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Punjabi Hindus are a group of people that follow the Hindu religion and have their roots and origin in the Punjab region of the Indian Subcontinent. In India, most Punjabi Hindus are concentrated in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Jammu, Chandigarh, Himachal pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and some part of Rajasthan, Gujrat.
Hinduism has been prevalent in Punjab since historical times before the arrival of Islam and birth of Sikhism in Punjab. Some of the influential Sikh figures such as Guru Nanak, Banda Singh Bahadur, Bhai Mati Das, all originated from Hindu families of Punjab. Many of Punjab's Hindus converted to Sikhism. In fact, Punjabi Hindus can trace their roots from the time of the Vedas. Many modern day cities in Indian Punjab and Pakistani Punjab are still named from that period like Lahore, Jalandhar, Chandigarh and so on. Examples of Punjabi Hindus include the former Prime ministers of India I.K. Gujral and Gulzari Lal Nanda and former Indian cricketer Kapil Dev and scientist Hargobind Khorana.
- 1 Vedic Punjab
- 2 Punjabi Hindus decreased population (1881–1941)
- 3 Punjabi Hindu sects
- 4 Punjabi language and Hindus
- 5 Punjabi Hindus and 1947 Partition
- 6 Demand for Punjabi Suba and subsequent trifurcation of Punjab
- 7 Unrest in Punjab in 1980s and 1990s
- 8 Distribution of population
- 9 Castes
- 10 Trivia
- 11 Notable Punjabi Hindus
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
The original Punjab region is now divided into several units: West Punjab (now in Pakistan), portions of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa such as the Gandharar region, the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh and the Indian Union territory of Chandigarh. The regions of Azad Kashmir and Jammu have also been historically associated with the Punjab.
- Saraswati (thought to be the present day Ghaggar),
- Satadru/Shutadri (Sutlej),
- Vipasa (Beas),
- Asikani, Chandrabhaga (Chenab),
- Iravati (Ravi),
- Vitasta/Vet (Jhelum) and
- Sindhu (Indus).
Among the classic books that were wholly or partly composed in this region are the following.
- Grammar of Sakatayana
- Ashtadhyayi of Pāṇini
- Nirukta of Yaska
- Charaka Samhita
- Mahabharata along with the Bhagavad Gita
- Brihatkatha of Gunadya
- The Bakhshali Manuscript
The Brahmins of this region are called 'Saraswata' after the legendary Saraswati river region, once known for the ashramas of the rishis.
Punjabi Hindus decreased population (1881–1941)
Table: Religious composition of population, 1881–1941 Percentage of census
- Year 1881 Muslims 47.6 Hindus 43.8 Sikhs 8.2 Christians 0.1 Others 0.3
- Year 1891 Muslims 47.8 Hindus 43.6 Sikhs 8.2 Christians 0.2 Others 0.2
- Year 1901 Muslims 49.6 Hindus 41.3 Sikhs 8.6 Christians 0.3 Others 0.2
- Year 1911 Muslims 51.1 Hindus 35.8 Sikhs 12.1 Christians 0.8 Others 0.2
- Year 1921 Muslims 51.1 Hindus 35.1 Sikhs 12.4 Christians 1.3 Others 0.1
- Year 1931 Muslims 52.4 Hindus 30.2 Sikhs 14.3 Christians 1.5 Others 1.6
- Year 1941 Muslims 53.2 Hindus 29.1 Sikhs 14.9 Christians 1.5 Others 1.3
- Source: Census of India, 1931, Punjab, Part I, Report, p. 69 and Census of India, 1941.
