Hinduism in Pakistan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Hinduism in Pakistan
Hawan at Hinglaj Mata (Rani ki Mandir) During Yanglaj Yatra 2017 Photo by Aliraza Khatri.jpg
Hawan at Hinglaj Mata Mandir during Hinglaj Yatra
Total population
3,935,739 (2017)[1][2]
1.85% of the Pakistani population[3]

8,000,000 (Hindu Council of Pakistan)
4% of the Pakistani Population

Regions with significant populations
Sindh, Punjab
Predominantly Sindhi  • with small minorities of: Gujarati,[5] Punjabi and English

Hinduism is the second largest religion in Pakistan.[6]Hindus comprises 1.85% of Pakistan's population according to the 1998 census.[7][8] However, the Pakistan Hindu Council puts the percentage at around 4%, which puts the population at an estimated 8 million[8] As of 2010, Pakistan has the fifth largest Hindu population in the world and by 2050 will rise to the fourth largest Hindu population in the world,[9], reaching 5.6 million[9] and constituting 2% of the Pakistan population.[10] After Pakistan gained independence from the British Raj, 4.7 million of West Pakistan's Hindus and Sikhs moved to India as refugees.[11]

Hindus in Pakistan are primarily concentrated in Sindh, where the majority of Hindu enclaves are found in Pakistan.[12] They speak a variety of languages such as Sindhi, Seraiki, Aer, Dhatki, Gera, Goaria, Gurgula, Jandavra, Kabutra, Koli, Loarki, Marwari, Sansi, Vaghri[13] and Gujarati.[5] Although small in numbers, Hindus in Pakistan are not less complex than in other parts of the world. Many Hindus, especially in the rural areas, follow the teachings of local Sufi pīrs (Urdu: spiritual guide) or adhere to the 14th-century saint Ramdevji, whose main temple is located in Tando Allahyar. A growing number of urban Hindu youth in Pakistan associate themselves with ISKCON society. Other communities worship manifold "Mother Goddesses" as their clan or family patrons.[14] A different branch, the Nanakpanth, follows the teachings of the Guru Granth Sahib, also known as the holy book of the Sikhs. This diversity, especially in rural Sindh, often thwarts classical definitions between Hinduism, Sikhism, and Islam.

One of the most important places of worship for Hindus in Pakistan is the shrine of Hinglaj Mata in Balochistan.[15][16] Hinglaj Yatra is the largest Hindu pilgrimage in the Pakistan.[17]


Hinglaj Mata Mandir Cave entrance

Ancient ages[edit]

Peshawar, Pakistan
Extent of the Indus Valley Civilization sites.

The Rig Veda, the oldest Hindu text, was believed to have been composed in the Punjab region of modern-day Pakistan (and India) on the banks of the Indus River around 1500 BCE.[18] Various archaeological finds such as the swastika symbol, yogic postures, what appears to be like a "Pasupati" image that was found on the seals of the people of Mohenjo-daro, in Sindh, point to early influences that may have shaped Hinduism. The religious beliefs and folklore of the Indus valley people have become a major part of the Hindu faith that evolved in this part of the South Asia. The Sindh kingdom and its rulers play an important role in the Indian epic story of the Mahabharata. In addition, a Hindu legend states that the Pakistani city of Lahore was first founded by Lava, while Kasur was founded by his twin Kusha, both of whom were the sons of Lord Rama of the Ramayana. The Gandhara kingdom of the northwest, and the legendary Gandhara peoples, are also a major part of Hindu literature such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Many Pakistani city names (such as Peshawar[19] and Multan[20]) can be traced back to Sanskrit roots.


After Pakistan gained independence from Britain on 14 August 1947, 4.7 million of the country's Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India.[11] In 1947, Hindus constituted 12.9% of Pakistan, which made Pakistan (including present day Bangladesh) the second largest Hindu-population country after India.[21] In the 1951 census, West Pakistan had 1.6% Hindu population, while East Pakistan (modern Bangladesh) had 22.05%.[22][23][24] The 1998 census of Pakistan recorded less than 2.5 million Hindus.[25] .Hindus constitute about 1.6 percent of the total population of Pakistan in 1998 and about 7.5% in the Sindh province.

