|Region||Papua New Guinea|
|(Very few cited 1992)|
120,000 L2 speakers (1989)
Simplified form of Motu (Austronesian family)
Official language in
|Papua New Guinea|
It is a simplified version of Motu, of the Austronesian language family. Although it is strictly neither a pidgin nor a creole, it possesses some features of both language types. Phonological and grammatical differences mean that Hiri Motu is not mutually intelligible with Motu. The languages are lexically very similar, and retain a common, albeit simplified, Austronesian syntactical basis.
- 1 Origin of Hiri Motu
- 2 Dialects
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Syntax
- 5 Numbers
- 6 History
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Origin of Hiri Motu
The term Hiri is the name for the traditional trade voyages created an important culture and style of living for the Motu people.
"Hiri Motu" became a common language for a police force known as "Police Motu".
The name Hiri Motu came to be during the early 1970s during a conference held by the Department of Information and Extension Services. During this conference, the committee recommended the name "Hiri Motu" for several reasons.
- The language’s history is older than the name "Police Motu" implies. This was recommended because it was a simplified from the language of the Motu people, which was the language used when they traded goods with their customers.
- Police Motu at the time was never used as a language of trade or social contact. In fact, since the unity of New Guinea Police Force in 1946, "Police Motu" had lost most of its functions in police work. Pidgin was adopted at that time and was used with majority of the police force.
- The committee thought that the new name should have some meaning behind it. Instead of having a language relating to police work, they thought the language should reflect the legacy of the language and how it's used in everyday life.
Motu people are native inhabitants of Papua New Guinea. They live along the southern coastal line of their country. Motu people typically live in dry areas, on the leewardside of the mountain. Where dry seasons are harsh on the people who live there. Traditional Hiri voyages carried prized treasures to the people of the Gulf of Papua.
Hiri Motu has two dialects, called "Austronesian" and "Papuan". Both dialects are in fact Austronesian in both grammar and vocabulary, due to their derivation from Motu; the dialect names refer to the first languages spoken by users of this lingua franca. The "Papuan" dialect (also called "Non-central") was much more widely spoken in the language's heyday, and was, at least from about 1964, used as the standard for official publications. The "Austronesian" (or "Central") dialect is closer to Motu in grammar and phonology, and its vocabulary is both more extensive and closer to the original language. For these reasons, it was the prestige dialect, regarded by speakers as more correct.
The distinction between Motu and its "Pidgin" dialects has been described as blurred – forming a continuum from the original "pure" language, through the established creoles, to what some writers have suggested constitutes a form of "Hiri Motu–based pidgin" used as a contact languages with people who had not fully acquired Hiri Motu.
Hiri Motu language consists of now 19 letters in their alphabet: a, e, i, o, u, b, d, g, g, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v.
The letter "g" is meant for two different sounds. One of the sound is similar to the "g" in the word go. On the other hand, it is pronounced differently through Point of articulation. This point is located in the throat area and sounds like "ch".
There are 14 consonants in Hiri Motu: b, d, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w. You would pronounce these consonants as you would in English.
The five vowels are: a, e, i, o, u. All of these are pronounced normally except "O" This is an exception to the regular pronunciation, but it's similar to the sound of hot and the sound of ou in fought.
Double vowels: Also known as, Diphthong. Pronounce each vowel with little stress on each syllable, meaning; be smooth when pronouncing double vowels. If you listen to fluent Hiri Motu speakers, they will combine these vowels and it'll sound like one long vowel instead.
One thing to take note of is when double vowel ai is followed by another vowel, then you would get a small y sound in your pronunciation. For example, the word kaia (knife) is pronounced kai-ya. Another double vowel that can be tricky to pronounce when followed by another vowel is au. In this example, we will use the word maua, meaning box. Maua is pronounced mau-wa. You will hear a slight w when saying words with au, preceding another vowel.
Vowel sounds are /i ɛ a ɔ u/.
In Hiri Motu language, the distinction between "inclusive" and "exclusive" forms of "we" is very important.
To further explain this, think of a time when you and your friend were thirsty. You would go up to him and say "We have no water". When talking to your friend, you are including you and your friend. This "we" is inclusive, which is the person you are speaking to. In Hiri Motu this would be "Ita" (we, inclusive)
Now explaining "we" exclusive using the same example. Now say you and your friend approach a different person and tell him "we have no water" this excludes the person who is not thirsty. The word for this is Ai (we, exclusive)
|We (Inclusive)||We (Exclusive)|
- emu=your (singular)
- emui=your (plural)
In the table above, the 'lau-egu' is placed before the noun, lau-egu boroma (my pig)
Take note that the first half of the word (lau, oi) may be taken out of the word. For example, 'lau-egu' can be shortened to 'egu boroma.
Preposition is a word placed beofre a noun to create a phrase, this is similar to an adjective or adverb. But, in Hiri Motu, such words are placed after the noun, not before it, and can be called postposition.
Some standard postposition in hiri Motu is 'ai' which can meaan in, on, or at.
Maua ai - in the box
pata ai - on the table
Konedobu ai - at Konedobu (referring to a location)
Take note: 'maua ai' is merged to 'mauai' and 'pata ai' to 'patai', here are some examples:
- lalo-na-ai - changed to lalonai - in, inside
- lata-na-ai - chenged to latanai - on, on top of
In Hiri Motu, the word order can be interchangeable with Subject–object–verb (SOV) and Object-subject-verb (OSV). These sentence structure will start with a subject followed by an object, and then ending with a verb and vice versa, object, followed by a subject, and ending with a verb. Notice that the sentence will always end with a verb no matter the word order.