Table: Religious composition of urban population, 1881–1941 Percentage of urban population census
- Year 1881 Muslims 48.0 Hindus 45.3 Sikhs 4.9 Christians 1.0 Others 0.8
- Year 1891 Muslims 48.9 Hindus 44.6 Sikhs 4.7 Christians 1.3 Others 0.9
- Year 1901 Muslims 50.0 Hindus 43.3 Sikhs 4.6 Christians 1.2 Others 0.9
- Year 1911 Muslims 51.2 Hindus 39.3 Sikhs 6.6 Christians 2.0 Others 0.9
- Year 1921 Muslims 50.6 Hindus 40.2 Sikhs 6.3 Christians 2.1 Others 0.8
- Year 1931 Muslims 51.9 Hindus 37.6 Sikhs 7.3 Christians 1.9 Others 1.3
- Year 1941 Muslims 51.4 Hindus 37.9 Sikhs 8.4 Christians 1.3 Others 1.0
- Source: Census of India, 1931, Punjab, Part I, Report, Census of India, 1941.
In 1941, the Muslims were in absolute majority in Punjab, accounting for 53.2 per cent of the total population. The Hindus made 29.1 per cent of the total, the Sikhs 14.9 per cent, Christians 1.9 per cent, and others 1.3 per cent. Such a distribution was significantly different from that obtaining in 1881, when the Hindus made 43.8 per cent of the total population, the Sikhs 8.2 per cent, and Christians 0.1 per cent. The Muslims, at 47.6 per cent, were well short of an absolute majority.
Evidently, that there was a distinct fall in the percentage share of the Hindus while the Muslims and the Sikhs made a significant headway in their proportion. The Christians also recorded a noticeable increase in their numbers.
Classic cities of the Punjab region
- Peshawar(Peshawar), North West Frontier Province: Capital of Kanishka, the Kushan ruler and the site of the tallest stupa in Jambudvipa.
- [] (), North West Frontier Province: Founded by a son of Bharata, brother of Sri Rama, according to the Ramayana
- [] (Taxila), Punjab(Pakistan): Also founded by a son of Bharata.
- Multan(),Punjab(Pakistan): Pilgrimage site of the legendary Sun temple.
- Rawalpindi, Punjab(Pakistan): city founded by Bappa Rawal, from the Sisodiya clan of Mewar Rajputs and ancestor of Rana Pratap Singh.
- Sialkot, Punjab(Pakistan): city founded by Sul (Shalya), emperor of Madradesa and brother of Madri, second wife of emperor Pandu and mother to Nakul and Sahadeva
- Kasur, Punjab(Pakistan): city founded by Kusha, son of Sri Rama according to the Bichitra Natak written by Guru Gobind Singh.
- Lahore,Punjab(Pakistan): city founded by Lava(Loh), son of Sri Rama according to the Bichitra Natak.
- Amritsar, Punjab(India): It is believed that the hermitage of Sage Valmiki, author of the Ramayana was located in the vicinity of the area that forms the modern city of Amritsar today. Valmiki is said to have composed the great epic at this very spot. Also, Sita gave birth to the twins, Lava and Kusha in this hermitage.
- Jalandhar, Punjab(India): A historic city mentioned in the Puranas and the most famous city in Punjab.
- Kurukshetra,Haryana: The site of the Mahabharata war.
- Karnal, Haryana: city founded by Karna.
- Katasraj temple, Punjab(Pakistan): Classic temple complex in the Chakwal district, site of the 'enchanted pool' episode in the Mahabharata, where Yudhishthira is tested by his father Lord Yama/Dharma.
Punjabi Hindu sects
The Sanatan Dharmis
Most Hindus in the Punjab are the Sanatan Dharmis which means the eternal religionists. Major deities worshipped include Rama, Krishna, Shiva, Vishnu and Hanuman. One of the most popular ones is Vaishno Devi of Jammu, (all known commonly as Sheraan-wali('She of the lions') in Punjabi). The worship of Hanuman is usually done on Tuesdays.
Sanatan Dharma Sabha was founded in the Punjab in late 19th century to promote traditional Hinduism. It sent scholars overseas and became a major force in some of the overseas Hindu communities. In January 1933 the session of the All-India Sanatan Dharma Sabha, presided over by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya.