In 1956, the government of Pakistan declared 32 castes and tribes, the majority of them Hindus, to be scheduled castes, including Kohlis, Meghawars, and Bheels.[26][27] The Pakistan Census separates members of scheduled castes, 0.25% of the national population, from other Hindus.[28][29]

As per the data from the Election Commission of Pakistan, as of 2018 there were a total of 1.77 million Hindu voters. Hindu voters were 49% of the total in Umerkot and 46% in Tharparkar.[30][31]

According to estimates in Religious Minorities in Pakistan’s Elections , the Hindus have a population of 50,000 or more in 11 districts.All of these are in Sindh except one district Rahim Yar Khan in Punjab.[32]

Hindu population by province[edit]

The percent of population of Hindus (including Hindu jati and scheduled castes) in the provinces in Pakistan, according to the 1998 census[33][34]

Province Percentage of Hindus Percentage of total Hindus in that province
Flag of Sindh.svg Sindh 7.50% 93.33%
Flag of Balochistan.svg Balochistan 0.59% 1.6%
Flag of Punjab.svg Punjab 0.16% 4.76%
Flag of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.svg Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 0.03% 0.21%
Flag of FATA.svg Federally Administered Tribal Areas (merged with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in 2018) 0.06% 0.08%
Proposed Flag of Islamabad Capital Territory.svg Islamabad Capital Territory 0.02% 0.008%

Hindu population by district[edit]

All districts with a Hindu population greater than 2%, according to the 1998 census. In other districts the population of Hindus is less than 1%.

Administrative Unit District Percentage of Hindus
Sindh Umerkot 47.6%
Tharparkar 40.5%
Mirpurkhas 32.7%
Sanghar 20%
Badin 19.9%
Hyderabad 12%
Ghotki 6.7%
Jacobabad 3.5%
Sukkur 3%
Khairpur 2.9%
Nawabshah 2.8%
Thatta 2.8%
Dadu 2%
Punjab Rahim Yar Khan 2.3%

In other districts the population of Hindus is less than 1%.

Hinduism and independence[edit]

The Swaminarayan Temple in Karachi was a departure point for those migrating to India after independence.
Mandir in Saidpur Village

At the time of Pakistan's creation the 'hostage theory' had been espoused. According to this theory the Hindu minority in Pakistan was to be given a fair deal in Pakistan in order to ensure the protection of the Muslim minority in India.[35][36] However, Khawaja Nazimuddin, the 2nd Prime Minister of Pakistan stated: "I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be".[37]

After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, over 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs from West Pakistan left for India, and 6.5 million Muslims chose to migrate to Pakistan.[11] The reasons for this exodus were the heavily charged communal atmosphere in British Raj, deep distrust of each other, the brutality of violent mobs and the antagonism between the religious communities. That over 1 million people lost their lives in the bloody violence of 1947 should attest to the fear and hate that filled the hearts of millions of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs who left ancestral homes hastily after independence.

Many Hindus who attained great success in India, like Bollywood film stars and directors Dev Anand, Raj Kapoor, Ramesh Sippy, Vinod Khanna, Manoj Kumar, Yash Chopra, Balraj Sahni, Rajendra Kumar and Sunil Dutt, trace their birthplaces and ancestral homes to the towns of Pakistan. Independent India's first Test cricket captain, Lala Amarnath, hailed from Lahore; prime ministers I K Gujral and Gulzarilal Nanda are also from the part of the Punjab which became part of Pakistan.

Former Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was born near Rawalpindi, while former deputy prime minister Lal Krishna Advani was born in Karachi. Nearly all of these individuals left their homes due to the violence and turmoil during Partition.

Religious, social and political institutions[edit]

Hindu children at Mandir during prayer

The Indus river is a holy river to many Hindus, and the Government of Pakistan periodically allows small groups of Hindus from India to make pilgrimage and take part in festivities in Sindh[38] and Punjab.[39]Rich Pakistani Hindus go to India and release their loved one’s remains into the Ganges, those who cannot afford the trip, go to Churrio Jabal Durga Mata temple in Nagarparkar.[40]

The communal violence of the 1940s and the subsequent persecutions have resulted in the destruction of many Hindu temples in Pakistan, although the Hindu community and the Government of Pakistan have preserved and protected many prominent ones. Some ancient Hindu temples in Pakistan draw devotees from across faiths including Muslims.[41] The Hindu Gymkhana in Karachi has tried to promote social development for Hindus in the city. One of the few temples remaining in Karachi today is the Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Karachi.

Hindus are allotted separate electorates to vote and seats in the provincial assemblies, National Assembly and the Senate. The Pakistan Hindu Panchayat, Pakistan Hindu Council and the Pakistani Hindu Welfare Association are the primary civic organizations that represent and organise Hindu communities on social, economic, religious and political issues in most of the country, with the exception of the Shiv Temple Society of Hazara, which especially represents community interests in the Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in addition to being the special guardians of the Shiva temple, at Chitti Gatti village, near Mansehra.The Pakistan Hindu Council runs 13 schools across Tharparkar[42] and also conducts mass wedding of poor Hindu couples.[43]

There was a Ministry of Minority Affairs in the Government of Pakistan which looked after specific issues concerning Pakistani religious minorities.In 2011, the Government of Pakistan closed the Ministry of Minority Affairs.[44][45]And a new ministry Ministry for National Harmony was formed for the protection of the rights of the minorities in Pakistan.[46]But soon in 2013,the Ministry of National Harmony was merged with the Ministry of Religious Affairs despite opposition from the minorities.[47]


The Constitution’s Article 51(2A) provides 10 reserved seats for non-muslims in the National Assembly, 23 reserved seats for non-muslims in the four provincial assemblies under Article 106[48] and four seats for non-Muslims in the Senate of Pakistan[49].Conventionally, Hindus were allotted 4 or 5 seats.

