The capital of this province was at the city named Takshila. It continued as a Persian satrapy for a considerable time, although when it ended exactly is not entirely clear, however it is noted that the Persian control had already weakened to a great extent by the time of Alexander's invasion. The archaeological excavations carried out at Bhir Mound, near Taxila, by John Marshall from 1913 to 1934 revealed heavy masonry of the Achaemenid buildings that formed the earliest stratum of the site. Various other relevant artefacts were found as well.
- M. A. Dandamaev. "A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire" p 147. BRILL, 1989 ISBN 978-9004091726
- Rafi U. Samad, The Grandeur of Gandhara: The Ancient Civilization of the Swat, Peshawar, Kabul and Indus Valleys. Algora Publishing, 2011, p. 33 ISBN 0875868592
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