Punjabi Ravidassias are the Dalit Chamar caste of Punjab also known as Ad-Dharmis and Before 2009 Ravidas Temple shooting at Vienna, were considered a sect of Sikhism as their Holybook was Guru Granth Sahib at Different Ravidas Temples across the world. But after this incident Dera Sachkhand Ballan formed new Ravidassia religion (nor Hindu neither Sikh) in February 2010 at Shri Guru Ravidass Janam Asthan, Seer Goverdhanpur (Varanasi). They separated Bani of Ravidas from Guru Granth Sahib and formed new Holybook Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji at different Ravidas temples across the world.
Punjab is differentiated by the fact that it has the highest population of dalits in India at 31.9%. Half of Punjabi dalits are Ravidassias with 26.2% Chamar and 14.9% Ad Dharmi of state Scheduled Caste (Dalit) populations. Other Bulk group of is large number of Balmikis at 11.2 percent and Mazhabi Sikhs at 31.6 percent of state Scheduled Caste (Dalit) populations. These two bulk groups are 86.8 percent of total Dalits (Scheduled Castes) of Punjab. Punjab has a 31.9% of dalit population and in some areas of Punjab like Doaba it is as high as 40-50%.
The Arya Samajis
An important sect amongst Punjabi Hindus is the Arya Samaj. It was founded by Swami Dayananda (born in the town of Tankara near Morvi(or Morbi) in the Kathiawar region of modern-day Gujarat) in 1875 in Bombay and became popular amongst Hindus in the Punjab and U.P. The first branch of the Arya Samaj was opened in Shantakruj, Mumbai in 1875. Arya Samajists hold the Vedic religion to be the only true religion and as such, regard the Vedas as their only religious books, but also regard Upnishad, Darshan Shastras and some other books written by Rishis (Arsh Granths), on the condition that the text in these should not be contradictory to Vedas. On this basis Arya Samaj rejected some of the Hindu scriptures like Purana and some other scriptures which, according to Arya Samaj, are against the Vedas. The Arya Samaj also pleads for Shuddhi or the re-conversion into Hinduism of those Hindus who were converted to other religions. The places of worship of the Arya Samajists are different from those of the Sanatan Dharmis. Worship includes performing yajnas, reciting mantras and seeking spiritual solace by listening to religious discourses.
The Radhaswami sect has its headquarters at the town of Beas and is popular amongst Punjabi Hindus. Like the Nirankaris and Namdharis, the Radhaswamis too are a transitional sect between Hinduism and Sikhism.
The Dev Samajis
Dev Samajis, an offshoot of Brahmo Samaj, are rationalists. Their headquarters is at Moga. Their activities are mostly confined to the moral fields. As such Dev Samajists have not attained much popularity. In all other respects the Dev Samajists are not different from the other Hindus.
A large segment of Punjabis who are now categorized as Hindus or who identify themselves as Punjabi Hindus, continue to live out heterogeneous religious practice that includes spiritual kinship with Sikhism. This not only includes veneration of the Sikh Gurus in private practice, but also visit to Sikh Gurdwaras as well as Hindu temples. Some Punjabi Hindus visit Jain temples and Jain munis.
This is evident from the continuing propensity to conduct important life cycle ceremonies such as on marriage or death by any of the Hindu or Sikh rites. This is especially true for the Khatri and Arora communities, and even more so among the Kukhran tribe emanating from West Punjab, an area now in Pakistan.
This predilection for heterogeneous religious affiliation has continued, in spite of decades of aggressive identity purification efforts by the forces of identity politics in the Punjab.
