Hipparion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Hipparion
Temporal range: Early Miocene to Pleistocene,[1] 23–0.781 Ma
Hipparion laromae - La Roma 2, Alfambra, Teruel, Spain - Dinópolis.jpg
H. laromae skeleton
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Equidae
Subfamily: Equinae
Tribe: Hipparionini
Genus: Hipparion
De Christol, 1832
Species

See text

Synonyms
  • Hemihipparion

Hipparion (Greek, "pony") is an extinct genus of horse that lived in North America, Asia, Europe, and Africa during the Miocene through Pleistocene ~23 Mya—781,000 years ago. It lived in non-forested, grassy plains, shortgrass prairie or steppes.

Morphology[edit]

Hipparion resembled the modern horse, but still had two vestigial outer toes (in addition to its hoof). In some species, these outer toes were functional.[2] Hipparion was about 1.4 metres (4.6 ft) tall at the shoulder.[1]

Species[edit]

  • H. chiai Liu et al., 1978
  • H. concudense Pirlot, 1956
  • H. condoni Merrian, 1915
  • H. crassum Gervais, 1859
  • H. dietrichi Wehrli, 1941
  • H. fissurae Crusafont and Sondaar, 1971
  • H. forcei Richey, 1948
  • H. gromovae Villalta and Crusafont, 1957
  • H. laromae Pesquero et al., 2006
  • H. longipes Gromova, 1952
  • H. lufengense Sun, 2013
  • H. macedonicum Koufos, 1984
  • H. matthewi Abel, 1926
  • H. mediterraneum Roth and Wagner, 1855
  • H. molayanense Zouhri, 1992
  • H. minus Pavlow, 1890
  • H. periafricanum Villalta and Crusafont, 1957
  • H. philippus Koufos & Vlachou, 2016
  • H. phlegrae Lazaridis and Tsoukala, 2014
  • H. prostylum Gervais, 1849 (type)
  • H. rocinantis Pacheco, 1921
  • H. sellardsi Matthew and Stirton, 1930
  • H. shirleyae MacFadden, 1984
  • H. sithonis Koufos & Vlachou, 2016
  • H. sitifense Pomel, 1897
  • H. tehonense (Merriam, 1916)
  • H. theniusi Melentis, 1969
  • H. venustum Leidy, 1860

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 257. ISBN 1-84028-152-9.
  2. ^ Williams, Wendy (2015). The Horse. Toronto, Canada: Harper Collins. p. 117. ISBN 9781443417860.