Hippeastreae

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Hippeastreae
Starr 080327-3845 Hippeastrum striatum.jpg
Hippeastrum striatum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Amaryllidaceae
Subfamily: Amaryllidoideae
Tribe: Hippeastreae
Sweet
Type genus
Hippeastrum (L.) Herb.
Subtribes

Hippeastreae is a tribe of plants belonging to the subfamily Amaryllidoideae of the Amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae). Species in this tribe are distributed in South America. Flowers are large and showy, zygomorphic, with the stamens in varying lengths, inflorescence bracts are often fused basally (along one side). The seeds are flattened, winged or D-shaped. Reported basic chromosome numbers are x= 8-13, 17, and higher. All the species in this tribe present a remarkable aesthetic interest and horticultural value.[1][2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Meerow et al. (1999) provide a history of the treatment of the genera of Amaryllidaceae, including Hippeastreae, from the mid-twentieth century.[3] While morphological phylogeny has been frustrated by the perversive homoplasy typical of the Amaryllidaceae,[4] application of molecular phylogenetics to the Amaryllidaceae did not indicate clear tribal divisions but rather broad biogeographical clades. However the American clade resolved the Hippeastreae tribe.[3] A later examination of the deeper relationships of the American genera suggested the two subclades, Andean and hippeastroid and within the latter separated the Brazilian Griffineae as sister to the remaining hippeastroids. The larger and more diverse grouping of hippeastroids formed two smaller monophyletic groups. The smaller contained Hippeastrum (with the exception of Hippeastrum blumenavium),[a] but also a Rhodophiala. With the exception of Rodophilia (Brazil) all specimens were from Chile and Argentina. The second group corresponded to those genera variously included in tribe Zephyrantheae (Traub) or subtribe Zephyranthinae (Müller-Doblies), but only including some Zephyranthes species. The hippeastroid clade is predominantly diploid and extra-Andean by comparison to the Andean clade which is predominantly tetraploid, and contain those genera traditionally included in Hippeastreae. The precise position of Griffineae remained unresolved since its sister status to Hippeastrae was weak, leaving the possibility that it could be sister to the whole American clade.[1] The tribe consists of 10–13 genera and about 180 species.[4]

Phylogeny[edit]

The placement of Hippeastreae within subfamily Amaryllidoideae is shown in the following cladogram, where this tribe is shown as a sister group to the Griffineae, forming the Hippeastroid subclade, of two American clades:[1]

Cladogram: Tribes of subfamily Amaryllidoideae
Subfamily Amaryllidoideae
Africa 

Tribe Amaryllideae




Africa 

Tribe Cyrtantheae



Africa 

Tribe Haemantheae


Australasia

Tribe Calostemmateae





Eurasian clade
Asia

Tribe Lycorideae


Mediterranean

Tribe Galantheae




Tribe Pancratieae



Tribe Narcisseae





American clade
Hippeastroid clade
Brazil

Tribe Griffineae



Tribe Hippeastreae



Andean clade


Tribe Eustephieae




Petiolate

Tribe Eucharideae/Stenomesseae





Tribe Clinantheae



Tribe Hymenocallideae










Subdivision[edit]

The genera of the Hippeastreae tribe have been treated in a number of different ways over the years. Traub (1963)[5] in his monograph on the Amaryllidacea distributed those genera now considered in this tribe over a number of other tribes (see Table, below), while Dahlgren et al. included them all under Hippeastrae for the first time.[6] The concept of subtribes came from the Müller-Doblies' (1996), who had three subtribes, Griffinineae, Hippeastrinae and Zephyranthinae.[7]

Consequently, it has been customary to describe the Hippeastreae tribe as consisting of two subtribes:

