Hinduism in Canada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Canadian Hindus
BAPS Toronto Mandir front.jpg
Total population
Increase 828,195 (2021)[1]
Increase 2.3% of the Canadian Population
Regions with significant populations
British Columbia81,320
Canadian English, Canadian French
Tamil • Hindi • Punjabi • Gujarati • Bengali • Marathi • Telugu • Kannada • Indian Languages
Sanskrit and Old Tamil

Hinduism is the third-largest religious group in Canada, which is followed by approximately 2.3% of nation's total population.[2] As of 2021, there are over 828,000 Canadians of the Hindu faith.[2] Canadian Hindus generally come from one of three groups. The first group is primarily made up of Indian immigrants who began arriving in British Columbia about 110 years ago.[3] Hindus from all over India continue to immigrate to Canada today, with the largest Indian ethnic subgroups being of Gujarati and Punjabi origin.[4][5] This first wave of immigrants also includes Hindu immigrants who were of Indian descent from nations that were historically under European colonial rule, such as Fiji, Mauritius, South Africa, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Suriname, and parts of coastal Eastern Africa.[6] The second major group of Hindus immigrated from Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka. In the case of Sri Lankan Hindus, their history in Canada goes back to the 1940s, when a few hundred Sri Lankan Tamils migrated to Canada.[7] The 1983 communal riots in Sri Lanka precipitated the mass exodus of Tamils with over 500,000 finding refuge in countries such as Canada, the UK, Australia, Germany, France and Switzerland. From then on, Sri Lankan Tamils have been immigrating to Canada in particular around Toronto and Greater Toronto Area. A third group is made up of Canadian converts to the various sects of Hinduism through the efforts of the Hare Krishna movement and their Gurus during the last 50 years.[8] The Toronto district of Scarborough has a particularly high concentration of Hindus, with Hinduism being the dominant religion in several neighbourhoods.[9]

According to the 2021 Census, there are 828,195 Hindus in Canada, up from 297,200 in the 2001 census.[10][11]

Hindu Population & Demographics[edit]

Historical population
1961 460—    
1971 9,790+2028.3%
1981 69,505+610.0%
1991 157,015+125.9%
2001 297,200+89.3%
2011 497,200+67.3%
1961 and 1971 are partial and based on immigration data, real figures are substantially higher.[12][13]
Year Percent Increase in pop. % Increase in %
1971 0.05% -
1981 0.28% +0.23% 460%
1991 0.56% +0.28% 100%
2001 0.96% +0.40% 92%
2011 1.45% +0.49% 51%
2021 2.23% +0.78% 53%

By province[edit]

The Hindu Population in Canada according to the 2011 National Household Survey.[10]

Province 2001 Census 2011 Census 2021 Census
Hindus pop Hindus % Hindus pop Hindus % Hindus pop Hindus %
Flag of Ontario.svg Ontario 217,560 1.9% 366,720 2.9% 573,700 4.1%
Flag of British Columbia.svg British Columbia 31,495 0.8% 45,795 1.0% 81,320 1.7%
Flag of Alberta.svg Alberta 15,965 0.5% 36,845 1.0% 78,520 1.9%
Flag of Quebec.svg Quebec 24,525 0.3% 33,540 0.4% 47,390 0.6%
Flag of Manitoba.svg Manitoba 3,835 0.3% 7,720 0.6% 18,355 1.4%
Flag of Saskatchewan.svg Saskatchewan 1,590 0.2% 3,570 0.3% 14,150 1.3%
Flag of Nova Scotia.svg Nova Scotia 1,235 0.1% 1,850 0.2% 8,460 0.9%
Flag of New Brunswick.svg New Brunswick 470 0.1% 820 0.1% 3,340 0.4%
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg Newfoundland and Labrador 400 0.1% 635 0.1% 1200 0.2%
Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg Prince Edward Island 30 0.0% 205 0.1% 1,245 0.8%
Flag of Yukon.svg Yukon 10 0.0% 165 0.5% 265 0.5%
Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg Northwest Territories 60 0.2% 70 0.2% 200 0.5%
Flag of Nunavut.svg Nunavut 10 0.0% 30 0.1% 55 0.2%
Flag of Canada.svg Canada 297,200 1.0% 497,200 1.5% 828,400 2.3%