In 1980s Zia ul-Haq introduced a system under which non-Muslims could vote for only candidates of their own religion. Seats were reserved for minorities in the national and provincial assemblies. Government officials stated that the separate electorates system is a form of affirmative action designed to ensure minority representation, and that efforts are underway to achieve a consensus among religious minorities on this issue, but critics argued that under this system Muslim candidates no longer had any incentive to pay attention to the minorities. Pakistan's separate electoral system for different religions has been described as 'political apartheid'. Hindu community leader Sudham Chand protested against the system but was murdered. In 1999, Pakistan abolished this system. Hindus and other minorities achieved a rare political victory in 2002 with the removal of separate electorates for Muslims and non-Muslims. The separate electorate system had marginalized non-Muslims by depriving them of adequate representation in the assemblies. The Pakistan Hindu Welfare Association was active by convening a national conference on the issue in December 2000. And in 2001, Hindus, Christians, and Ahmadis successfully conducted a partial boycott of the elections, culminating in the abolishment of the separate electorate system in 2002. This allowed religious minorities to vote for mainstream seats in the National and Provincial assemblies, rather than being confined to voting for only minority seats. Despite the victory, however, Hindus still remain largely disenfranchised.[50]

In 2006, Ratna Bhagwandas Chawla became the first Hindu woman elected to the Senate of Pakistan.[51] Although there is reservation of seats for women in Pakistan National Assembly, not a single seat was allotted for non-Muslim women till 2018. In 2018, Krishna Kumari Kohli, a Hindu woman became the first non-Muslim women to win a women reserved seat in Senate of Pakistan.[52]

In 2018, Pakistan general election Mahesh Kumar Malani became first Hindu candidate who won a general seat in Pakistan National Assembly. He won the seat from Tharparkar-II and thus became the first non-Muslim to win a general seat (non-reserved)in Pakistan national assembly.[53] In the Sindh provincial assembly election which took place along with the Pakistan National Assembly election 2018, Hari Ram Kishori Lal and Giyan Chand Essrani were elected from the Sindh provincial assembly seats. They became the first non-Muslims to win a general seat (non-reserved) in a provincial assembly election.[54]

Other Hindu Communities[edit]

Tamil Hindus[edit]

Some Tamil Hindu families migrated to Pakistan in the early 20th century, when Karachi was developed during the British Raj, and were later joined by Sri Lankan Tamils who arrived during the Sri Lankan Civil War. and these Tamils are mostly Hindus. The Madrasi Para area is home to around 100 Tamil Hindu families.The Maripata Mariamman Temple, which has been demolished, was the biggest Tamil Hindu temple in Karachi. Localities such as Drigh Road and Korangi are home to small percentages of Tamil population.[55]

Kalasha people[edit]

The Kalasha people practice an ancient form of Hinduism mixed with animism. They are considered as a different ethnic religion people by the Pakistan government. They reside in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. Kalasha Desh (the three Kalash valleys) is made up of two distinct cultural areas, the valleys of Rumbur and Bumburet forming one, and Birir valley the other; Birir valley being the more traditional of the two.

Being a very small minority in a Muslim region, the Kalash have increasingly been targeted by some proselytising Muslims.


Nanakpanthi are Hindus, who revere Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism along with Hindu gods. Today a large fraction of the Sindhi Hindus consider themselves not simply as Sikhs or Hindus, but more precisely as Nanakpanthi.[56]

Community life[edit]

According to a study, majority of the scheduled caste Hindus(79%) in Pakistan have experienced discrimination.The discrimination is higher in Southern Punjab (86.5 %) compared to the rest of the country.The study found that majority (91.5% ) of the respondents in Rahimyar Khan , Bahawalpur, Tharparkar and Umerkot districts believed that political parties are not giving importance to them. The study also found that the scheduled caste Hindu women are most vulnerable to sexual abuse by Muslim men and young girls are lured into matrimony or abducted and wed through forced conversions. [57] [58]

Karachi's city culture allows for a secular environment, providing opportunities to Hindu minorities. Though Islamisation has impacted the country since the 1980s, the secular institutions established during British rule allow Hindus to take advantage of education, sports, cultural activities, and government services, and participate in mainstream Pakistani life.