In the study of Meerow et al. (2000) based on molecular markers Zephyranthinae (Zephyranthae of Traub)[5] were clearly polyphyletic, largely due to the polyphyly of Zephyranthes itself. This subgroup has been broadly characterised as having a chromosome number, x=6, but with considerable variation. Other polyphyletic genera included Rodophiala and Habranthus.[1] Hippeastreae also include Haylockia, Rhodolirion and Tocantinia.[4]

A more focused study of Hippeastreae alone in 2014, resolved two major clades:[4]

  • Clade A: Traubia, Placea, Phycella, Rhodolirium, and Famatina maulensis
  • Clade B: Rhodophiala, Habranthus, Haylockia, Hippeastrum, Sprekelia, Zephyranthes, and the remainder of Famatina.

However it also showed that of the 13 genera, two are monotypic (Haylockia and Traubia). Of the remaining 11 genera, based on Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences the only monophyletic non-monotypic genera were Hippeastrum (about 60 species) and Sprekelia (2 species). But on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) analysis, not even these genera were monophyletic. This brings into question the existing generic classification within Hippeastreae. Consequently, the authors proposed the following nomenclature:[4]

Subtribes[edit]

Subtribe Traubiinae (Clade A) includes about 20 endemic Chilean taxa, but only about 10% of the species within tribe Hippeastreae. Characterisation includes a haploid chromosome number, x=8, lack of polyploidy and a capitate stigma.[4]

Subtribe Hippeastrinae (Clade B), by contrast has a variable chromosome number, x=6–11, with frequent aneuploidy and polyploidy. Although there are no unique synapomorphies, most taxa exhibit a trifid or trilobed stigma, although in a few it is capitate.[4]

Genera[edit]

Tribe Hippeastreae includes ten to thirteen genera and about 180 species. Two of the genera, Haylockia and Traubia are monotypic.[4]

Historical distribution of Hippeastreae (sensu Meerow 1999) genera by tribes and subtribes
Genus (alphabetical) Traub 1963[5] Dahlgren 1985[6] Müller-Doblies 1996[7] Meerow 1998[9] Garcia 2014[4] Species
Eithea
formerly Hippeastrum blumenavium
Hippeastreae
Hippeastrinae
1–2
Famatina
=Rhodophiala, Phycella
4
Griffinia Euchareae Hippeastreae
Griffiniinae
Hippeastreae Griffineae 21
Habranthus Zephyrantheae Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Zephyranthinae
Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Hippeastrinae
40
Haylockia Zephyrantheae Hippeastreae
Zephyranthinae
=Zephyranthes =Zephyranthes 1
Hippeastrum =Amaryllis Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Hippeastrinae
Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Hippeastrinae
60
Phycella Eustephieae Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Traubiinae
6
Placea Amarylleae Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Hippeastrinae
Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Traubiinae
6
Sprekelia Zephyrantheae Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Zephyranthinae
Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Hippeastrinae
2
Rhodolirium =Rhodophiala Hippeastreae
Traubiinae
5
Rhodophiala Zephyrantheae Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Hippeastrinae
Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Hippeastrinae
8
Tocantinia Hippeastreae
Hippeastrinae
1–2
Traubia Traubieae Hippeastreae
Traubiinae
Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Traubiinae
1
Worsleya Amarylleae Hippeastreae Hippeastreae Griffineae 1
Zephyranthes Zephyrantheae Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Zephyranthinae
Hippeastreae Hippeastreae
Hippeastrinae
50

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Hippeasteae have a major center of diversification in central Chile and western (Andean) Argentina, together with minor centres in eastern Brazil, the north east of Argentina and with more distant centers in Mexico, the Greater Antilles and southern United States (Habranthus, Zephyranthes).[4]

Uses[edit]

The economic significance of the tribe lies in its horticultural usage.[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hippeastrum blumenavium, or Hippeastrum blumenavia, was earlier known as Griffinia blumenavia and is an unusual species more closely resembling Rhodophiala. Ultimately Meerow et al. recommended reassigning it to a monotypic genus, where it is now known as Eithea.

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]