Punjabi language and Hindus
Many Punjabi Hindus made great contributions towards Punjabi literature, culture and cinema. Liberal Punjabi Hindus always loved their mother tongue Punjabi language but fundamentalists sacrificed Punjabi language in the neme of puedo nationalism. Many fundamentalists set progenda that Punjabi is not related with Hindus.On contrary Punjabi has been language of Punjab region since centuries.Punjabi language also traces its roots in Vedas like Hindi,Bangla,Gujrati and other Indian languages.The fundamentists spread confusion regarding mother tongue of Punjabi Hindus,whose forefathers always spoke Punjabi language,on other hand Hindi and Urdu were languages from Uttarpradesh and Bihar. Many great Hindu Punjabis poet and scholars made contributions towards Punjabi languages.
Punjabi Hindus and 1947 Partition
Punjabi Hindus suffered a great deal due to partition of Punjab in 1947. They were a minority in areas of Pakistan. Many of the Hindus/Sikhs had to move to East Punjab and Muslims to West Punjab. Estimates range from 100,000 to upwards of a million people were killed in the riots following the partition and subsequent independence of Pakistan and later India from British colonial rule. Most of the Punjabi Hindus who moved from West Punjab settled in the areas which are now Indian state of Punjab, Delhi, Haryana, Western UP, and even as far as Mumbai and Calcutta.
Demand for Punjabi Suba and subsequent trifurcation of Punjab
Since partition, Sikh leaders and Sikh parties demanded a "Punjabi Suba" (Punjabi Province) in North India. The argument was to carve out a state in Northern India where Punjabi was the most predominant language. Punjab being the most prominent province in North India before partition, with the majority of the province in Pakistan now, it only made sense to carve out a Punjabi state for the Punjabis in India. Unfortunately, the carving of the new state was taken by the Sikhs as a religious issue, to carve a state where Sikhism is majority.
Unrest in Punjab in 1980s and 1990s
Following Operation Blue Star, in which military actions were taken against Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale who was residing in the holiest shrine of Sikhs, The Golden Temple, Indira Gandhi was assassinated (while prime minister of India) by her Sikh body guards. Soon after news of Mrs Gandhi's killing by her Sikh bodyguards spread, Hindu mobs swung into action (Mostly RSS cadre in disguise) in anti-Sikh riots. More than 3000 innocent Sikhs were humiliated and burned alive.
Distribution of population
The Hindus of Punjab have a large population in the districts of Jalandhar, Nawanshahr, Hoshiarpur in which they make up to 50% of population, and make up around 37% of Punjab's population. Significant number of Hindu Punjabis are found in Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Jammu region. Punjabi Hindus are also present in major Indian cities like Mumbai, Bangalore etc.Today Punjabis are also found in huge numbers in English speaking countries like USA, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand and also in European Union countries
Notable Punjabi Hindus
- Lala Lajpat Rai, Indian freedom fighter
- Sukhdev Thapar, Indian freedom Fighter
- Madan Lal Dhingra, Indian freedom fighter
- Kalpana Chawla, Astranaut, NASA
- Vikram Batra, Indian Army, War Hero
- Pran Nath Thapar, Indian Army General (1961-62)
- Om Prakash Malhotra, Indian Army General (1978-81)
- Nirmal Chander Vij, Indian Army General (2002-2005)
- Deepak Kapoor, Indian Army General (2007-2010)
- Gurdayal Basra, Professor, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
- Deepak Malhotra, Eli Goldston Professor, Harvard Business School, USA
- Ajay Sood, Fellow of Royal Society, Professor, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
- Upinder S. Bhalla, Professor, NCBS, Bangalore
- Arun Kumar Grover, Vice Chancellor, Panjab University
- Geet Siriram Sethi, National Player (Snooker), India
- Pankaj Advani, National Player (Snooker), India
- Gagan Narang, National Player (Shooting), India
- Abhinav Bindra, National Player (Shooting), India
- Prithviraj Kapoor's, Kapoor family, famous family of the Hindi film industry.
