Hispid hare

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Hispid hare
CaprolagusHispidusJASB.jpg
Illustration published in 1845
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Lagomorpha
Family: Leporidae
Genus: Caprolagus
Blyth, 1845
Species: C. hispidus
Binomial name
Caprolagus hispidus
(Pearson, 1839)
Hispid Hare area.png
Hispid hare range

The hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus), also called Assam rabbit and Bristly rabbit, is a leporid native to South Asia, whose historic range extended along the southern foothills of the Himalayas. Today, its habitat is highly fragmented with an area of occupancy estimated at less than 500 km2 (190 sq mi) extending over an area of 5,000 to 20,000 km2 (1,900 to 7,700 sq mi). Populations experienced a continuing decline in suitable habitat due to increasing agriculture, flood control, and human development. It is therefore listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1986.[1]

Characteristics[edit]

Structure of the hispid hare's palate[2]

The hispid hare has a harsh and bristly coat. Its ears are very short and do not project beyond the fur.[3] The coat is dark brown on the back due to a mixture of black and brown hairs; brown on the chest and whitish on the abdomen. The tail is brown and about 30 mm (1.2 in) long. In body weight males range from 1,810 to 2,610 g (3.99 to 5.75 lb) with a mean of 2,248 g (4.956 lb). Females weigh in average 2,518 g (5.551 lb), including a heavily pregnant female weighing 3,210 g (7.08 lb) in this statistical mean weight.[4]

The frontal bones are very wide. The occipito-nasal length generally exceeds 85 mm (3.3 in). There is no clear notch in front of postorbital processes.[5]

In average, this hare is 476 mm (18.7 in) long from head to tail.[6]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The historical range of the hispid hare extended from Uttar Pradesh through southern Nepal, the northern region of West Bengal to Assam and into Bangladesh. Today, distribution is sporadic in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and possibly Bhutan. The species inhabits tracts of early successional tall grasslands and takes refuge in marshy areas or grasses adjacent to river banks during the dry season, when these areas are susceptible to burning.[4]

The population in the extensive grasslands of Shuklaphanta National Park may be of international significance.[7] Researchers camera trapped the first hispid hares in an area of 38 km2 (15 sq mi) in the protected area in April 2010.[8]

In January 2016, a hispid hare was recorded in Chitwan National Park for the first time since 1984.[9]

Ecology[edit]

Hispid hares are most active at dawn and dusk. The limited information available on reproduction indicates that their average litter size is small.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Maheswaran, G.; Smith, A. T. (2008). "Caprolagus hispidus". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2008: e.T3833A10112058. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T3833A10112058.en. Retrieved 14 January 2018. 
  2. ^ Blyth, E. (1845). "Description of Caprolagus, a new genus of leporine Mammalia". Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal. 14: 247–249. 
  3. ^ Pearson, J. T. (1839). "18. Lepus hispidus". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. VII: 152. 
  4. ^ a b c Bell, D. J.; Oliver, W. L. R.; Ghose, R. K. (1990). "Chapter 9: The Hispid Hare Caprolagus Hispidus". In Chapman, J. A.; Flux, J. E. C. Rabbits, Hares, and Pikas: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. pp. 128–137. ISBN 2831700191. 
  5. ^ Ellerman, J. R.; Morrison-Scott, T. C. S. (1966). Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals 1758 to 1946 (2nd ed.). London: British Museum of Natural History. p. 424. 
  6. ^ Macdonald, D. W. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-956799-9. 
  7. ^ Baral, H.S.; Inskipp, C. (2009). "The Birds of Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve, Nepal". Our Nature. 7: 56–81. doi:10.3126/on.v7i1.2554. 
  8. ^ Aryal, A.; Yadav, H. K. (2010). "First Cameras Trap Sighting of Critically Endangered Hispid Hare (Caprolagus hispidus) in Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve – Nepal" (PDF). World Applied Sciences Journal. 9 (4): 367–371. 
  9. ^ Khadka, B.B., Yadav, B.P., Aryal, N. and Aryal, A., (2017). Rediscovery of the hispid hare (Caprolagus hispidus) in Chitwan National Park, Nepal after three decades. Conservation Science 5(1): 10–12.