Religion in Montenegro
While Orthodox Christianity is the dominant form of religion in Montenegro, there are also sizable numbers of adherents of both Islam and Catholic Christianity. The dominant Church is the Serbian Orthodox Church although traces of a forming Montenegrin Orthodox Church are present.
The results of the Montenegrin census of 2011 by ethnic groups, the latest census in which the indication of identification (whether by confession or as irreligious) in the question for confession was obligatory, are as follows:
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Orthodox Christianity is the dominant religion in Montenegro. Adherents of Orthodox Christianity in Montenegro are predominantly Montenegrins and Serbs. Ethnic Serbs in Montenegro are adherents of the Serbian Orthodox Church and its dioceses in Montenegro: Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral, Eparchy of Budimlja and Nikšić and Eparchy of Mileševa. Ethnic Montenegrins are divided between the Serbian Orthodox Church and the Montenegrin Orthodox Church (which is a schismatic church, and non-canonical and unrecognized). The current Metropolitan of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church is bishop Amfilohije Radović.
Muslims in Montenegro are divided into two main groups, and further subgroups:
- Slavic Muslims
- Albanian Muslims
Islam is the dominant religion in the northeastern municipalities, which are part of the Sandžak geographical region, and in municipalities where Albanians form a majority. Islam is the majority religion in Rožaje, Plav, Gusinje, Ulcinj and Petnjica.
Catholic Christianity is mostly present in the region of Boka Kotorska, where there is a significant presence of ethnic Croats. Also, a number of ethnic Albanians are adherents of Catholic Christianity.
In February 2012, the Montenegrin Prime Minister Igor Lukšić signed an agreement with the Montenegrin Jewish community to grant official recognition of Jews as a minority in Montenegro. The agreement also established Judaism as the country's fourth official religion, along with the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Christianity, and Islam.
The majority of Montenegro's population, 98.69%, declares to belong to a religion, though observance of their declared religion may vary widely.
On the census from 2011, atheists, those who declared no religion, comprised about 1.24% of the whole population, and agnostics 0.07%.
Municipalities with highest share of atheists are Herceg Novi (2.43%), Kotor (2.03%), Podgorica (1.99%) and Tivat (1.7%). In contrast, Rožaje has the fewest atheists, who make up only 0.01% of its population.
In some municipalities more than half of population are undeclared, however.
Montenegro's laws guarantee the freedom of religion and outlaw several forms of religious discrimination, as well as establishing that there is no state religion in Montenegro. The government provides some funding to religious groups.
According to a 2017 survey conducted by the Council of Europe in cooperation with the Office of the Ombudsperson of Montenegro, 45% of respondents reported having experienced religious discrimination.
- Demographics of Montenegro
- Orthodoxy in Montenegro
- Catholic Church in Montenegro
- Protestantism in Montenegro
- Islam in Montenegro
- History of the Jews in Montenegro
- Irreligion in Montenegro
- "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Montenegro 2011" (PDF). Monstat. pp. 14, 15. Retrieved July 12, 2011. For the purpose of the chart, the categories 'Islam' and 'Muslims' were merged; 'Buddhist' (.02) and Other Religions were merged; 'Atheist' (1.24) and 'Agnostic' (.07) were merged; and 'Adventist' (.14), 'Christians' (.24), 'Jehovah Witness' (.02), and 'Protestants' (.02) were merged under 'Other Christian'.
- "Jewish history of Montenegro". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2012-11-16.
- International Religious Freedom Report 2017 Montenegro, US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Živković, Tibor (2012). De conversione Croatorum et Serborum: A Lost Source. Belgrade: The Institute of History.
- Živković, Tibor (2013). "On the Baptism of the Serbs and Croats in the Time of Basil I (867–886)" (PDF). Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana (1): 33–53.