- Sunil Mittal, chairman of Bharti Enterprises, Billionaire
- Lakshman Das Mittal, founder and chairman of Sonalika Group, Billionaire
- Qimat Rai Gupta, founder and chairman of Havells, Billionaire
- Naresh Goyal, founder and chairman of Jet Airways, Billionaire
- Brijmohan Lall Munjal, Businessman and founder of Hero Cycles
- Gulshan Kumar, founder of T-Series
- Dev Anand, actor
- Sunil Dutt, actor and politician
- Sanjay Dutt,actor
- Rajesh Khanna, actor
- Twinkle Khanna, actor and writer
- Yash Chopra, film producer and director
- Aditya Chopra, film director and producer
- Yash Johar, film producer and director
- Karan Johar, film director and producer
- Akshay Kumar, actor
- Govinda, actor
- Ajay Devgan, actor
- Virat Kohli, Indian cricketer
- Shikhar Dhawan, Indian cricketer
- Hrithik Roshan, actor
- Vinod Khanna, actor
- Kulbhushan Kharbanda, actor
- Gautam Gambhir, Indian cricketer
- Himansh Kohli, actor
- David Dhawan, film producer and director
- Varun Dhawan, actor
- Gulshan Grover, actor
- Om Puri, actor
- Priyanka Chopra, actress
- Parineeti Chopra, actress
- Boney Kapoor, film producer
- Arjun Kapoor actor
- Anil Kapoor, actor
- Amrish Puri, actor
- Ayushman Khurana, actor
- Har Gobind Khorana, Noble prize winner
- Sabeer Bhatia, co-founder of Hotmail
- Manohar Lal Khattar, current Chief Minister of Haryana
- King Porus, ancient Hindu king of Paurava
- Mehar Mittal, famous Punjabi actor and comedian
- Kriti Sanon, actress
- Vaani Kapoor, actress
- Kajal Aggarwal, actress
- Sidharth Malhotra, actor
- Aditya Roy Kapur, actor
- Kimi Verma, actress
- Juhi Chawla, actress
- Suresh Oberoi, actor
- Vivek Oberoi, actor
- Arjun Rampal, actor
- Shiv Kumar Batalvi, famous Punjabi romantic poet
- Divya Dutta, actress
- Kapil Sharma, comedian, singer and actor
- B.N. Sharma, Punjabi comedian
- Himanshu Suri, Desi rapper and activist from Queens, New York
- Yuyutsu Sharma, Poet
- Hinduism and Sikh Panth
- Jainism in Punjab
- Khawaja Shaikh
- Muslim League Attack on Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab 1947
- Places in Pakistan with Hindu and Sikh Populations before 1947
- Hindu Punjabi Festivals
- Islam in Punjab
- Gupta, Rahila (May 28, 2009). "The myth of Hindu tolerance-The recent killing of the Sikh Guru, Sant Ramanand, a Ravidassia (Dalit) Sikh in Vienna by higher caste Sikhs is a shocking reminder of the strength of these traditions.". the Guardian. Retrieved Jan 6, 2016.
- Finley, Ross (26 May 2009). "Is caste behind the killing in Vienna and riots in Punjab?". Reuters. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "SGPC meeting today to discuss Sikh-Ravidassia issue". Indian Express. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "India's 'untouchables' declare own religion". CNN.com. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "Punjab sect declares new religion".
- "Amrit Bani Granth installed at Ravidassia shrine".
- "PUNJAB DATA HIGHLIGHTS : THE SCHEDULED CASTES" (PDF).
- "Powered by Google Docs" (PDF). Docs.google.com. Retrieved 2012-03-02.
- Bengali Cinema: 'An Other Nation' by Sharmistha Gooptu
- Punjabrevenue.nic.in, Religion and castes in Punjab
- Talib, Gurbachan (1950). Muslim League Attack on Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab 1947. India: Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee.Online 1 Online 2 Online 3 (A free copy of this book can be read from any 3 of the included "Online Sources" of this free "Online Book")
- ^ a b c Brass, Paul R. (2005). Language, Religion and Politics in North India. iUniverse. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-595-34394-2.