In Greek mythology, Hippolyta (//; Greek: Ἱππολύτη Hippolyte) was the Amazonian queen who possessed a magical girdle she was given by her father Ares, the god of war. The girdle was a waist belt that signified her authority as queen of the Amazons. She figures prominently in the myths of both Heracles and Theseus. As such, the stories about her are varied enough that they may actually be about several different characters.
The Ninth Labour of Heracles
In the myth of Heracles, Hippolyta's girdle (ζωστὴρ Ἱππολύτης) was the object of his ninth labor. He was sent to retrieve it for Admeta, the daughter of King Eurystheus. Most versions of the story say that Hippolyta was so impressed with Heracles that she gave him the girdle without argument, perhaps while visiting him on his ship. Then (according to Pseudo-Apollodorus), the goddess Hera, making herself appear as one of the Amazons, spread a rumor among them that Heracles and his crew were actually abducting their queen. So the Amazons attacked the ship. In the fray that followed, Heracles slew Hippolyta, stripped her of the belt, fought off the attackers, and sailed away. In Agatha Christie's novel "The Labours of Hercules" Hercules Poirot rescues a painting of Hippolyta giving her gurdle to Hercules by Rubens.
In William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, Hippolyta is engaged to Theseus, the duke of Athens. In Act I, Scene 1 she and he discuss their fast-approaching wedding, which will take place under the new moon in four days (I.i.2). Theseus declares to Hippolyta that, although he "wooed her with his sword," he will wed her "with pomp, with triumph, and with revelling" and promises to begin a celebration that will continue until the wedding (I.i.19).
Although Hippolyta figures only marginally through the middle of the play, she resumes a strong role in Act V, scene I. There she and Theseus discuss some preceding events, namely the magical romantic confusions that the Athenian youths report from the night before. Theseus is skeptical about the veracity of their tale but Hippolyta questions whether they would all have the same story if the night's adventures were indeed imagined. She argues that the youths' agreement on the way the night's events unfolded proves that things occurred just as they say.
The fact that Hippolyta stands up to Theseus and disagrees with him here is significant. In Shakespeare's time it was common practice for the wife to be submissive, as expressed in The Taming of the Shrew. This play is unusual in its portrayal of strong women. And Hippolyta, in particular, is strong, coming as she does from a tribe of fierce, empowered women of which she was the queen. In a feminist analysis, Louis Montrose contends: "Amazonian mythology seems symbolically to embody and to control a collective anxiety about the power of a female not only to dominate or reject the male but to create and destroy him." However, Hippolyta attracts Theseus with her feminine allure and charm to such a degree that he is completely smitten with her. Despite her forceful nature, then, she becomes the object of Theseus' passion. By marrying Hippolyta, Theseus is laying down his sword, "the weapon which gave him power and authority over her," and essentially surrendering. By the end of the play, Hippolyta has actually added to her power, becoming the queen of a new realm, Athens.
- Robert Graves (1955) The Greek Myths
- Euripides, Hercules Furens, 408 sqq.
- Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, II. 777 sqq. and 966 sqq.
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica, IV. 16
- Ps.-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke, II. 5. 9
- Pausanias, Hellados Periegesis, V. 10. 9
- Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, VI. 240 sqq.
- Hyginus, Fabulae, 30
- Montrose, Louis Adrian. "A Midsummer Night's Dream and the Shaping Fantasies of Elizabethan Culture: Gender, Power, Form" in Rewriting the Renaissance. Ed: Margaret Fergusun, Maureen Wuiling, Nancy Vickers. Chicago 1986: 65-87.
- Media related to Girdle of Hippolyta at Wikimedia Commons
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