By federal electoral district (2021)[edit]

The Hindu Population in Canada by federal electoral district according to the 2021 Census.[10]


1. Brampton East - 19.5%
2. Scarborough—Rouge Park - 18.6%
3. Markham—Thornhill - 16.8%
4. Scarborough—Guildwood - 16.2%
5. Scarborough North - 14.5%
6. Etobicoke North - 14.4%
7. Scarborough Centre - 13.2%
8. Mississauga—Malton - 12.8%
9. Brampton West - 11.8%
10. Brampton North - 10.9%

British Columbia[edit]

1. Surrey—Newton - 6.2%
2. Surrey Centre - 4.9%
3. Vancouver South - 3.4%
4. Fleetwood—Port Kells - 3.3%
5. Delta - 3.0%
6. Vancouver Kingsway - 2.5%
7. Burnaby South - 2.4%


1. Edmonton Mill Woods - 4.8%
2. Calgary Skyview - 4.5%
3. Edmonton Riverbend - 3.0%
4. Calgary Forest Lawn - 2.2%
5. Calgary Nose Hill - 1.9%


1. Papineau - 4.3%
2. Pierrefonds—Dollard - 4.0%
3. Saint-Laurent - 3.2%


1. Winnipeg South - 3.0%

By ethnic origin (2021)[14][edit]

Total: 828,195
South Asian: 768,785
Visible minority (no further defined): 34,545
Multiracial: 8,715
White: 4,385
Southeast Asian: 4,150
Black: 3,780
Latin American: 2,815
West Asian: 720
Chinese: 175
Filipino: 60
Arab: 45
Korean: 10

Early Hindus[edit]

Early Hindus maintained their religious traditions in mostly hostile environment which viewed the so-called colored immigrants as a threat to the British culture and way of life of the time.[3] These male pioneers could not marry brides from India up until the 1930s, and did not have the right to vote in Federal elections until 1947. Religious life was centred around homes and Bhajans organized by community members.[15]

Since the 1960s many westerners attracted by the world view presented in Asian religious systems including Hinduism have converted to Hinduism.[16] Canada was no exception. Many native born Canadians of various ethnicities have converted during the last 50 years through the actions of ISKCON, Arya Samaj and other missionary organizations as well as due to the visits and guidance of Indian Gurus such as Pramukh Swami Maharaj, Sathya Sai Baba, the controversial Rajneesh and others.[17][18]

Later Immigrant Hindus[edit]

Due to the liberalization of Canadian immigration policies, many Hindus from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Indonesia, along with Hindu Indian diasporic communities in Mauritius, Fiji, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, and eastern African nations such as Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania have arrived in the metropolises of Montreal, Toronto, Calgary and Vancouver from the 1960s onwards.[19] In last 20 years many Hindus from Nepal have migrated to Canada. It is estimated that approximately 8000 to 10000 Nepalese Hindus are residing in Canada with their main concentration in Toronto, Calgary, Vancouver, Edmonton and Montreal. Canada government has pledged to resettle 6500 Bhutanese refugees of Nepalese ethnicity by 2012.The majority of Bhutanese Nepali are Hindus. By 2014 Lethbridge was home to the largest Bhutanese community in Canada.[20] Nearly 6,600 Bhutanese Nepali, also called Lhotshampa had settled in Canada by the end of 2015, with approximately 1,300 in Lethbridge by August 2016.[21]

Temple Societies[edit]

These communities have formed over 1000 temple societies across the country that essentially functions community organizations. Some of these associations also have established private schools in Tamil to compete with non-religious and Catholic school boards that most Hindu students go to.[22]

One among the earliest Hindu temples in Canada was established in rural Nova Scotia, in Auld's Cove, near the border to Cape Breton Islands, in 1971. Hindu Sanstha of Nova Scotia was formed by some 25 families living in the area at the time. Lord Krishna is primary deity, and Indian community families from Sydney, Antigonish, New Glasgow, and even Halifax often assemble together to celebrate Hindu festivals. Temple welcomes everyone, people of different faith and culture, to participate in the festivals, in a growing multi-cultural population of the region. In 1972, British Columbia registered Hindu Temple Burnaby in the Province in Burnaby, and has been active since then and currently is one of the largest and most beautiful temple with more than 33 deities.