Prominent Pakistani Hindus include Pakistani cricketers Danish Kaneria and Anil Dalpat,[59] fashion designer Deepak Perwani, and former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan Rana Bhagwandas. In 2018, Suman Bodani become the first Hindu woman to be appointed civil judge in Pakistan.[60]

Hindu marriage acts[edit]

In February 2016, the Provincial Assembly of Sindh approved the Sindh Hindu Marriage Bill for millions of Hindus living in the Sindh Province.[61][62] The bill paves the way for regulations on registration of marriages and divorce for Hindus and fixes the minimum marrying age for males and females at 18 years-old.[63]At federal level,a Hindu Marriage Bill was proposed in 2016,which was unanimously approved by the National Assembly of Pakistan in 2016[64][65]and by the Senate of Pakistan in 2017.[66] In March 2017, the Pakistani President Mamnoon Hussain signed the Hindu Marriage Bill and thereby making it a law. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif also mentioned that the marriage registrars will be established in areas where Hindus stay.[67]The federal law was accepted by all provinces of Pakistan exception Sindh,which has a separate legislation (Sindh Hindu Marriage Act) for Hindu marriage.Thus there are two laws in Pakistan governing Hindu marriages– one for Sindh and other for the rest of the country.[68]The The Sindh Hindu Marriage Bill was amended in 2018 to include divorce rights,remarriage rights and financial security of the wife and children after divorce.[69]

However,many have critised the Clause 12(iii) of the Hindu Marriage Bill which says that "a marriage will be annulled if any of the spouses converts to another religion".There are fears the clause would be misused for forced conversions of married women the same way young girls are being subjected to forced conversions.[70]

Decline and persecution[edit]


Manora Island Beach, with Varun Dev Mandir visible in the top right corner, Manora Beach, Karachi, Pakistan

There has been historical decline of Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism in the areas of Pakistan. This happened for a variety of reasons even as these religions have continued to flourish beyond the eastern frontiers of Pakistan. The region became predominantly Muslim during the rule of Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire. In general, religious conversion was a gradual process, some converting to Islam to get rid of the caste system of Hinduism, with some converts attracted to pious Muslim saints, while others converted to Islam to gain tax relief, land grant, marriage partners, social and economic advancement,[71] or freedom from slavery and some by force.[72] The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Partition of India. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslims refugees from India migrated to Pakistan. Approximately 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved to India while 6.5 million Muslims settled in Pakistan.

Some Hindus in Pakistan feel that they are treated as second-class citizens and many have continued to migrate to India.[73][74] According to the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan data, just around 1,000 Hindu families fled to India in 2013.[75] In May 2014, a member of the ruling Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N), Dr Ramesh Kumar Vankwani, revealed in the National Assembly of Pakistan that around 5,000 Hindus are migrating from Pakistan to India every year.[76]

Those Pakistani Hindus who have migrated to India allege that Hindu girls are harassed in Pakistani schools and their religious practices are mocked.[77] The Indian government is planning to issue Aadhaar cards and PAN cards to Pakistani Hindu refugees, and simplifying the process by which they can acquire Indian citizenship.[78]

Many Hindus voluntarily converts to Islam for easily getting Watan Cards and National Identification Cards. These converts were also given land and money. For example, 428 poor Hindus in Matli were converted between 2009-11 by the Madrassa Baitul Islam, a Deobandi seminary in Matli, which pays off the debts of Hindus converting to Islam.[79] Another example is the conversion of 250 Hindus to Islam in Chohar Jamali area in Thatta.[80] Conversions are also carried out by Deen Mohammad Shaikh mission which converted 108,000 people to Islam since 1989.[81]


Separate electorates for Hindus and Christians were established in 1985—a policy originally proposed by Islamist leader Abul A'la Maududi. Christian and Hindu leaders complained that they felt excluded from the county's political process, but the policy had strong support from Islamists.[82] Until 1999, when former military chief Pervez Musharaf overthrew Nawaz Sharif's government, non-Muslims had dual voting rights in the general elections that allowed them to not only vote for Muslim candidates on general seats, but also for their own non-Muslim candidates.[83]

In the aftermath of the Babri Masjid demolition, widespread retaliatory riots erupted against Hindus. Mobs attacked scores of Hindu temples across Pakistan.[84] Shops owned by Hindus were also attacked in Sukkur, Sindh. Hindu homes and temples were also attacked in Quetta.[85]

