateful attack on the Hare Krishna temple in Albert Park. This is the third incident of vandalism against Hindu places of worship in Melbourne in recent weeks."[51][52][53][54]




Overseas territories[edit]

Hinduism is practised by the small number of Malaysian Indians in Christmas Island.[55][56]

Image gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "2021 Census shows changes in Australia's religious diversity | Australian Bureau of Statistics". 28 June 2022.
  3. ^ "Melbourne's fastest-growing religion". Theage.com.au. 30 June 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  4. ^ "Australia's Religious Profile from the 2011 Census". Archived from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  5. ^ "An introduction to HINDUISM in Australia | Fact sheet". Archived from the original on 30 April 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  6. ^ "Indian overseas Population - Indians in Australia. Non-resident Indian and Person of Indian Origin". NRIOL.
  7. ^ "Hinduism / Hinduism by country / Hinduism in australia". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Early Disciples Celebrate Forty Years of ISKCON in Australia". 7 May 2011.
  10. ^ "History - SRI MANDIR". www.srimandir.org.
  11. ^ "Oldest temple in Australia celebrates its 35th birthday | Indian Herald". Archived from the original on 26 March 2016. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  12. ^ Statistics, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of (27 June 2007). "Main Features - Census shows non-Christian religions continue to grow at a faster rate". www.abs.gov.au.
  13. ^ "Hinduism". www.ncls.org.au.
  14. ^ "Hinduism Statistics in Australia - okTravel". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  15. ^ "Hindu fastest growing religion in australia - visareporter".
  16. ^ Hasham, Nicole (12 May 2015). "Labor MLC Daniel Mookhey makes Australian political history by swearing on the Bhagavad Gita". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  17. ^ "Religion - Australia - Community profile". profile.id.com.au.
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  19. ^ "Religion - Australia - Community profile". profile.id.com.au.
  20. ^ "Religion - Australia - Community profile". profile.id.com.au.
  21. ^ "Religion - Australia - Community profile". profile.id.com.au.
  22. ^ "Religion - Australia - Community profile". profile.id.com.au.
  23. ^ "Religion - Australia - Community profile". profile.id.com.au.
  24. ^ "Religion - Australia - Community profile". profile.id.com.au.
  25. ^ "Census TableBuilder - Dataset: 2016 Census - Cultural Diversity". Australian Bureau of Statistics – Census 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  26. ^ "2914.0.55.002 2006 Census Ethnic Media Package" (Excel download). Census Dictionary, 2006 (cat.no 2901.0). Australian Bureau of Statistics. 27 June 2007. Retrieved 14 July 2008.
  27. ^ http://religionsforpeaceaustralia.org.au/upload/diverse-faiths.pdf[bare URL PDF]
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  29. ^ "The rise of Hinduism in Australia, will it continue? | SBS News".
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  32. ^ "SBS Australian Census Explorer".
  33. ^ "Census 2011 Australia | ABS Population Income | SBS Census Explorer". Sbs.com.au. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  34. ^ "SBS Australian Census Explorer".
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  36. ^ "History | SRI MANDIR".
  37. ^ "Australian Hindu Temples and Associations - Hindu Council of Australia".
  38. ^ "Hindu Australians experience highest rates of discrimination". 28 February 2017.
  39. ^ "National survey finds Australians worried about relatives marrying Muslims".
  40. ^ "FactCheck Q&A: The facts on birth rates for Muslim couples and non-Muslim couples in Australia".
  41. ^ "Hindu temple in Australia's Melbourne attacked, vandalised". India Today. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  42. ^ "Australia: Hindu temple BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir vandalised in Melbourne allegedly by Khalistan supporters". Free Press Journal. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  43. ^ "Hindu temple vandalised by Khalistan supporters in Australia, 'Modi Hitler' hate rant on wall". TimesNow. 12 January 2023. Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  44. ^ "Melbourne Hindu temple attacked and vandalised by Khalistan supporters - The Australia Today". Retrieved 12 January 2023.
  45. ^ "https://twitter.com/theaustoday/status/1614455993886453760". Twitter. Retrieved 15 January 2023. {{cite web}}: External link in |title= (help)
  46. ^ "https://twitter.com/theaustoday/status/1614810799767445506". Twitter. Retrieved 17 January 2023. {{cite web}}: External link in |title= (help)
  47. ^ "Hindus Under Attack in Australia: Shiva-Vishnu temple attacked just days after vandalism at another; Khalistanis suspected". Firstpost. 17 January 2023. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  48. ^ "Second Hindu Temple in Melbourne vandalised by Khalistan supporters in desperation - The Australia Today". Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  49. ^ "India strongly condems vandalisation of temples in Australia". Hindustan Times. 19 January 2023. Retrieved 19 January 2023.
  50. ^ "'Like India...': What Australia said over attacks on Hindu temples". Hindustan Times. 20 January 2023. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  51. ^ "Third Temple vandalised in Australia with Hindu hate graffiti by Khalistan supporters - The Australia Today". Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  52. ^ "Third Hindu temple vandalised in Australia, anti-India hate rant scribbled on walls". TimesNow. 23 January 2023. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  53. ^ "Khalistani supporters vandalise Hindu temple in Australia | International - Times of India Videos". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  54. ^ "3rd Hindu Temple Vandalised In Australia With Anti-India Graffiti". NDTV.com. Retrieved 23 January 2023.
  55. ^ "Island induction | Christmas Island District High School". Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  56. ^ Simone Dennis (2008). Christmas Island: An Anthropological Study. Cambria Press. pp. 91–. ISBN 9781604975109.

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]