The largest Hindu temple in Canada is BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Toronto . It consists of two separate buildings, one of them being the mandir itself and the other being the Haveli, home to a large Sabha Hall, several religious bookstores, a small prayer room, the country's largest Indo-Canadian museum, a water fountain and a large gymnasium. It is the only Mandir built using Hindu traditions. The temple is built in the traditional Hindu style of Shikharbaddha mandir, which is made accordingly to the principles laid out in Shilpa Shastras, scared Hindu texts that describe the canons of traditionally architecture, and describes how the structure of a shikharbaddha mandir symbolically reflects the body of Purusha, or Cosmic Man.[23] It took $40 million to build and opened in 2007, surpassing Hindu Sabha Temple in nearby Brampton, which held the old record. The entire mandir is 32,000 sq ft (3,000 m2).[24][25]



There are several organizations representing the Hindu community in Canada. Among them the Hindu Canadian Network is the most prominent umbrella organization.[26][27]

Contemporary Society[edit]

According to a survey conducted by the Angus Reid Institute in 2013, 42% of the Canadians had a favorable opinion of Hinduism which increased to 49% in the 2016 survey. When asked—would it be acceptable or unacceptable to you if one of your children were to marry a Hindu—in February 2017, 54% Canadians said that it would be acceptable, as compared to 37% in September 2013.

According to another survey by the Angus Reid Institute, 32% of respondents say that the influence of Hinduism “in Canada and Canadian public life” is growing. However, the study also found that a majority of Canadians (67%) “don’t know anything/understand very little” about Hinduism, while 4% “understand very well”.[28]

Community and Impact[edit]

Hindus in Canada are able to create communities that not only follow religious practices but also provide education, counselling, support and outreach services. These communities allow many Hindus from overseas to comfortably adapt when immigrating to Canada. When Hindu institutions and worldviews are not mirrored in the migrated country, it can hinder the process of adaptation through isolation and loss of identity.[29] Racial-ethnic identity development involves identifying with and relating to a specific group and is found to be associated with particular health behaviors and mental health outcomes.[30] Hindu communities enable Hindu immigrants and their descendants to preserve their culture and identity despite their displacement and maintain physical and symbolic links with their source country; especially immigrants who have been exiled and feel uprooted from their national and cultural identity.


Deepak Obhrai was the first and only Hindu MP in Canada.[31]

Dipika Damerla, is the first, and so far only, person from the Hindu community to become a provincial cabinet minister in any province.[32]

Vim Kochhar (the first Hindu appointed to the Senate),[33] Raj Sherman (the first Hindu to lead a Canadian political party),[34]

Bidhu Jha (the first Hindu elected to the Manitoba legislature).[35]

Anita Anand is the first Hindu cabinet minister in Canada. She became a cabinet minister in 2019.[36]

Attacks on Hindu community[edit]