Krishan Mandir, Kallar, Pakistan

In 2005, 32 Hindus were killed by firing near Nawab Akbar Bugti's residence during bloody clashes between Bugti tribesmen and paramilitary forces in Balochistan. The firing left the Hindu residential locality near Bugti's residence badly hit,[86] though Bugti's armed tribesmen were the targets of Pakistani forces.[86]

The rise of Taliban insurgency in Pakistan has been an influential and increasing factor in the persecution of and discrimination against religious minorities in Pakistan, such as Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, and other minorities.[87] It is said that there is persecution of religious minorities in Pakistan.[88][89]

View from top of the temple, Katas, Pakistan

In July 2010, around 60 members of the minority Hindu community in Karachi were attacked and evicted from their homes following an incident of a Dalit Hindu youth drinking water from a tap near an Islamic Mosque.[90][91] In January 2014, a policeman standing guard outside a Hindu temple at Peshawar was gunned down.[92] Pakistan's Supreme Court has sought a report from the government on its efforts to ensure access for the minority Hindu community to temples – the Karachi bench of the apex court was hearing applications against the alleged denial of access to the members of the minority community.[93][94][95]

Forced Conversion[edit]

Dargah pir sarhandi, a frequent crime scene of forced conversion and marriage of kidnapped underage Hindu girls.

Many Hindu girls in Pakistan are kidnapped, forcibly converted and married to Muslims.[96] According to the Pakistan Hindu Council, forced conversions remain the foremost reason for migration of Hindus from Pakistan. Religious institutions like Abdul Haq (Mitthu Mian) of Bharchindi Sharif Shia Dargah and custodian of Sarhandi Pir support forced conversions and are known to have support and protection of ruling political parties of Sindh.[97][98]

According to the National Commission of Justice and Peace and the Pakistan Hindu Council (PHC) around 1000 non-muslim minority women are converted to Islam and then forcibly married off to their abductors or rapists. This practice is being reported increasingly in the districts of Tharparkar, Umerkot and Mirpur Khas in Sindh.[97] According to the Amarnath Motumal, the vice chairperson of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, every month, an estimated 20 or more Hindu girls are abducted and converted, although exact figures are impossible to gather.[96] In 2014 alone, 265 legal cases of forced conversion were reported mostly involving Hindu girls.[99]

Pakistan Studies curriculum issues[edit]

A woman reciting the Bhagvad Gita at the Sadh Belo temple on the special occasion of the 150th death anniversary of Baba Bhankandi Maharaj

According to the Sustainable Development Policy Institute report, "Associated with the insistence on the Ideology of Pakistan has been an essential component of hate against India and the Hindus. For the upholders of the Ideology of Pakistan, the existence of Pakistan is defined only in relation to Hindus, and hence the Hindus have to be painted as negatively as possible".[100]

A 2005 report by the National Commission for Justice and Peace, a non-profit organization in Pakistan, found that Pakistan Studies textbooks in Pakistan have been used to articulate the hatred that Pakistani policy-makers have attempted to inculcate towards the Hindus. "Vituperative animosities legitimise military and autocratic rule, nurturing a siege mentality. Pakistan Studies textbooks are an active site to represent India as a hostile neighbour", the report stated. 'The story of Pakistan's past is intentionally written to be distinct from, and often in direct contrast with, interpretations of history found in India. From the government-issued textbooks, students are taught that Hindus are backward and superstitious.' Further the report stated "Textbooks reflect intentional obfuscation."[101][102][103][104]