OSV is more common in Hiri Motu.
With the option of having a SOV and OSV word order, some ambiguity may come about in some cases.
For example, "Inai mero boroma badana ia alaia" can either mean, "This boy killed a big pig" or "A big pig killed this boy"
To solve this, a subject marker can be used. In Hiri Motu, the subject marker is "ese", and is placed right after the subject of the sentence.
Now it will look like this: "Inai mero ese boroma badana ia alaia" (Literally, This boy, a big pig killed him.) - "A big pig killed this boy"
However, don't over-use this subject marker. Use it only when the sentence would be ambiguous without it. You will never use subject marker in a sentence in which the verb is an Intransitive verb.
|Edeseni?/ Edeseni ai?||Where?|
(Edana is sometimes spelt and pronounced Edena)
Take note that 'hida' always follows the noun it is referring to, while 'edana' always follows it.
Unai mero daika? Who is that boy?
Inai gau dahaka? What is this thing?
Dahaka oi karaia? What are you doing?
Stay away from question in the negative form, some of the replies/answers you receive can be confusing.
For example, If you ask "la mai lasi?" (Hasn't he come?) and get a reply "Oibe" (yes), that can mean "Yes, he hasn't come yet". If the person has arrived, they will answer, "Lasi, ia mai" meaning (No, he has come). This can be a little tricky at times, so it's best to stray away from negative form questions.
eiava - or
bona - and
bema - if
bena, vadeani - then
a, to - but
badina - because
- Oi raka naomonamo, oi keta garina. (Walk carefully, lest you fall.)
- Sinavai dekenai ia lao, haoda totona. (He went to the river (in order) to catch fish.)
"To Be and To Have"
When "to be" is used as a connecting word, the parts "na" and "be" can be used, but it is not needed for this case.
For example: 'Ia be mero namona' or 'la na mero namona (He is a good boy)
Note that there is no Hiri Motu verb form of "to have" in the sense of possession, like in the sentence 'I have a dog'
In true Hiri Motu, a local would say "Lau na mai egu sisia" for "I have a dog", (literally, 'I with my dog'.) There are no standards for these expression forms in Hiri Motu.
The number system in Hiri Motu language goes all they way to 100,000. Many of the numbers in Hiri Motu are Polysyllabic, meaning they have many syllables. Which means that larger numbers are long words.
For example, 99 in Hiri Motu is, taurahanita ahui taurahanita. Most Papuans know the English number system and can use that instead.
The language has a history long pre-dating European contact; it developed among members of the Hiri trade cycle (mainly in sago and clay pots) between the Motu people and their neighbours on the southeast coast of the island of New Guinea. In early European colonial days, the use of Hiri Motu was spread due to its adoption by the Royal Papuan Constabulary (hence the name "Police Motu"). By the early 1960s, Hiri Motu had probably reached its widest use, being the normal lingua franca of a large part of the country. It was the first language for many people whose parents came from different language groups (typically the children of policemen and other public servants).
Since the early 1970s, if not earlier, the use of Hiri Motu as a day-to-day lingua franca in its old "range" has been gradually declining in favour of English and Tok Pisin. Today its speakers tend to be elderly, and concentrated in Central and Gulf provinces. Reflecting this situation, younger speakers of the "parent language" (Motu proper) tend to be unfamiliar with Hiri Motu, and few of them understand or speak it well, which was certainly not the case a generation or two ago.
(1968) Chatterton, Percy. A Grammar Of The Motu Language of Papua.
(1976) Dictionary Working Committee on Hiri Motu. The Dictionary and Grammar of Hiri Motu.
- Hiri Motu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hiri Motu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Specific legislation proclaiming official languages in Papua New Guinea seems not to exist – but see Constitution of Papua New Guinea: Preamble – Section 2/11 (literacy) – where Hiri Motu is mentioned (with Tok Pisin and English) as languages in which universal literacy is sought – and also section 67 2(c) (and 68 2(h), where conversational ability in Hiri Motu is mentioned (with Tok Pisin or “a vernacular of the country”) as a requirement for citizenship by nationalisation (one of these languages required)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hiri Motu Trading Eleman". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hiri Motu Trading Koriki". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Chatterton, Percy (1975). Say it in Motu (PDF). Robert Brown & Associates (Qld) Pty Ltd.
- This is disputed by Dutton.
- Tom Dutton (1985). Police Motu: iena Sivarai (its story). Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea: The University of Papua New Guinea Press.
- Lister-Turner, R and Clark, J.B. (1931), A Dictionary of the Motu Language of Papua, 2nd Edition (P. Chatterton, ed). Sydney, New South Wales: Government Printer.
- Brett, Richard; Brown, Raymond; Brown, Ruth and Foreman, Velma. (1962), A Survey of Motu and Police Motu. Ukarumpa, Papua New Guinea: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
- Chatterton, Percy (1975). Say it in Motu. Robert Brown & Associates (Qld) Pty Ltd.
|Hiri Motu test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
|For a list of words relating to Hiri Motu language, see the Hiri Motu language category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|