  • In 2013 a Hindu temple in Surrey had three windows smashed. A baseball bat found there after the attack had Sikh markings.[37]
  • In 2018, the Montreal-based production house “Art of Where' advertised yoga-capris carrying images of Hindu deity Lord Ganesh. Rajan Zed, who is president of Universal Society of Hinduism called this highly inappropriate as it hurts Hindus. He also urged "Art of Where" to offer a formal apology.[38]
  • In 2021, when break-in was reported at Hindu Sabha temple and Shri Jagannath temple, both in Brampton. In 2021 January saw instances being reported in other temples including Maa Chintpurni Mandir, Brampton, Hindu Heritage Centre, Mississauga,  Gauri Shankar Mandir, Brampton and Hamilton Samaj Temple, Hamilton.[39]
  • In 2022, the film, Kaali, made by Leena Manimekalai, was shown at the Aga Khan Museum in Toronto as part of a multimedia storytelling project, Under the Tent. The community was upset over the poster depicting Goddess Kali smoking a cigarette. High Commission of India to Canada raised objection over the disrespectful portrayal of Goddess.[40] The Aga Khan Museum issued apology afterwards.[41] Chandra Arya, Napean MP, also condemned the portrayal and welcomed the apology of Aga Khan Museum.[42]
  • In 2022, the BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir of Toronto was defaced by Khalistani extremists with anti-Hindu and anti-India graffiti. The Indian High Commission to Canada raised the objection. Chandra Arya, Napean MP, condemned the hate crime and expressed concern of rising incidents in recent times. Sonia Sidhu, Brampton South MP, condemned the incident and asserted it to be unacceptable in multicultural society.[43] Patrick Brown, Mayor of Brampton expressed his disappointment. Ruby Sahota, Brampton North MP, termed the hate crime 'disgusting' and demanded punishment for the criminals.[44]
  • In 2022, the newly inaugurated Shri Bhagvad Gita Park in Brampton was attacked and the board sign was vandalized. Patrick Brown, Brampton Mayor confirmed the vandalism at the park and said that Canada has "zero tolerance" for such attacks. The Indian High Commission to Canada condemned the hate crime and demanded investigation and action against the perpetrators.[45]
  • In 2022, controversial banners saying "Burnt Alive By Hindu Mobs" appeared in city which Deepak Anand, MPP Mississauga-Malton condemned.[46] Reportedly, the Mayor of Brampton, Patrick Brown was asked by the Hindu community to remove hateful banners against Hindus from all over the city.[47]
  • In January, 2023 the Gauri Shankar Temple of Brampton was defaced with anti-India and anti-Hindu graffiti. Consulate General of India in Toronto condemned the hateful act of vandalism and asked the Canadian authorities to investigate into the matter.[48] Brampton Mayor Patrick Brown condemned the hate crime.[49] Chandra Arya, Napean MP, condemned the anti-Hindu attack and called authorities for taking the rising crimes against Hindus seriously.[50] The founder and priest of temple Shri Dhirendra Tripathi said "Khalistanis have caused fear among us. They have become emboldened and the community is uncertain about their next actions. Canadian authorities should take stern steps to curb their activities".[51]
  • In January 2023, the New Brunswick legislature rejected a requested made by Rajan Zed to recite Hindu prayer at the opening of assembly citing that the Christian prayer is a 'well-established practice' and there is no intention to deviate from it. Several Hindu community and temple organizations' members expressed displeasure over exclusionary practices.[52][53]
  • In February 2023, the Ram Mandir of Mississauga was defaced with anti-India graffiti allegedly by Khalistani extremists.[54] The Indian Consulate General in Toronto issued a statement condemning the attack. Mr. Patrick Brown, Brampton Mayor condemned the incident stressing importance of religious freedom and assured investigation by Peel Police.[55] Canadian Minister of National Defence Anita Anand and Minister of Foreign Affairs Melanie Joly expressed solidarity with Hindu community facing repeated vandalism of their places of worship.[56] The police has not investigated the motive behind the hate-crime but the Hindu community suspect that it is the Sikh separatists who are responsible for it given the content of graffiti.[57]