In 1975, Islamiat or Islamic studies was made compulsory, resulting that a large number of minority students being forced to study Islamic Studies.[105]In 2015,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government introduced Ethics as an alternative subject to Islamiat for non-Muslim schoolchildren in the province[106] followed by Sindh in 2016[107].But the lack of textbooks on ethics in markets and lack of teachers in the schools forced minority students to opt for Islamiat.[108]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ [1][dead link]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ [3] }
  4. ^ [4]
  5. ^ a b Rehman, Zia Ur (18 August 2015). "With a handful of subbers, two newspapers barely keeping Gujarati alive in Karachi". The News International. Retrieved 13 January 2017. In Pakistan, the majority of Gujarati-speaking communities are in Karachi including Dawoodi Bohras, Ismaili Khojas, Memons, Kathiawaris, Katchhis, Parsis (Zoroastrians) and Hindus, said Gul Hasan Kalmati, a researcher who authored “Karachi, Sindh Jee Marvi”, a book discussing the city and its indigenous communities. Although there are no official statistics available, community leaders claim that there are three million Gujarati-speakers in Karachi – roughly around 15 percent of the city’s entire population.
  6. ^ "Population Distribution by Religion, 1998 Census" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  7. ^ name="census.gov.pk">"Population by religion". Archived from the original on 2 April 2014.
  8. ^ a b "Hindu Population (PK) – Pakistan Hindu Council". Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  9. ^ a b "10 Countries With the Largest Hindu Populations, 2010 and 2050". Pew Research Center. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  10. ^ "Projected Population Change in Countries With Largest Hindu Populations in 2010". Pew Research Center. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  11. ^ a b c Hasan, Arif; Raza, Mansoor (2009). Migration and Small Towns in Pakistan. IIED. p. 12. ISBN 9781843697343. When the British Indian Empire was partitioned in 1847, 4.7 million Sikhs and Hindus left what is today Pakistan for India, and 6.5 million Muslims left India and moved to Pakistan.
  12. ^ "The truth about forced conversions in Thar". Dawn.com. 17 July 2017.
  13. ^ "Pakistan". Ethnologue.
  14. ^ Being In The World Productions, MOTHER CALLING. KALI IN KARACHI (Pakistan 2013, 45min), retrieved 7 August 2018
  15. ^ Schaflechner, Jürgen (2018). Hinglaj Devi : identity, change, and solidification at a Hindu temple in Pakistan. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190850555. OCLC 1008771979.
  16. ^ Being In The World Productions, ON BECOMING GODS (Pakistan 2011, 44min), retrieved 7 August 2018
  17. ^ "In a Muslim-majority country, a Hindu goddess lives on". Culture & History. 10 January 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  18. ^ "Rigveda | Hindu literature". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  19. ^ Kumkum Roy. Historical Dictionary of Ancient India. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 259.
  20. ^ Jarred Scarboro. Ultimate Handbook Guide to Multan : (Pakistan) Travel Guide. p. 7.
  21. ^ Hindus in South Asia & the Diaspora: A Survey of Human Rights, 2013. Hindu American Foundation. 2013. p. 303.
  22. ^ D'Costa, Bina (2011), Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia, Routledge, pp. 100–, ISBN 978-0-415-56566-0
  23. ^ [5]
  24. ^ "Census of Bangladesh". Banbeis.gov.bd. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  25. ^ Population by religion Archived 19 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ https://www.dawn.com/news/1244684/caste-and-captivity-dalit-suffering-in-sindh
  27. ^ https://idsn.org/wp-content/uploads/user_folder/pdf/Old_files/asia/pdf/RR_Pakistan.pdf
  28. ^ [6]
  29. ^ "Hindus in South Asia & the Diaspora: A Survey of Human Rights, 2013". 2013.
  30. ^ Khan, Iftikhar A. (28 May 2018). "Number of non-Muslim voters in Pakistan shows rise of over 30pc".
  31. ^ "Pakistan General Election: Non-Muslim voters increase by 30 percent in 5 years, Hindus most numerically significant minority – Firstpost". www.firstpost.com.
  32. ^ https://herald.dawn.com/news/1154039
  33. ^ https://www.scribd.com/document/400843609/Pakisatn-Bearu-of-Statistics-Population-by-Religion-pdf
  34. ^ http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files/tables/POPULATION%20BY%20RELIGION.pdf
  35. ^ Zamindar, Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali (2010). The Long Partition and the Making of Modern South Asia: Refugees, Boundaries, Histories. Columbia University Press. p. 72. ISBN 9780231138475. The logic of the hostage theory tied the treatment of Muslim minorities in India to the treatment meted out to Hindus in Pakistan.
  36. ^ Dhulipala, Venkat (2015). Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India. Cambridge University Press. p. 19. ISBN 9781316258385. Within the subcontinent, ML propaganda claimed that besides liberating the 'majority provinces' Muslims it would guarantee protection for Muslims who would be left behind in Hindu India. In this regard, it repeatedly stressed the hostage population theory that held that 'hostage' Hindu and Sikh minorities inside Pakistan would guarantee Hindu India's good behaviour towards its own Muslim minority.