  • In April 2023, the BAPS Swaminarayan Temple of Windsor, Ontario was vandalized with anti-Hindu graffiti.[58] The Windsor Police acknowledged the hate-motived vandalism of temple with anti-India and anti-Hindu graffiti. The Consulate General of India in Toronto condemned the hateful attack.[59] The Ministry of External Affairs of India issued a statement condemning the hate crime.[60]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Religion by visible minority and generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". 26 October 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Population of Christians, Hindus, Muslims and Non-Religious in Canada According to 2021 Census". To Do Canada. Retrieved 27 October 2022.
  3. ^ a b "Indo-Canadians in 1920s and 1930s" (PDF). AHSNB Project. Retrieved 4 June 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ Pritam (4 August 2020). "Top 5 Reasons For High Gujarati Population In Canada". Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  5. ^ "Punjabi among top three immigrant languages in Canada". Hindustan Times. 2017-08-03. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  6. ^ Wood, John R. (1978). "East Indians and Canada's New Immigration Policy". Canadian Public Policy. 4 (4): 547–567. doi:10.2307/3549977. ISSN 0317-0861. JSTOR 3549977.
  7. ^ Adler, Mike (2019-12-24). "Opinion | For some Tamil-Canadians in Scarborough, Sri Lanka's war isn't over". Toronto.com. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  8. ^ "Hare Krishna abandoned street chanting in robes years ago". torontosun. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  9. ^ "Hare Krishna: The Rise in Krishna Consciousness". HuffPost Canada. 2011-09-20. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  10. ^ a b c "2011 National Household Survey". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  11. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2022-02-09). "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Canada [Country]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-10-26.
  12. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. "Topic-based tabulation: Selected Demographic and Cultural Characteristics (104), Selected Religions (35A), Age Groups (6) and Sex (3) for Population, for Canada, Provinces, Territories and Census Metropolitan Areas, 2001 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  13. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (2013-05-08). "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables – Religion (108), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2021-06-14.
  14. ^ "Add/Remove data - Religion by visible minority and generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts". 26 October 2022.
  15. ^ "Hinduism | The Canadian Encyclopedia". www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  16. ^ "CATHOLIC CANADIAN CONVERTED TO HINDUISM". THE HINDU PORTAL - spiritual media to elevate Indian culture, spirituality. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  17. ^ Coward, Harold; Hinnells, John R.; Williams, Raymond Brady (2012-02-01). The South Asian Religious Diaspora in Britain, Canada, and the United States. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-9302-1.
  18. ^ Doniger, Wendy (2010-09-30). The Hindus: An Alternative History. OUP. ISBN 978-0-19-959334-7.
  19. ^ Canada, Library and Archives (2012-04-17). "East Indian". www.bac-lac.gc.ca. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  20. ^ Tams, Kim (13 May 2014). "Lethbridge home to the largest Bhutanese community in Canada". Global News. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  21. ^ Klingbeil, Annalise (22 August 2016). "How Lethbridge became Canada's Bhutanese capital". Calgary Herald. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  22. ^ "History of South Asians in Canada: Timeline · South Asian Canadian Heritage". South Asian Canadian Heritage. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  23. ^ Elgood, Heather (2000). Hinduism and the religious arts. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-8264-9865-6. OCLC 271467496.
  24. ^ "Hindu Sabha Temple Hall Rentals - Hall Rentals in Brampton, ON". localservices.sulekha.com. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  25. ^ Grant, Hamish (2007-02-21), Hindu Sabha Mandir, Brampton, retrieved 2021-04-02
  26. ^ "THE BELINDA STRONACH FOUNDATION | Tony Blair and Belinda Stronach Join in collaboration with Canadian faith and belief leaders". Newswire.ca. 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
  27. ^ Archived copy Archived September 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ "32 percent Canadians feel Hinduism influence growing". 17 November 2017. Archived from the original on 19 August 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  29. ^ Trouillet, Pierre-Yves (2012-12-28). "Overseas Temples and Tamil Migratory Space". South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal (6). doi:10.4000/samaj.3415. ISSN 1960-6060.