  37. ^ Qasmi, Ali Usman (2015). The Ahmadis and the Politics of Religious Exclusion in Pakistan. Anthem Press. p. 149. ISBN 9781783084258. Nazim-ud-Din favored an Islamic state not just out of political expediency but also because of his deep religious belief in its efficacy and practicality...Nazim-ud-Din commented:'I do not agree that religion is a private affair of the individual nor do I agree that in an Islamic state every citizen has identical rights, no matter what his caste, creed or faith be'.
  38. ^ "Pakistan: Over 70 Hindu pilgrims from India arrive in Sindh for Sant Shada Ram anniversary". The Indian Express. PTI. 23 November 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  39. ^ Tiwari, Siddharth (5 March 2016). "125 Indian hindu pilgrims visit Pakistan ahead of Maha Shivratri, welcomed at Wagah border". India Today. PTI. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  40. ^ https://tribune.com.pk/story/130210/contractor-blasting-through-tharparkar-temple-in-search-of-granite/?amp=1
  41. ^ "Ancient Pakistan temples draw devotees from across faiths". Times of India. TNN. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  42. ^ https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2017/04/22/how-long-will-govt-neglect-tharparkar-asks-mna-ramesh-kumar/
  43. ^ https://www.dawn.com/news/1455913
  44. ^ http://beta.dawn.com/news/640139/cabinet-approves-devolution-of-seven-ministries - Cabinet approves devolution of seven ministries, 28 June 2011
  45. ^ http://www.fides.org/en/news/28649-ASIA_PAKISTAN_Paul_Bhatti_appointed_Special_Advisor_for_Religious_Minorities#.Ug47WNK2M8w - Paul Bhatti appointed “Special Advisor” for Religious Minorities
  46. ^ https://tribune.com.pk/story/224702/ministry-of-national-harmony-formed/?amp=1
  47. ^ https://www.dawn.com/news/1020392
  48. ^ https://www.dawn.com/news/1280797
  49. ^ https://herald.dawn.com/news/1154039
  50. ^ "Hindus feel the heat in Pakistan". News.bbc.co.uk. 2 March 2007.
  51. ^ "After 1947, First Hindu Minority Woman From Thar to Become Senator in Pakistan". India.com. 21 February 2018.
  52. ^ "Hindu woman elected to Pakistan's senate in historic first: Report – Times of India".
  53. ^ "Meet Pakistan's First Hindu Candidate Mahesh Kumar Malani to Win on General Seat".
  54. ^ "Pakistan election: Muslim-majority areas elect 3 Hindu candidates in Sindh". Business Standard India. 31 July 2018.
  55. ^ "The connection between Tamils and Pakistan". 26 November 2017.
  56. ^ "Struggling to revive Gurmukhi – Daily Times". 18 October 2016.
  57. ^ http://www.dalits.nl/pdf/LongBehindSchedule.pdf
  58. ^ https://idsn.org/wp-content/uploads/user_folder/pdf/Old_files/asia/pdf/RR_Pakistan.pdf
  59. ^ "7 Non-Muslim cricketers who played for Pakistan". Cricket Country. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  60. ^ "In a first, Pakistan appoints Hindu woman as civil judge". The Express Tribune. 28 January 2019.
  61. ^ "Sindh Assembly approves Hindu Marriage Bill". Dawn newspaper. Reuters. 15 February 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  62. ^ https://scroll.in/article/819841/two-laws-govern-hindu-marriages-in-pakistan-but-neither-addresses-divorce-adequately
  63. ^ "Pakistan approves Hindu Marriage Bill after decades of inaction". Times of India. Press Trust of India. 9 February 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  64. ^ Ali, Kalbe (27 September 2016). "NA finally passes Hindu marriage bill". Dawn newspaper. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  65. ^ "Pakistani lawmakers adopt landmark Hindu marriage bill". Times of India. Press Trust of India. 27 September 2016. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
  66. ^ Yudhvir Rana (19 February 2017). "Pak senate's nod to Hindu Marriage Bill". Times of India. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
  67. ^ "Hindu Marriage Bill Becomes Law in Pakistan". News18. 20 March 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  68. ^ https://scroll.in/article/819841/two-laws-govern-hindu-marriages-in-pakistan-but-neither-addresses-divorce-adequately
  69. ^ https://m.timesofindia.com/world/pakistan/paks-sindh-to-let-divorced-or-widowed-hindu-women-remarry/articleshow/65360976.cms
  70. ^ https://scroll.in/article/819841/two-laws-govern-hindu-marriages-in-pakistan-but-neither-addresses-divorce-adequately
  71. ^ Malik 2008, p. 183-187.
  72. ^ Avari 2013, pp. 66–70: "Many Hindu slaves converted to Islam and gained their liberty."
  73. ^ Sohail, Riaz (2 March 2007). "Hindus feel the heat in Pakistan". BBC. Retrieved 22 February 2011. But many Hindu families who stayed in Pakistan after partition have already lost faith and migrated to India.
  74. ^ "Gujarat: 114 Pakistanis are Indian citizens now". Ahmedabad Mirror. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  75. ^ Rizvi, Uzair Hasan (10 September 2015). "Hindu refugees from Pakistan encounter suspicion and indifference in India". Dawn.
  76. ^ Haider, Irfan (13 May 2014). "5,000 Hindus migrating to India every year, NA told". Retrieved 15 January 2016.
  77. ^ "Why Pakistani Hindus leave their homes for India – BBC News". BBC News. 28 October 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  78. ^ "Modi government to let Pakistani Hindus register as citizens for as low as Rs 100 | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". Daily News and Analysis. 17 April 2016. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  79. ^ https://tribune.com.pk/story/324799/mass-conversions-for-matlis-poor-hindus-lakshmi-lies-in-another-religion/
  80. ^ "Pakistan to restore, hand over 400 Hindu temples". India Today. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  81. ^ "100,000 conversions and counting, meet the ex-Hindu who herds souls to the Hereafter". The Express Tribune. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  82. ^ Jones, Owen Bennett (2002). Pakistan: Eye of the Storm. Yale University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0300101478. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  83. ^ "Christian community campaigns for right to elect, not 'select'".
  84. ^ Gordon, Sandy; Gordon, A. D. D. (2014). India's Rise as an Asian Power: Nation, Neighborhood, and Region. Georgetown University Press. pp. 54–58. ISBN 9781626160743. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  85. ^ "Pakistanis Attack 30 Hindu Temples". The New York Times. 7 December 1992. Retrieved 15 April 2011. Muslims attacked more than 30 Hindu temples across Pakistan today, and the Government of this overwhelmingly Muslim nation closed offices and schools for a day to protest the destruction of a mosque in India.
  86. ^ a b Abbas, Zaffar (22 March 2005). "Journalists find Balochistan 'war zone'". BBC. Retrieved 26 December 2016. The Hindu residential locality that is close to Mr Bugti's fortress-like house was particularly badly hit. Mr Bugti says 32 Hindus were killed by firing from the government side in exchanges that followed an attack on a government convoy last Thursday.
  87. ^ Imtiaz, Saba; Walsh, Declan (15 July 2014). "Extremists Make Inroads in Pakistan's Diverse South". The New York Times.
  88. ^ "Persecution of religious minorities in Pakistan". Zee news. Zee Media Corporation Ltd. 21 October 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  89. ^ "Pakistan". State.gov.
  90. ^ Press Trust of India (12 July 2010). "Hindus attacked, evicted from their homes in Pak's Sindh". The Hindu. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
  91. ^ "Hindus attacked in Pakistan". Oneindia.in. 13 July 2010.
  92. ^ "Hindu temple guard gunned down in Peshawar". Newsweek Pakistan. AG Publications (Private) Limited. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  93. ^ "Are Hindus in Pakistan being denied access to temples?". rediff.com. PTI (Press Trust Of India). 27 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  94. ^ Sahoutara, Naeem (26 February 2014). "Hindus being denied access to temple, SC questions authorities". The Express Tribune News Network. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  95. ^ "Pak SC seeks report on denial of access to Hindu temple". Press Trust of India. 26 February 2014. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  96. ^ a b Javaid, Maham. "Forced conversions torment Pakistan's Hindus". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  97. ^ a b "Forced conversions of Pakistani Hindu girls". 19 September 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  98. ^ Who Is Mian Mithu?, Naya Daur, September 16, 2019
  99. ^ Ilyas, Faiza (20 March 2015). "265 cases of forced conversion reported last year, moot told". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  100. ^ Nayyar, A.H. and Salim, A. (eds.)(2003). The subtle Subversion: A report on Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan. Report of the project A Civil Society Initiative in Curricula and Textbooks Reform. Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad.
  101. ^ Hate mongering worries minorities Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Daily Times (Pakistan), 2006-04-25
  102. ^ In Pakistan's Public Schools, Jihad Still Part of Lesson Plan – The Muslim nation's public school texts still promote hatred and jihad, reformers say. By Paul Watson, Times Staff Writer; 18 August 2005; Los Angeles Times. 4-page article online, retrieved on 2 January 2010
  103. ^ Primers Of Hate – History or biology, Pakistani students get anti-India lessons in all their textbooks; 'Hindu, Enemy Of Islam' – These are extracts from government-sponsored textbooks approved by the National Curriculum Wing of the Federal Ministry of Education. By AMIR MIR; 10 Oct 2005; Outlook India Magazine Retrieved on 2 January 2010
  104. ^ Noor's cure: A contrast in views; by Arindam Banerji; 16 July 2003; Rediff India Abroad Retrieved on 2 January 2010
  105. ^ https://dailytimes.com.pk/39753/non-muslim-students-reluctant-to-study-islamic-studies-or-ethics/
  106. ^ http://paktribune.com/news/Ethics-as-an-alternative-subject-to-Islamiat-in-KP-273255.html
  107. ^ https://dailytimes.com.pk/39753/non-muslim-students-reluctant-to-study-islamic-studies-or-ethics/
  108. ^ https://dailytimes.com.pk/39753/non-muslim-students-reluctant-to-study-islamic-studies-or-ethics/

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]