  30. ^ "Adaptation and Acculturation | Caring for Kids New to Canada". www.kidsnewtocanada.ca. Retrieved 2021-04-09.
  31. ^ "Few Hindus enter Canadian politics – Hindu Education Link". Archived from the original on 2019-01-27. Retrieved 2019-01-27.
  32. ^ "Hindu community is slowly coming of age in Canadian politics". Hindustan Times. 2017-11-26. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  33. ^ "India-born CEO appointed senator in Canada". Hindustan Times. 2010-01-30. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  34. ^ "Living in interesting times could prove to be a curse". StAlbertToday.ca. 19 March 2011. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  35. ^ "Bihar and Jharkhand - Directory of Achievers: Mr.Bidhu Jha". biharandjharkhand.com. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  36. ^ "Meet Anita Indira Anand, a law professor who became Canada's first Hindu minister". City: World. Businessinsider. 21 November 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  37. ^ "Surrey Hindu temple vandals caught on camera". cbc.ca. 24 June 2013.
  38. ^ "Home » YesPunjab.com". YesPunjab.com. Retrieved 2021-06-04.
  39. ^ "Concerns after Hindu temples vandalised in Canada's Greater Toronto area". WION News. WION. 12 February 2022. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  40. ^ "Kaali poster row: India urges Canada to withdraw provocative material". Hindustan Times. 2022-07-05. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
  41. ^ "'Kaali' poster row: Canada museum issues apology after Indian High Commission's complaint". India Today. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
  42. ^ "India-born Canada MP says Kaali poster painful, 'anti-Hindu, anti-India forces...'". Hindustan Times. 2022-07-06. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
  43. ^ "Anti-India graffiti on Swaminarayan temple in Toronto; India raises issue with Canada". The Hindu. PTI. 2022-09-15. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2022-09-15.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  44. ^ Mukhopadhyay, Sounak (2022-09-15). "Temple in Canada vandalised with anti-India graffiti". mint. Retrieved 2022-09-15.
  45. ^ "India condemns 'hate crime' at Bhagavad Gita Park in Canada, seeks action". www.business-standard.com. Press Trust of India. 2022-10-02. Retrieved 2022-10-02.
  46. ^ @deepakanandmpp (November 1, 2022). "Killing baby is a heinous crime, unacceptable, unforgivable. I'm deeply disturbed by this sign, painting all Hindus as mob" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  47. ^ ANI (2022-11-06). "Canada: Hindu diaspora heckles Brampton Mayor, asks removal of hateful banners by pro-Khalistanis". ThePrint. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
  48. ^ PTI (2023-01-30). "Heritage Hindu temple defaced with anti-India graffiti in Canada". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2023-01-31.
  49. ^ "After Australia, it's Canada again -- Hindu temple vandalised". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2023-01-31.
  50. ^ "Heritage Hindu Temple Defaced with Anti-India Graffiti in Canada". News18. 2023-01-31. Retrieved 2023-01-31.
  51. ^ PTI (2023-01-31). "Priest of Hindu temple vandalised in Canada urges revocation of passports of those involved". ThePrint. Retrieved 2023-01-31.
  52. ^ N.B.'s rejection of non-Christian prayers sends 'damaging message' to newcomers CBC. January 23, 2023. Retrieved March 29, 2023
  53. ^ N.B. legislature says no to one-time recital of Hindu prayer CBC. January 6, 2023. Retrieved March 29, 2023
  54. ^ PTI (2023-02-15). "Another Hindu temple vandalised in Canada; India seeks swift action". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2023-02-15.
  55. ^ "Another Hindu temple defaced in Canada; India seeks action". Deccan Herald. 2023-02-15. Retrieved 2023-02-15.
  56. ^ "Canada: Ministers condemn desecration of Hindu temple in Toronto". Hindustan Times. 2023-02-16. Retrieved 2023-02-17.
  57. ^ Brampton mayor, faith leaders, police condemn vandalism at Hindu temples in GTA CBC. February 22, 2023. Retrieved March 29, 2023
  58. ^ "Another Hindu temple vandalised in Canada's Ontario province". Hindustan Times. 2023-04-05. Retrieved 2023-04-06.
  59. ^ ANI (2023-04-06). "Canada: Hindu temple vandalised in Windsor, police launches investigation". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2023-04-06.
  60. ^ "MEA condemns Hindu temple vandalisation in Canada, calls it 'unfortunate'". mint. 2023-04-06. Retrieved 2023-04-06.

External links[edit]